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Title: Ancient Greece History Alive: Unit 5 ..

Ancient Greece History Alive Unit 5
Lesson 25 Geography the Settlement of Greece
The Geography of Greece
What three bodies of water surround Greece to
make it a peninsula?
  • Mainland Greece is a mountainous peninsula
  • What is a peninsula?
  • This means that Greece is surrounded on all three
    sides by water.
  • Greece has a lot of smaller peninsulas sticking
    out from it, which means Greece enjoys many
    natural harbors.

  • Greece is also covered with mountains. They are
    not huge mountains but if you are trying to go
    from place to place in Greece, you'll find the
    mountains a bit difficult to travel.
  • Three thousand years ago, it was very difficult
    to get from place to place in ancient Greece by
    walking. But it was easy to get from place to
    place in ancient Greece by ship.

  • Ancient Greeks felt deep ties to the land, but
    the mountains and seas divided them from one
    another. As a result, early Greek communities
    grew up fiercely independent.

  • What are the mountains in Greece like?
  • They are steep rocky
  • Why was the sea important to the ancient Greeks?
  • They used the sea to establish colonies trade
    with people from other lands
  • Why were ancient Greek communities isolated from
    one another?
  • Mountains which made travel communication
  • What were some of the dangers of travel?
  • Traveling by land included rocks that could
    shatter wooden wheels attack by bandits
  • Traveling by sea included attack by pirates,
    robbery by sailors, and storms that could drive
    ships into rocks

  • In the ancient world, the Greeks became known as
    great sailors. They explored much of the
    Mediterranean Sea. They loved to establish new
    Greek cities. They traded with other countries
    around the Mediterranean. The Greeks created
    settlements overseas known as colonies.

  • Greek cities were founded around the Black Sea,
    North Africa, Italy, Sicily, France and Spain.
    Many tales and legends grew up about the strange
    lands and creatures that could be found across
    the sea.

Minoan traders in Egypt
  • Meanwhile, back in mainland Greece, cities were
    thriving. The Greeks used the sea to their
    advantage. They had a wealth of seafood, fresh
    fish, and fresh drinking water. The Greeks were
    very happy with their land.

Heythat doesnt sound right???
  • Ancient Greeks were fishers, sailors, traders,
    and farmers.
  • Although Greeces rocky soil made it difficult to
    farm, people could grow wheat, barley, olives,
    and grapes in the favorable climate.

A Move to Colonize
  • After the Dark Age, Greek people began to set up
    colonies in other countries. This colonization
    spread Greek culture.
  • Trade between colonists and the parent cities
    grew, and soon merchants were trading goods for
    money instead of more goods.
  • Colonists traded grains, metals, fish, timber,
    and enslaved people in exchange for pottery,
    wine, and olive oil.

  • List three crops Greek farmers grew three
    animals they raised.
  • Wheat and barley
  • Grapes and olives
  • Vegetables, fruits, and nuts
  • Sheep, goats, oxen, mules donkeys bees ?
  • Why did Greek settlements often fight one
  • They fought each other because there was a
    shortage of land
  • Why did the Greeks start colonies?
  • They needed more farmland to feed their people

  • Describe the steps the Greeks followed when they
    started a new colony?
  • 1stconsulted an oracle to see if they would be
  • 2ndgathered food supplies and took a flame
    from the towns sacred fire begin the long sea
  • 3rdfind a safe place with good farmland and
  • Why did some Greek settlements trade?
  • To get the goods they needed
  • What products from the Greek mainland were
    traded? What products did the Greeks get in
  • Olive, oil, pottery, and wine from the Greek
    mainland were traded
  • In exchange they got grain, timber, and metal

  • Peas
  • Cattle
  • Pigs
  • Leather
  • Walnuts
  • Olive oil
  • Silver
  • Honey
  • Marble
  • Wheat
  • Sheep
  • Wood
  • Beans
  • Pottery
  • Jewelry
  • Furniture

Lesson 26 The Rise of Democracy
The Polis
  • A polis, or city-state, was like an independent
    country. City-states varied in size and
  • An acropolis, located at the top of a hill, was
    the main gathering place of the city-state.
  • An agora, or open area, served as a market and as
    a place for people to meet and debate issues.

