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Response to Intervention: Accelerating Achievement for ALL Students

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Response to Intervention: Accelerating Achievement for ALL Students Illinois IEA Professional Development Workshop Dr. George M. Batsche Professor and Co-Director – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Response to Intervention: Accelerating Achievement for ALL Students


1
Response to Intervention Accelerating
Achievement for ALL Students
  • Illinois IEA Professional Development Workshop
  • Dr. George M. Batsche
  • Professor and Co-Director
  • Institute for School Reform
  • Florida Statewide Problem-Solving/RtI Project
  • University of South Florida

2
National Resources to Support District and School
Implementation
  • www.nasdse.org
  • Building and District Implementation Blueprints
  • Current research (evidence-based practices) that
    supports use of RtI
  • www.rtinetwork.org
  • Blueprints to support implementation
  • Monthly RtI Talks
  • Virtual visits to schools implementing RtI
  • Webinars
  • Progress Monitoring Tools to Assess Level of
    Implementation
  • www.justreadflorida.org/readingwalkthrough/
  • Principal Walk Through Integrity Evaluations
  • www.floridarti.usf.edu
  • Introductory Course

3
The Vision
  • 95 of students at proficient level
  • Students possess social and emotional behaviors
    that support active learning
  • A unified system of educational services
  • One ED
  • Student Support Services perceived as a necessary
    component for successful schooling

4
The Outcomes
  • Maximize effect of core instruction for all
    students
  • Targeted instruction and interventions for
    at-risk learners
  • Significant improvements in pro-social behaviors
  • Reduction in over-representation of diverse
    student groups in low academic performance,
    special education, suspension/expulsion, and
    alternative education.
  • Overall improvement in achievement rates
  • Maximize efficiency and return on investment
  • AYP

5
  • The Model

6
Response to Intervention
  • RtI is the practice of (1) providing high-quality
    instruction/intervention matched to student needs
    and (2) using learning rate over time and level
    of performance to (3) make important educational
    decisions.
  • (Batsche, et al., 2005)
  • Problem-solving is the process that is used to
    develop effective instruction/interventions.

7
Problem Solving Process
8
Three-Tiered Model of School Supports the
Problem-solving Process
ACADEMIC SYSTEMS Tier 3 Comprehensive
Intensive Students who need individualized
interventions. Tier 2 Strategic
Interventions Students who need more support in
addition to the core curriculum. Tier 1 Core
Curriculum All students, including students who
require curricular enhancements for acceleration.
BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS Tier 3 Intensive
Interventions Students who need individualized
intervention. Tier 2 Targeted Group
Interventions Students who need more support in
addition to school-wide positive behavior
program. Tier 1 Universal Interventions All
students in all settings.
9
Model of Schooling
  • All district instruction and intervention
    services have a place in this model.
  • If it does not fit in the model, should it be
    funded?
  • All supplemental and intensive services must be
    integrated with core.

10
Problem-Solving/RtIResource Management
  • Public Education Resource Deployment
  • Support staff cannot resource more than 20 of
    the students
  • Service vs Effectiveness--BIG ISSUE

Academic
Behavior
11
RtI Framing Issues and Key Concepts
  • Academic Engaged Time (AET) is the best predictor
    of student achievement
  • 330 minutes in a day, 1650 in a week and 56,700
    in a year
  • This is the currency of instruction/intervention
  • Its what we have to spend on students
  • How we use it determines student outcomes.
  • MOST students who are behind will respond
    positively to additional CORE instruction.
  • Schools have more staff qualified to deliver core
    instruction than specialized instruction.
  • Issue is how to schedule in such a way as to
    provide more exposure to core.

12
RtI Framing Issues and Key Concepts
  • Managing the GAP between student current level of
    performance and expectation (benchmark,
    standards, goal) is what RtI is all about.
  • The two critical pieces of information we need
    about students are
  • How BIG is the GAP?
  • AND
  • How much time do we have to close it?
  • The answers to these 2 questions defines our
    instructional mission.

13
RtI RATE
  • Rate is growth per week (month) necessary to
    close the GAP
  • Rate becomes the statistic we need to define
    evidence-based intervention (EBI)
  • EBI is any intervention that results in the
    desired RATE

14
RtI 3 Priorities
  • 1. Prevention Identify students at-risk for
    literacy failure BEFORE they actually fail.
  • Kindergarten screening, intervention and progress
    monitoring is key.
  • No excuse for not identifying ALL at-risk
    students by November of the kindergarten year.
  • This strategy prevents the GAP.
  • Managing GAPs is more expensive and less likely
    to be successful.