  • Under a monarchy, the power to make political
    decisions is in the hands of ONE PERSON

I lost power because I depended on the
aristocrats to help me during war, but they
demanded more power finally overthrew me
  • The Greeks were the first people to develop the
    idea of citizenship, in which citizens of a
    country are treated equally and have rights and
  • In Greek city-states, only free, native-born,
    land-owning men could be citizens.

You guessed right Its him!
  • How does the Greek definition of a citizen
    compare to the modern idea of who is a United
    States citizen?
  • Only native-born, land-owning men could be
    citizens in Greece
  • In the U.S. men and women that are native born
    can be citizens they dont need to own property

Which one of the people above could be a citizen
during Ancient Greek times?
  • Under an oligarchy, the power to make political
    decisions is in the hands of a FEW PEOPLE

WE lost power because we ignored the needs of
most of the people. We passed unpopular laws
used the army to enforce them. We passed laws
that protected our wealth.
The rich got richer, the poor got poorer,
eventually the poor turned to leaders in the
army. These new leaders overthrew us.
The Polis
  • Citizens could vote, hold office, own property,
    and defend themselves in court.
  • The military of the city-states was made of
    ordinary citizens, not nobles. These citizens
    were called hoplites and fought each battle on
    foot instead of on horses.

  • Under a tyranny, the power to make political
    decisions is in the hands of ONE PERSON who is
    NOT a lawful ruler

I lost power because sometimes I ruled harshly
ignored the needs of the people, and the people
forced me out.
  • The soldiers would march in rows together,
    shoulder to shoulder. They would use their
    shields to create a protective wall. They gave
    their enemies few openings to defeat them.
  • Hoplites made good soldiers because, as citizens,
    they took pride in fighting for their city-state.

  • Under a democracy, the power to make political
    decisions is in the hands of ALL CITIZENS

Citizens like ME!!!!
Lesson 27 Life in the Two City-States
Athens Sparta
  • After the Greek dark ages, exciting things began
    to happen in ancient Greece. Villages started to
    band together to form strong trading centers.
    These groups of villages that banded together
    were called city-states. Soon, hundreds of
    city-states had formed in ancient Greece. 
    Greeks referred to themselves as citizens of
    their individual city-states. Each city-state
    (polis) had its own personality, goals, laws and
    customs. Ancient Greeks were very loyal to their

  • The city-states had many things in common. They
    all believed in the same gods. They all spoke the
    same language. But if you asked an ancient Greek
    where he was from, he would not say, "I live in
  • The city-states might band together to fight a
    common foe. But they also went to war with each
    other. Greece was not yet one country. Ancient
    Greece was a collection of Greek city-states. 

If he was from Sparta, he would say, "I am a
If he lived in Athens, he would say, "I am
  • Each city-state had its own form of government.
    Some city-states, like Corinth, were ruled by
    kings. Some, like Sparta, were ruled by a small
    group of men. Others, like Athens, experimented
    with new forms of government.  Sometimes these
    city-states cooperated, sometimes they fought
    each other.

  • Athens and Sparta were the big two city-states in
    ancient Greece, or so they believed. But they
    were not the only city-states. 4,000 years ago,
    there were many city-states in the ancient Greek

Tyranny in the City-States
  • After the Dark Ages, tyrants ruled over ancient
    Greece. The Greek people eventually tired of the
    tyrants and created oligarchies or democracies.
    They wanted rule by law with all citizens
    participating in the government.
  • An oligarchy is a form of government in which a
    few people hold power.
  • A democracy is a form of government in which all
    citizens share power.
  • Sparta was an oligarchyAthens was a direct

So a tyrant is like a king, but a king who does
not have the law or religion behind him, and
only rules because the poor people support him.
Tyrants are something like Mafia bosses like the
  • The Greeks who lived in each city-state were
    proud of their hometown. They were also proud to
    be Greek. All Greeks, wherever they made their
    home, had things in common. 
  • A. Spoke the same language
  • Believed in the same gods
  • Shared a common Greek heritage

  • Athenians thought of themselves as the shining
    star of the Greek city-states. They were famed
    for their literature, poetry, drama, theatre,
    schools, buildings, and government. 
  • Athenians were famed for their commitment to the
    arts and sciences.  