15
RtI 3 Priorities
  • Early Intervention
  • Purpose here is the manage the GAP.
  • Students who are more that 2 years behind have a
    10 chance, or less, or catching up.
  • Benchmark, progress monitoring data,
    district-wide assessments are used to identify
    students that have a gap of 2 years or less.
  • Students bumping up against the 2 year level
    receive the most intensive services.
  • This more costly and requires more specialized
    instruction/personnel

16
RtI 3 Priorities
  • Intensive Intervention
  • Reserved for those students who have a GAP of
    more than 2 years and the rate of growth to close
    the GAP is unrealistic. Too much growthtoo
    little time remaining.
  • Problem-solving is used to develop instructional
    priorities.
  • This is truly a case of you cannot do something
    different the same way.
  • This is the most costly, staff intensive and
    least likely to result in goal attainment

17
How Does it Fit Together?Standard Treatment
Protocol
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 1
18
Critical Components
  • Data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of
    core instruction
  • 80 of students receiving ONLY core instruction
    are proficient
  • Supplemental Instruction/Intervention uses a
    standard protocol of instruction based on
    student needs, informed by data
  • 70 of students receiving Supplemental AND Core
    are proficient

19
Critical Components
  • Intensive instruction developed for students who
    have not responded as desired to Core PLUS
    Supplemental Instruction

20
What Does the Research Say About RtI?
21
Effective Schools
  • 30 or more of students at risk but who were at
    grade level at the end of the year.
  • Characteristics
  • Strong Leadership
  • Positive Belief and Teacher Dedication
  • Data Utilization and Analysis
  • Effective Scheduling
  • Professional Development
  • Scientifically-Based Intervention Programs
  • Parent Involvement
  • (Crawford and Torgeson)
  • (

22
Data on the Top 10 Schools Meeting the Effective
School Criteria
23
What is the impact of PSM/RtI on students from
diverse backgrounds?
  • VanDerHeyden, et al. report that students
    responded positively to the method and that
    African-American students responded more quickly
    than other ethnic groups.
  • Marston reported a 50decrease in EMH placements
    over a 6-year period of time.
  • Marston reported a drop over a 3-year period in
    the percent of African-American students placed
    in special education from 67 to 55, considering
    45 of the student population was comprised of
    African-American Students.
  • Batsche (2006) reported a significant decrease in
    the risk indices for ELL and African-American
    students

24
Risk Indices by Year Race/Ethnicity
25
Response to Intervention
  • Implementation

26
How Do We Do RtI?
  • Organized by a District PLAN
  • Driven by Professional Development
  • Supported by Coaching and Technical Assistance
  • Informed by DATA

27
Change Model
Consensus
Infrastructure
Implementation
28
Stages of Implementing Problem-Solving/RtI
  • Consensus
  • Belief is shared
  • Vision is agreed upon
  • Implementation requirements understood
  • Infrastructure Development
  • Problem-Solving Process
  • Data System
  • Policies/Procedures
  • Training
  • Tier I and II intervention systems
  • E.g., K-3 Academic Support Plan
  • Technology support
  • Decision-making criteria established
  • Implementation

29
Building Consensus
  • Knowledge
  • Beliefs
  • Understanding the Need- DATA
  • Skills and/or Support

30
ConsensusEssential Beliefs
  • No child should be left behind
  • It is OK to provide differential service across
    students
  • Academic Engaged Time must be considered first
  • Student performance is influenced most by the
    quality of the interventions we deliver and how
    well we deliver them- not preconceived notions
    about child characteristics
  • Decisions are best made with data
  • Our expectations for student performance should
    be dependent on a students response to
    intervention, not on the basis of a score that
    predicts what they are capable of doing.

31
Consensus DevelopmentData
  • Are you happy with your data?
  • Building/Grade Level Student Outcomes
  • Disaggregated
  • AYP

32
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33
  • Knowledge and Skill Requirements

34
Personnel Critical to Successful Implementation
  • District-Level Leaders
  • Building Leaders
  • Facilitator
  • Teachers/Student Services
  • Parents
  • Students

35
  • Development of the Infrastructure

36
Key Points
  • Unit of implementation is the building level.
  • Implementation process takes 4-6 years.
  • Implementation progress must be monitored
  • Must be guided by data indicating implementation
    level and integrity
  • Must be supported by professional development and
    technical assistance
  • Drive by a strategic plan
  • It is a journey, not a sprint

37
Implementation Model
  • District-based leadership team (DBLT)
  • School-based leadership team (SBLT)
  • School-based coach
  • Process Technical Assistance
  • Interpretation and Use of Data
  • Evaluation Data

38
  • The Infrastructure

39
Problem Solving Process
40
Steps in the Problem-Solving Process
  • PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
  • Identify replacement behavior
  • Data- current level of performance
  • Data- benchmark level(s)
  • Data- peer performance
  • Data- GAP analysis
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Develop hypotheses( brainstorming)
  • Develop predictions/assessment
  • INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT
  • Develop interventions in those areas for
    which data are available and hypotheses
    verified
  • Proximal/Distal
  • Implementation support
  • Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • Frequently collected data
  • Type of Response- good, questionable, poor

41
Data For Each Tier - Where Do They Come From?
  • Tier 1 Universal Screening, accountability
    assessments, grades, classroom assessments,
    referral patterns, discipline referrals
  • Tier 2 Universal Screening - Group Level
    Diagnostics (maybe), systematic progress
    monitoring, large-scale assessment data and
    classroom assessment
  • Tier 3 Universal Screenings, Individual
    Diagnostics, intensive and systematic progress
    monitoring, formative assessment, other informal
    assessments

42
Academic Behaviors
  • Class work completed/accuracy
  • Home work completed/accuracy
  • Test scores/accuracy
  • Student Level of Performance
  • Goal or benchmark
  • Peer level of performance

43
Example
  • Data taken during a single grading period (6
    weeks)
  • Progress Monitor Homework completed and accuracy
  • Goal Completed 75, Accuracy 75
  • Student Completed 40, Accuracy 50
  • Peers Completed 65, Accuracy 78
  • Time Frame 6 weeks
  • Assignments/Week 20

44
Example
  • Completion
  • 75-4030 improvement in 6 weeks
  • 30/6 weeks Improvement rate of 5/week
  • 5 of 20 assignments1 per week
  • Rate of Improvement for an effective intervention
    is 1 ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENT PER WEEK

45
Decision RulesWhat Constitutes Good RtI?
46
Decision Rules
  • Response to Intervention Rules
  • Linking RtI to Intervention Decisions

47
Decision Rules What is a Good Response to
Intervention?
  • Positive Response
  • Gap is closing
  • Can extrapolate point at which target student(s)
    will come in range of target--even if this is
    long range
  • Level of risk lowers over time
  • Questionable Response
  • Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably,
    but gap is still widening
  • Gap stops widening but closure does not occur
  • Poor Response
  • Gap continues to widen with no change in rate.

48
Positive Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Observed Trajectory
Time
49
Decision Rules What is a Questionable
Response to Intervention?
  • Positive Response
  • Gap is closing
  • Can extrapolate point at which target student(s)
    will come in range of target--even if this is
    long range
  • Questionable Response
  • Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably,
    but gap is still widening
  • Gap stops widening but closure does not occur
  • Level of risk remains the same over time
  • Poor Response
  • Gap continues to widen with no change in rate.

50
Questionable Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Observed Trajectory
Time
51
Decision Rules What is a Poor Response to
Intervention?
  • Positive Response
  • Gap is closing
  • Can extrapolate point at which target student(s)
    will come in range of target--even if this is
    long range
  • Questionable Response
  • Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably,
    but gap is still widening
  • Gap stops widening but closure does not occur
  • Poor Response
  • Gap continues to widen with no change in rate.
  • Level of risk worsens over time

52
Poor Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Observed Trajectory
Time
53
Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Observed Trajectory
Time
54
Decision Rules Linking RtI to Intervention
Decisions
  • Positive
  • Continue intervention with current goal
  • Continue intervention with goal increased
  • Fade intervention to determine if student(s) have
    acquired functional independence.

55
Decision Rules Linking RtI to Intervention
Decisions
  • Questionable
  • Was intervention implemented as intended?
  • If no - employ strategies to increase
    implementation integrity
  • If yes -
  • Increase intensity of current intervention for a
    short period of time and assess impact. If rate
    improves, continue. If rate does not improve,
    return to problem solving.