  • Athenians put a great deal of emphasis on
  • Girls learned at home from their mothers. They
    learned how to run a home, and how to be good
    wives and mothers. 
  • Athenian girls learned household duties from
    their mothers. Some wealthy girls learned
    reading, writing, and playing the lyre.

  • Boys were educated quite differently. Until age 6
    or 7, boys were taught at home by their mothers.
  • From 7-14, boys attended a day school outside the
    home. There, they memorized poetry and learned to
    play the lyre. They learned drama, public
    speaking, reading, writing, math, and perhaps
    even how to play the flute.
  • After middle school, they went to a four year
    high school and learned more about math, science,
    and government. At 18, they attended two years of
    military school. There was just cause for Athens
    to be proud of its system of education for its

  • The Athenians invented democracy. Only in
    Athens, "rule by many" meant that all citizens
    had to be willing to take an active part in
    government. That was the law. 
  • Each year, 500 names were drawn from all the
    citizens of Athens. Those 500 citizens had to
    serve for one year as the law makers of ancient
  • All citizens of Athens were required to vote on
    any new law that this body of 500 citizens
    created. One man, one vote, majority ruled.
    Women, children, and slaves were not citizens,
    and thus could not vote.
  • For a brief period of about 100 years, Athens was
    a democracy. It was not a perfect democracy, but
    it established the roots of democracy. We owe
    Athens a lot!  

  • Why was Athens called a democracy?
  • Every citizen could take part in the citys
  • Laws had to be approved by the assembly
  • Every citizen was part of the assembly, which
    debated and voted on all laws
  • How did Athenians get the goods they needed for
    everyday life?
  • Traded with foreign lands and other city states
  • Buying and selling goods in the Agora
  • Using coins, which made trade easier

  • How did Athenians train the minds and
  • bodies of boys?
  • Were taught at home by their mother until they
    were 6 or 7
  • Went to school between the ages of 6 and 14
  • Learned arithmetic, literature, sports, music
  • Began military training at 18
  • Wealthy families continued school with private
  • How were women and slaves
  • treated in Athens?
  • Women
  • Were not citizens
  • Could not chose their husbands
  • Could not own property
  • Sometimes were priestesses
  • Managed their households
  • Didnt go out alone

  • How were women and slaves
  • treated in Athens?
  • Slaves
  • Were treated very harshly
  • Were killed if it was thought they might rebel
  • Could marry freely
  • Could sell extra crops they had
  • Could buy their freedom

  • The City-State of Sparta is kinda like if the
    United States Marines started their own country
    just to raise children to become soldiers.

  •  The Spartans were warriors.  Spartans endured
    unbelievable pain and hardship to become a
    superior Spartan soldier and citizen! The
    Spartans were famed for their military strength.
  • Sparta's government was an oligarchy. The people
    were ruled by a small group of warriors. The
    Spartans spoke Greek, wrote Greek, thought of
    themselves as Greeks, but they were very
    different from the other Greek city-states, and
    proud of it. 
  • Their educational system was certainly very
    different. The goal of Spartan education was to
    create a strong warrior. Boys were taken away
    from their parents at age 7. They lived a harsh
    and often brutal life in the soldiers barracks.
    Younger children were beaten by older children
    who started fights to help make the younger boys 
    tough and strong. Children were often were
    whipped in front of groups of other Spartans,
    including their parents, but they were not
    allowed to cry out in pain. 

  • To obtain more land, Spartans conquered and
    enslaved their neighbors, calling them helots.
  • To keep the helots from rebelling, the Spartans
    created a strong military of boys and men.
  • At age 20, men entered the regular army and lived
    In the barracks for 10 years. They returned home
    at age 30, but served in the army until age 60.

See you Mom Im joining the army!
Read why the military was so important in
Sparta on page 126
  • Children, during their training process, were
    given very little food. They were encouraged to
    steal food, instead. If caught stealing, they
    were beaten. To avoid severe pain, children
    learned to be cunning, to lie, to cheat, to
    steal, and how to get away with it! 
  • Some children grew up to warriors. Others
    became members of the Spartan secret police.
    Their job was to spy on people, especially
    slaves. If they found a slave who showed any
    signs of leadership, their job was to kill that
    slave immediately. 

A Spartan boy taken for war training
  • Spartan girls were trained in sports to become
    healthy mothers and were freer than other Greek
    women. Women in Sparta could even own property.
  • Women, unlike women in the rest of Greek world,
    had a great deal of freedom. Women were educated
    to be fighters. Some women became warriors. Many
    ran businesses. They were free to move about.
  • Life was very different in ancient Sparta than it
    was in the rest of ancient Greek city-states. The
    Spartans were proud, fierce, capable warriors. No
    great works of art came out of Sparta. But the
    Spartans, both men and women, were tough, and the
    Greeks admired strength.

I may look sweet but I am one tough cookie!
  • To keep anyone from questioning the Spartan
    system, the government discouraged foreign
    visitors. It also banned travel abroad for any
    reason but military ones.
  • The government even frowned upon citizens who
    studied literature or the arts.

  • Why was Sparta called an oligarchy?
  • The power was in the hands of a few
  • Important decisions made by council of elders
  • Council members had to be 60 and wealthy
  • Assembly had little power and could not debate
  • How did Spartans get the goods they needed for
  • everyday life?
  • Farming
  • Conquering other people
  • Having slaves and not citizens produce for them
  • Some trade

  • How did Spartans train boys and girls so they
    could protect the city-state?
  • Boys and girls were trained to fight from age 7
  • Boys were taught to suffer pain without

  • How were women and slaves treated in Sparta?
  • Women
  • Lived the same simple life as men
  • Were expected to be strong to fight
  • Looked after property when husband was away
  • Could own and control property
  • Slaves
  • Were treated harshly
  • Were killed if it was thought they might rebel
  • Could marry
  • Could sell extra crops
  • Could by freed

Why I would rather live in.???
  • Requirements
  • 3 Paragraphs
  • Tell me where and why you like itbackground
    information from your notes (must give me the
    definition of a City-State in this paragraph)
  • Tell me why you dont like the other
    city-statewhat makes you say NO WAY!!!!
  • Remind me again about the top three reasons of
    why you chose your city-state

Did you pay attention?
  • What type of government did the United States
    take from the city-state of Athens?
  • Democracy A type of government where all the
    citizens share power

Lesson 28 Fighting the Persian Wars
  • Greece was not alone in the ancient world. Egypt
    was flourishing. Other civilizations were
    developing around the Mediterranean. One of the
    largest and most powerful was the Persian
    Empire.  The Persian Empire was huge. It
    stretched from the Mediterranean Sea all the way
    to the Indus River Valley. The Greek world was
    tiny. It covered a small area at the southern tip
    of the Greek peninsula. 

  • Why did the Ionians revolt against Persian rule?
  • The Persians took their farmland harbors
  • Made them pay tribute serve in the army
  • What happened to the Ionians?
  • The Persians destroyed their city of Miletus
    may have sold the people into slavery

The Persian Empire
  • Persians were warriors and nomads who lived in
    Persia, the southwestern area of what is today
  • Cyrus the Great united the Persians into a
    powerful kingdom.
  • The Persians built a large empire, conquering
    Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and
    Phoenician cities.

  • Remember all those towns the ancient Greeks built
    in early times? Some were still flourishing. Some
    were located along the Turkish coast. They had
    fallen under Persian rule, and they were unhappy
    about it. Athens sent supplies to help them out.
    Those supplies included weapons. Persia would
    have noticed the Greeks sooner or later, but this
    activity most definitely caught their eye.
  • The Persian army had no doubt that the Greeks
    would be easy to conquer. The Greeks were so
    outnumbered - what chance would they have? The
    Persians laughed at the thought of the battle
  • What the Persians forgot, or perhaps they just
    didn't know, was that the Greeks were incredible
    warriors. Athens had a wonderful navy, with ships
    that were tiny and easy to maneuver. The Spartan
    army was fierce - fierce isn't strong enough -
    they were terrifying.  

  • The military of Persia consisted of full-time,
    paid soldiers known as Immortals. They guarded
    the king.
  • The Persians came three times, and fought three
    huge battles
  • Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis. 
  • Each time the Persians were convinced they could
    easily conquer the Greeks. Each time, the Greeks
    drove them away. 