56
Decision Rules Linking RtI to Intervention
Decisions
  • Poor
  • Was intervention implemented as intended?
  • If no - employ strategies in increase
    implementation integrity
  • If yes -
  • Is intervention aligned with the verified
    hypothesis? (Intervention Design)
  • Are there other hypotheses to consider? (Problem
    Analysis)
  • Was the problem identified correctly? (Problem
    Identification)

57
BUILDING THE FOUNDATION
58
Tier I Problem-Solving Data and Skills Needed
Tier I - Assessment Discipline Data
(ODR) Benchmark Assessment School Climate
Surveys Universal Screening FCAT Universal
Screening District-Wide Assessments
Tier I - Core Interventions School-wide
Discipline Positive Behavior Supports Whole-class
Interventions Core Instruction
10 - 15
80 - 90
59
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60
H
61
Tier 1 Data Example
62
Referral Analysis
  • 42 Noncompliance
  • 30 Off-Task/Inattention
  • 12 Physical/Verbal Aggression
  • 6 Relational Aggression
  • 10 Bullying

63
Building-Level Behavior Data
  • Building Referred
  • Male 50 80
  • White 72 54
  • Hispanic 12 20
  • African American 15 24
  • Other 1 2
  • Low SES 25 50

64
What does core instruction look like for reading?
  • K-5
  • 90 minute reading block
  • Comprehensive reading program is the central tool
    for instruction.
  • Explicit, systematic, and differentiated
    instruction is provided.
  • In-class grouping strategies are in use,
    including small group instruction as appropriate
    to meet student needs.
  • Active student engagement occurs in a variety of
    reading-based activities, which connect to the
    essential components of reading and academic
    goals.
  • Effective classroom management and high levels of
    time on task are evident.
  • 6-12
  • Content area courses in which the reading content
    standards are addressed for all students
    including
  • Middle School Developmental Reading
  • English/Language Arts
  • Other core areas such as science, social studies,
    and math

65
What strategies exist to differentiate
instruction for K-5 students in Tier 1?
  • Differentiate in small, flexible reading groups
  • Use data to form groups based on skills to be
    taught (comprehension, phonics, etc.)
  • Ensure that groups are flexible
  • Determine a schedule to rotate children through
    groups/centers
  • Ensure that students with the most intensive
    needs meet in the teacher-led center everyday
  • Targeted and deliberate independent reading
    practice that utilizes relevant practice,
    extension, and production opportunities

66
What strategies exist to differentiate
instruction for 6-12 students in Tier 1?
  • CAR-PD
  • Differentiate in small groups
  • Use data to from groups based on skills to be
    taught
  • Groups need to be flexible
  • Determine a schedule to rotate students through
    groups
  • Support from the reading coach
  • Take responsibility for student learning

67
What data can be collected to evaluate the impact
of core instruction?
  • Progress monitoring assessments three times a
    year (Benchmarking)
  • Ongoing Progress Monitoring (OPM)
  • Core Reading Program Unit Tests /
    Curriculum-based assessments
  • Outcome measures (SAT-10 and State Tests) to make
    decisions about student placement for the
    following year

68
What strategies are available to evaluate the
fidelity of core instruction?
  • Principal Reading Walk Through
  • If it gets inspected, it gets respected
  • Effective instruction checklist
  • Elementary core reading program checklists

69
Effective Instruction (Foorman et al., 2003
Foorman Torgesen, 2001 Arrasmith, 2003
Rosenshine, 1986)
70
Tier II Problem-Solving Data and Skills Needed
1 - 5
Tier II - Targeted Interventions Targeted Group
Interventions Increased Intensity Narrow
Focus Linked to Tier I
Tier II - Assessment Behavioral
Observations Intervention Data Group
Diagnostic Universal Screening Progress Monitoring
10-15
80 - 90
Tier I - Core Interventions
Tier I Assessment
10 - 15
80 - 90
71
Data Infrastructure Using Existing Data to
Predict Intervention Needs for Tier 2
  • Previous referral history predicts future
    referral history
  • Benchmark and Progress Monitoring Data
  • Common Assessments in Middle and High School
  • Middle and High School
  • Student data history prior to entering