The Persian Wars
  • The Greeks often fought with the Persians in the
    Mediterranean area. After a failed rebellion by
    the Greeks, King Darius decided to stop the
    Greeks from interfering in his empire.
  • The Battle of Marathon occurred in 490 B.C. on
    the plain of Marathon, a short distance from
  • The Persians waited there for the Athenians.
    When they did not come, the Persian commander
    ordered the troops back on the boat.
  • When the horsemen were on the boat, the Greeks
    charged the Persian foot soldiers and defeated

Read about the Battle of Marathon on page
  • What happened at Marathon?
  • The Athenian soldiers defeated the Persians
  • Sparta didnt send troops because they were
    celebrating a religious festival
  • Why was the Battle of Marathon important to the
    Greek city states?
  • It showed that the Persian army could be

  • After Dariuss death, his son Xerxes became king.
    He wanted revenge against the Greeks and planned
    a new invasion of Greece
  • Athens and Sparta joined forces to defend against
    Xerxes attack.
  • About 7,000 Greek soldiers fought the Persians at
    Thermopylae for two days. The Greeks lost the
    battle, but it gave them time to assemble 200
    ships were assembled in Athens.

  • How were the Spartans able to hold off such a
    large Persian army?
  • Spartans controlled the narrow pass that the
    Persians had to pass through
  • How were the Persians eventually able to defeat
    the Spartans?
  • A traitor from Sparta showed the Persians the
    secret pass
  • Why did the Spartans refuse to escape although
    they knew they would be killed?
  • They knew they needed to delay the Persians, and
    come ontheyre Spartan Warriors!!!!

  • Xerxes, the Persian King, was furious at the
    result of the first two battles with the now
    hated Greeks.
  • For the third major battle, the Battle of
    Salamis, he sent an incredible number of Persian
    ships to wage war on Greece, to make sure the
    Greeks would be totally destroyed. 
  • Xerxes was so confident of success that he had
    his slaves carry a golden throne from Persia, and
    set it up on a hillside overlooking the Greek
    harbor, so he could be comfortable while he
    watched the Greeks die.

Xerxes nicknamed "Xerx the Jerk by former
  • At the Battle of Salamis, the Greeks used their
    faster, smaller ships to defeat the Persian
  • But the Greeks did not die. Their small ships
    could maneuver better. The Greeks were able to
    toss burning wood aboard the Persian ships and
    get safely away. The Persians had to abandon
    their burning ships. Those Persian sailors who
    made it to land were greeted by the Spartan army.
    The Spartans killed them all. When Xerxes saw how
    the battle was going, he ran away and left his
    army behind.

  • While Athens burned the Persian ships, Sparta
    left some men on the beach to handle any Persians
    who made it to shore. The rest of the Sparta army
    marched north and defeated the Persian army
    coming in from that direction. 
  • The Greeks took the day! The few Persians who
    survived fled. But there was always the threat
    that the Persians might come back.
  • In preparation, the Greeks created The Delian
  • a treasury that would allow them to quickly
    prepare for war, should the need arise.

  • Why did the Athenians sail to nearby islands in
  • They heard about the Spartans defeat at
    Thermopylae and knew the Persians would soon
    destroy Athens
  • How were the Greeks able to defeat the Persian
    fleet, even though they were outnumbered?
  • They tricked the Persians to fight in a narrow
    channel where the large Persian ships would have
    trouble moving

  • The Persians entered Athens and burned the city.
  • The Greek army won at Plataea. This was the
    turning point of the war. It convinced the
    Persians to return home.
  • The Greeks had defeated the Persians by uniting
    together to save their homeland.
  • The Persian Empire fell for several reasons.

  • The Persians were weakened by war, and their
    rulers taxed the people and spent the money on
    themselves and their family.
  • The Persian royal family fought over who was to
    be king. Many of the later Persian kings were
    killed by other family members who wanted the

  • What happened at the Battle of Plataea?
  • The Greeks defeated the Persian army that Xerxes
    had left behind
  • Why were the Persian wars important?
  • They saved Greek independence and prevented
    Persia from conquering all of Europe
  • Showed that the Greeks fighting together could
    defeat a common enemy!

Battle of Marathon page 134
Battle of Thermopylae page 136
Title goes here!
Journey Across Time Textbook
  • Battle of Salamis
  • page 136

Battle of Plataea page 137
Sample Battle Story Board
  • Spartans Sacrifice Their Lives in the Mountains!
  • Battle of Thermopylae

Mama said, come home carrying my shield or be
brought home on it!!!!
Lesson 29 The Golden Age of Athens
Daily Life in Athens
  • Slavery was common in the ancient world. There
    was at least one slave in most Athenian homes.
  • Slaves were very important to the ancient Greek
    way of life. Slaves cleaned and cooked, worked in
    the fields, factories, shops, in the mines, and
    on ships. They even tutored the rich families
    children. Even the police force in ancient
    Athens was made up of slaves!  
  • Most slaves lives were not that different from a
    poor Greek citizen's life. There were things
    slaves could not do.
  • They could not go to school
  • Could not enter politics
  • Could not use their own namethey were given a
    name by the citizen who owned them.
  • They were the property of their owner, not
    citizens of ancient Greece.
  • Slaves were so important to the culture of
    ancient Greece, that some historians believe
    there were as many slaves as citizens! 
  • Without their help, Athens could not have
    supported their bustling economy.

Many Athenians depended on farming for a living.
Herders raised sheep and goats for wool, milk,
and cheese.
  • Some farmers grew grains, vegetables, and fruit
    for local use. Others grew grapes and olives to
    make wine and olive oil to sell.
  • During the 400s B.C., Athens became the trading
    center of the Greek world.
  • Merchants and artisans grew wealthy by making and
    selling pottery, jewelry, leather goods, and
    other products.

  • Athenian men usually worked in the morning and
    then exercised or attended meetings of the
  • Men ran the government, and spent a great deal of
    their time away from home. When not involved in
    politics, the men spent time in the fields,
    overseeing or working the crops, sailing,
    hunting, in manufacturing or in trade.
  •   For fun, in addition to drinking parties, the
    men enjoyed wrestling, horseback riding, and
    discussed politics and philosophy and the famous
    Olympic Games.
  • When the men entertained their male friends, at
    the popular drinking parties, their wives and
    daughters were not allowed to attend.

For Athenian women, life revolved around home and
family. Girls married at age 14 15 and were
expected to have children and take care of
household duties.
  • With the exception of ancient Sparta, Greek women
    had very limited freedom outside the home. If
    they had their husband's permission to do so,
    they could attend weddings, funerals, some
    religious festivals, and could visit female
    neighbors for brief periods of time. 
  • Poor women worked with their husbands in the
    fields or sold goods at the agora
  • Upper Class women stayed at home and supervised
    the servants and worked wool into clothspinning,
    dyeing, and weaving. In their home, Greek women
    were in charge! Their job was to run the house,
    make the clothes, and bear children. 
  • Most women could not attend school and rarely
    went out except for funerals or festivals. They
    had no political rights and couldnt own

Work and babieswhen do I get to go out have
A City of Contrasts
  • Why can Athens be called a city of contrasts?
  • The people of Athens lived in small,
    uncomfortable houses, but the citys public
    spaces buildings were large beautiful

Greek Mythology
  • Myths are traditional stories about gods and
  • The Greeks believed in many gods and goddesses.
    They thought these deities affected peoples
    lives, controlled nature, and shaped events.
  • According to Greek myth, the god Zeus ruled the
    sky and threw lighting bolts, the goddess Demeter
    made the crops grow, and the god Poseidon caused

  • The Greeks believed the 12 most important gods
    lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in
  • Zeus
  • Athena
  • Apollo
  • Aphrodite
  • Greek myths were stories about gods and heroes.
    In these stories gods had special powers but
    looked and acted like humans.
  • Married had kids
  • Played tricks on each other
  • Fought wars

The Greeks followed rituals to win the gods
favor. They hoped that the gods would grant good
fortune to them in return.
  • The Greeks believed in prophecy, or predictions
    about the future. Many Greeks visited an oracle
    to receive a prophecy. An oracle was a sacred
    shrine where a priest or priestess spoke for a
    god or goddess. The most famous oracle was at
    the Temple of Apollo at Delphi.
  • Greeks believed that when they died their spirits
    would be sent to the gloomy world beneath the
    earth ruled by Hades.