72
Data-Driven InfrastructureEstablishing a
Building Baseline
  • Code referrals (reasons) for past 2-3 years
  • Identifies problems teachers feel they do not
    have the skills/support to handle
  • Referral pattern reflects skill pattern of the
    staff, the resources currently in place and the
    history of what constitutes a referral in that
    building
  • Identifies likely referral types for next 2 years
  • Identifies focus of Professional Development
    Activities AND potential Tier II and III
    interventions
  • Present data to staff. Reinforces Need concept

73
Tier Functions/Integration
  • How the Tiers work
  • Time aggregation
  • Tier integration

74
How the Tiers Work
  • Goal Student is successful with Tier 1 level of
    support-academic or behavioral
  • Greater the tier, greater support and severity
  • Increase level of support (Tier level) until you
    identify an intervention that results in a
    positive response to intervention
  • Continue until student strengthens response
    significantly
  • Systematically reduce support (Lower Tier Level)
  • Determine the relationship between sustained
    growth and sustained support.

75
Integrating the Tiers
  • 5th grade student reading at the 2nd grade level
  • Tier 3
  • Direct Instruction, Targeted, Narrow Focus (e.g.,
    phonemic awareness, phonics, some fluency)
  • Tier 2
  • Fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, pre-teach for
    Tier 1
  • Tier 1
  • Focus on comprehension, participation, scripted
    decoding
  • Use core materials for content
  • Progress monitor both instructional level and
    grade placement level skills

76
What do we know about the characteristics of
effective interventions?
  • They always increase the intensity of instruction
    - they accelerate learning
  • They always provide many more opportunities for
    re-teaching, review, and practice
  • They are focused carefully on the most essential
    learning needs of the students.

77
Characteristics of Tier 2 Interventions
  • Available in general education settings
  • Opportunity to increase exposure (academic
    engaged time) to curriculum
  • Opportunity to narrow focus of the curriculum
  • Sufficient time for interventions to have an
    effect (10-30 weeks)
  • Often are standardized supplemental curriculum
    protocols

78
Interventions Tier 2
  • First resource is TIME (AET)
  • HOW much more time is needed?
  • Second resource is curriculum
  • WHAT does the student need?
  • Third resource is personnel
  • WHO or WHERE will it be provided?

79
Tier 2 Getting TIME
  • Free time--does not require additional
    personnel
  • Staggering instruction
  • Differentiating instruction
  • Cross grade instruction
  • Skill-based instruction
  • Standard Protocol Grouping
  • Reduced range of standard curriculum
  • After-School
  • Home-Based

80
Tier 2 Curriculum
  • Standard protocol approach
  • Focus on essential skills
  • Most likely, more EXPOSURE and more FOCUS of core
    instruction
  • Linked directly to core instruction materials and
    benchmarks
  • Criterion for effectiveness is 70 of students
    receiving Tier 2 will reach benchmarks

81
Tier 2 Personnel
  • EVERYONE in the building is a potential resource
  • Re-conceptualize who does what
  • Personnel deployed AFTER needs are identified
  • WHERE matters less and less
  • REMEMBER, student performance matters more than
    labels, locations and staff needs.
  • A school cannot deliver intensive services to
    more than 7 of the population

82
3 Fs 1 S Data PD Effective Powerful
Instruction
  • Frequency and duration of meeting in small groups
    every day, etc.
  • Focus of instruction (the What) work in
    vocabulary, phonics, comprehension, etc.
  • Format of lesson (the How) determining the
    lesson structure and the level of scaffolding,
    modeling, explicitness, etc.
  • Size of instructional group 3, 6, or 8
    students, etc.
  • Use data to help determine the 3 Fs and 1 S (the
    Why)
  • Provide professional development in the use of
    data and in the 3 Fs and 1 S

83
What does supplemental instruction/intervention
look like for reading?
  • Logistics of supplemental instruction/
    intervention
  • Specific time and place included in schedule
  • Who will provide it? (classroom teacher or
    outside support Reading specialist, ESE, SLP,
    etc.)
  • Materials/how will the provider access them?
  • Common planning time established between the
    classroom teacher and intervention teacher, if
    applicable
  • Establish guidelines for when to evaluate the
    effectiveness of instruction and guidelines to
    determine what is a good response

84
Intervention Support
  • Intervention plans should be developed based on
    student need and skills of staff
  • All intervention plans should have intervention
    support
  • Principals should ensure that intervention plans
    have intervention support
  • Teachers should not be expected to implement
    plans for which there is no support