Religion The Temple of Delphi
  • In what ways did Greek gods goddesses play an
    important part in the lives of Athenians?
  • They had power over a particular area of life
  • Asked them for help or advice
  • What were the gods goddesses like?
  • Looked acted like humans but didnt age or die
  • Why did the Greeks go to Delphi?
  • To get advice from Apollo through the oracle

Greek Art and Architecture
  • Greek artists believed in the ideas of reason,
    balance, harmony, and moderation and tried to
    show these ideas in their work.
  • Large vases often had scenes from Greek myths
  • Small drinking cups showed scenes from everyday
  • Although Greek murals have not survived, examples
    of Greek paintings still exist on decorated

The most important architecture in Greece was the
temple dedicated to a god or goddess. The most
famous temple is the Parthenon.
  • Greek architecture included columns, which were
    first made from wood. Later, the Greeks began
    using marble. Many of todays churches and
    government buildings have columns.
  • Greek sculpture expressed
  • Greek ideas.

Architecture The Acropolis
  • What was the Parthenon?
  • A temple built to honor Athena

Sculpture A Marble Workshop
  • How did Athenian sculpture change over the years?
  • More realistic
  • Natural poses showed detailed muscles, hair,
  • Who was Phidias? What did he do?
  • Famous sculptor
  • Created the figures on the Parthenon the statue
    of Athena inside

Greek Philosophers
  • The word philosophy comes from the Greek word for
    love of wisdom.
  • Greek thinkers, called
    believed the human mind could

  • Socrates was a philosopher who believed that an
    absolute truth existed and that all real
    knowledge was within each person.
  • Leaders did not trust Socrates, and accused him
    of teaching young Athenians to rebel.

  • The Socratic method is a form of teaching that
    uses questions to lead students to discover
    things for themselves.
  • The Athenian leaders didnt like him and were
    afraid of his teachings. They accused him of
    teaching students to rebel against the state.
  • Socrates was tried and sentenced to death. He
    could have escaped from the city, but he chose to
    stay there and face his sentence.

Philosophy The Agora
  • What do philosophers do?
  • Talk about the world around them
  • Nature the meaning of life, justice, truth,
  • How did Socrates try to teach others?
  • Asked people questions that forced them to think
    about their beliefs
  • What happened to Socrates
  • Put to death
  • Enemies accused him of not honoring the gods
    leading young people into error disloyalty

Greek Drama
  • Drama is a story told by actors who pretend to be
    characters in the story.
  • The Greeks used drama as part of their religious
  • The Greeks developed two types of dramas
  • Tragedies
  • Comedies

A tragedy is the story of a person who tries to
overcome difficulties, but fails.
Lets try using some costumes for the actors!
  • A comedy is a story with a happy ending.
  • Aeschylus was a writer who wrote a group of three
    plays called Oresteia. These plays teach that
    evil acts cause more evil and suffering.
  • He introduced the idea of using costumes, props,
    stage decorations

The writer Sophocles wrote the plays Oedipus and
  • Euripides wrote plays about real-life people
    instead of gods.

Why don't aliens eat clowns. Because they taste
Aristophanes wrote comedies that made fun of
leading politicians and scholars.
Drama The Theater of Dionysus
  • List three ways Greek drama differed from plays
    movies of today
  • Relied on the chorus to help explain and expand
    the story
  • No women actors
  • Held in outdoor theaters

Wives and daughters were not allowed to watch the
Olympic Games as the participants in the games
did not wear clothes. Chariot racing was the only
game women could win, and only then if they
owned the horse. If that horse won, they received
the prize.
Sports The Panathenaic Games
  • What was the purpose of athletic events in
  • Showed the importance of a healthy body
  • Honored the gods goddesses
  • Describe one Panathenaic event that is part of
    our present Olympics
  • Footraces, Boxing, Wrestling
  • What events arent part of our Olympics?
  • Chariot races,
  • Races in full armor
  • Pancratium

Pericles Epitaph
Journey Across Time Pages 140-141
  • An epitaph is an inscription written on a
    tombstone or burial place. Write an epitaph
    summarizing the life of Pericles.
  • You need the following on your tomb
  • His name
  • Born Died
  • 3 Things he did for Athens
  • 1 Fun Fact

Lesson 30 Alexander the Great
Lesson 31 Greek contributions to Modern Life
An epic is a long poem about heroic deeds. The
first great epics were the Iliad and the Odyssey,
written by a poet named Homer.
  • The Iliad is about a battle for the city of Troy.
  • Prince of Troy kidnaps the wife of the king of
  • The Odyssey is the story of Odysseus, a Greek
  • Based on a war between Greece and the city of
  • Greeks believed these two epics were real

The battle for Troy goes on for 10 years.
Finally, the Greeks came up with a plan to take
the city. They built a huge, hollow, wooden
horse and hide inside it and then captured the
  • A Greek slave named Aesop wrote many fables. A
    fable is a short tale that teaches a lesson.
    These often funny stories point out human flaws
    as well as strengths.
  • Fables were passed from person to person by oral

I shouldve known Slow steady wins the race!
Greek Contributions to Modern Language
  • Alphabet
  • Words with Greek roots
  • Grammar
  • Punctuation
  • Paragraphing
  • Tragedies
  • Comedies
  • historical writings

Three types of governments according to Aristotle
  • Monarch
  • Ruled by King or Queen)?
  • Aristocracy or OligarchyRuled by a few
  • DemocracyRuled by many

Thanks Greece!
We got this from the Greeks!!!!
Greek Contributions to Modern Government
  • Democracy
  • Trial by a jury of citizens

Greek Contributions to Modern Medicine
  • Belief that diseases have natural causes
  • Belief that doctors should observe patients
  • The Hippocratic Oath

Greek Contributions to Modern Understanding of
the Body
  • Names descriptions of internal organs
  • Discovery that the heart pumps blood through the
  • Discovery that the brain is the center of the
    nervous system

Greek Science and Math
  • Astronomers study the stars, planets, and other
    heavenly bodies.
  • Aristarchus was an astronomer who claimed that
    the sun was at the center of the universe and
    that Earth revolved around the sun.

Eratoshenes was an astronomer who believed that
the Earth was round and measured Earths
  • He estimated that the distance around Earth
    equaled 24, 675 milesjust 185 miles off the
    actual distance!!!!!
  • Euclid, one of the most famous Greek
    mathematicians, described plane geometry. Plane
    geometry is the study of points, lines, angles,
    and surfaces.

Archimedes was the most famous scientist of the
Hellenistic Era. He worked on solid geometrythe
study of spheres and cylinders.
  • He also determined the value of pi, a number used
    to measure the area of circles. Archimedes
    invented the catapult, among other weapons.
  • Machines that hurled arrows, spears, and rocks.

Greek Contributions to Modern Mathematics
  • Development of mathematical theories
  • New techniques for measuring shapes spaces
  • Euclids geometry textbook
  • Pythagorean Theorem

Greek Contributions to Modern Astronomy
  • Idea that the Earth revolves around the sun
  • Estimates of distances from Earth to the sun and
  • Naming of the stars

Greek Contributions to Modern Geography
  • Use of stars to locate places on the Earth
  • Use of longitude latitude
  • Maps that show the round Earth on a flat surface

Greek Contributions to Modern Plants Animals
  • Identification of plans their parts
  • An understanding of how plants reproduce their
    use a medicine
  • Classification of plans animals

Greek Contributions to Modern Architecture
  • Pediments
  • Friezes
  • Columns
  • Covered porches

Greek Poetry Fables
  • Greek poems and stories are the oldest in the
    Western world and serve as models for European
    and American poems and stories.
  • Shakespeare borrowed many Greek plots

The writers of the Hellenistic Era produced a
large body of literature.
  • Appolonius wrote the epic poem Argonautica,
    recounting the legend of Jason and his band of
    heroes. Theocritus wrote short poems about
    beauty and nature.
  • Jason his band sail the seas in search of a ram
    with a golden fleece.
  • Athenians still created plays, but the plays of
    the Hellenistic Era were about love and
  • Unlike the Greek plays, they didnt make fun of
    political leaders.

Greek Contributions to Modern Theater
  • Seat arrangements
  • Special effects
  • Revolving scenery
  • Stories and plays

Greek Contributions to Modern Sports
  • Olympic Games
  • The pentathlon

Thanks Greece..the Olympics ROCK!!!