85
Critical Components of Intervention Support
  • Support for Intervention Integrity
  • Documentation of Intervention Implementation
  • Intervention and Eligibility decisions and
    outcomes cannot be supported in an RtI model
    without these two critical components

86
Intervention Support
  • Pre-meeting
  • Review data
  • Review steps to intervention
  • Determine logistics
  • First 2 weeks
  • 2-3 meetings/week
  • Review data
  • Review steps to intervention
  • Revise, if necessary

87
Intervention Support
  • Second Two Weeks
  • Meet twice each week
  • Following weeks
  • Meet at least weekly
  • Review data
  • Review steps
  • Discuss Revisions
  • Approaching benchmark
  • Review data
  • Schedule for intervention fading
  • Review data

88
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89
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90
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91
Tier 3 Decisions
  • GAP?
  • Rate??
  • Independent Functioning?
  • Fade Intervention to Supplemental Level
  • Evaluate Rate

92
Tier 3
  • Individual and Very Small Group
  • Individual Diagnostic Procedures
  • Intensive Interventions
  • Goal is to determine interventions that close the
    GAP
  • Pre-requisite for consideration for any special
    education program

93
Ways that instruction must be made more powerful
for students at-risk for reading difficulties.
More powerful instruction involves
More instructional time
Smaller instructional groups
More precisely targeted at right level
Clearer and more detailed explanations
More systematic instructional sequences
More extensive opportunities for guided practice
More opportunities for error correction and
feedback
94
What are the logistics of Tier 3 instruction?
  • Specific place and time set aside on the schedule
    (daily)
  • Who will provide it? (classroom teacher or
    outside support Reading specialist, ESE, SLP,
    etc.)
  • Materials/how will the provider access them?
  • Common planning time established between the two
    providers, if applicable
  • Establishing guidelines for when to evaluate the
    effectiveness of instruction and guidelines to
    determine what is a good response

95
Ongoing Progress Monitoring (OPM)
  • K-2
  • all of the same TDI tasks
  • ORF in grades 1 and 2
  • 3-12
  • ORF at grades 3-5
  • MAZE at grades K-12
  • Informal toolkit with
  • Instructional Level reading comprehension
    passages passage-specific Question Response
    templates
  • Multiple Lexiled passages for oral reading
    fluency, accuracy, and comprehension
  • Phonics Inventory
  • Sight Word Inventory
  • Instructional Implications of Word Analysis Task

96
How do we ensure that Tier 3 instruction is
integrated with/includes core instructional
content when appropriate and transfers to student
success in core?
  • Instructors need to communicate, if applicable
  • Both instructors must have access to the core
    materials, if applicable
  • Understanding the core content in order to
    provide access to the information but at an
    appropriate reading level

97
Data-Based Determination of Expectations Elsie
  • Benchmark Level 100 WCPM
  • Current Level 47 WCPM
  • Difference to June Benchmark (Gap) 53 WCPM
  • Time to Benchmark 41 Weeks
  • Rate of Growth Required
  • 53/41 1.29 WCPM for Elsie
  • Peer Group Rate about 1.1 WCPM growth (at
    benchmark) 1.2 WCMP (for some risk benchmark)
  • REALISTIC? Not unless you increase AET

98
Questionable RtI
99
Tier 2- Supplemental Instruction - Revision
  • The intervention appeared to be working. What
    the teachers thought was needed was increased
    time in supplemental instruction.
  • They worked together and found a way to give
    Elsie 30 minutes of supplemental instruction, on
    phonics and fluency, 5x per week.

100
Data-Based Determination of Expectations Elsie
  • Benchmark Level 100 WCPM
  • Current Level 56 WCPM
  • Difference to June Benchmark (Gap) 44 WCPM
  • Time to Benchmark 27 Weeks
  • Rate of Growth Required
  • 44/27 1.62 WCPM for Elsie
  • Peer Group Rate 1.1 WCPM growth (at benchmark)
    1.2 WCMP (for some risk benchmark)
  • REALISTIC? Not unless you increase AET

101
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102
Good RtI
103
Aimline 2 percent/week
Trendline 3 percent/week
104
Aimline 1.50 words/week
Trendline 0.95 words/week
105
  • Behavioral
  • Case
  • Examples

106
II
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