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The Globalization of the Science Enterprise

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Title: The Globalization of the Science Enterprise


1
The Globalization of the Science Enterprise
…and the Context in which It Operates
  • International Conference on Women Leaders in
    Science, Technology and Engineering
  • January 8, 2007

2
The enterprise of science is evolving
  • And so is the context in which it operates

3
Some baseline contextual points
  • Science and technology are increasingly imbedded
    in every aspect of modern life
  • Everywhere in the world
  • There is general agreement throughout the world
    that science and technology have brought great
    benefits to humankind
  • And that the benefits, overall, have outweighed
    the costs/risks

4
The context for science is being influenced by
  • Trends within science itself
  • Public attitudes
  • World events and government priorities/policies
  • Increasingly global character of science

5
The context for science is being influenced by
  • Trends within science itself

6
On the one hand
  • Were living in the best of scientific times

7
Advances in science are coming at a fantastic pace
  • The rate of incremental advance is accelerating
  • New technologies are enabling quantum jumps in
    understanding

8
Latest revolutionizing technologies
  • Molecular biology
  • Computer and information technologies
  • Imaging technologies

9
Functional MRI of a normal subject writing a
talk
Anterior
Right
Ventral
R
L
Brocas area
posterior
Left
Parietal Cortex
L
SMA
R
Brocas area
Dorsal
L. Chang, M.D., T. Ernst, Ph.D., O. Speck,
Ph.D. Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Generating words (left brain dominant)
Chang, et al.
10
Mind and Body are Inseparable
11
So, advances in science are coming at a fantastic
pace
  • And thats good

12
On the other hand….
13
Other issues within science are not going so
well…and negatively affect the broader (societal)
context for science
  • Incidents of scientific misconduct
  • Human subjects concerns
  • Animal welfare issues
  • Conflict of interest problems
  • Publishing by press release

14
The context for science is being influenced by
  • Trends within science itself
  • Public attitudes

15
The science-society relationship is not totally
smooth
16
People generally still respect science and
technology….
17
US publics view of scientific research
National Science Board, Science and Engineering
Indicators - 2002
18
But they have little understanding of what is and
is not science
  • 60 of Americans believe in extrasensory
    perception
  • 41 think astrology is somewhat scientific
  • 47 still do not answer true to the statement
    Human beings developed from earlier species of
    animals

Science and Engineering Indicators, 2004
19
There is increasing tension in the
science-society relationship
  • A new dimension has been added to the publics
    view of and behavior toward science and technology

20
Historically, science and technology have been
evaluated primarily on the basis of their
costs/risks and benefits
21
Now, values (and politics) are being overlaid
onto simple risk/benefit calculations
22
Scientific issues that abut against values
  • Embryonic stem cell research
  • Studying personal topics
  • Sex
  • Intelligent Design versus evolution in science
    classrooms and science museums

23
Intelligent design claims to believe in gradual
change
  • But a supernatural being guided the process
  • Claims to be a scientific, alternative theory to
    evolution
  • Advocates argue teach both theories in science
    classes
  • Is an evolved version of creationism

24
Creationism/Intelligent Design vs science
education are no longer just US problems
  • UK
  • Germany
  • Canada
  • Poland
  • Turkey
  • Brazil
  • Kenya

25
Many neuroscience issues abut against human values
  • The nature of the mind
  • Mind-body-soul concepts
  • The ability for anyone to look into your brain
    and watch your mind in action
  • Darkest secret thoughts

26
Overlay of values is having serious consequences
for the whole science-society relationship
  • Society wants to influence science
  • Rather than just the reverse
  • Creating tension between science and the rest of
    society

27
We cant just educate our way out of it
  • The problem is not just lack of understanding
  • People do understand much of what were saying or
    want to do
  • They dont like it
  • The conflict with their core values trumps their
    view of societal benefits
  • Only scientists are bound to stick to the
    science

28
What can we do?
  • Continue protesting/lamenting the situation
  • Adopt a more assertive strategy
  • Engage with the public on the issues
  • Try to find common ground

29
Communicating
Communicating to the public
with the public
We need to change not only the style and content
but also the intent of the conversation
30
We need to hear from the public about
  • Their concerns about science and technology and
    their concomitants
  • Risks and benefits
  • Encroachment on human values
  • Their priorities among research areas
  • Questions they would like or need us to answer
  • Help frame the research agenda

31
Public Understanding
32
Public Education
33
The context for science is being influenced by
  • Trends within science itself
  • Public attitudes
  • World events and government priorities/policies

34
Events of 9/11/2001 had a dramatic effect on the
US and its international scientific relationships
35
Impacts on science in and with the US
  • Visa issues foreign students visitors
  • Restrictive clauses in grants contracts (export
    controls)
  • Laboratory security select agents
  • Concerns about scientific publication
  • Sensitive but unclassified information
  • New US research priorities

36
(No Transcript)
37
Source Council of Graduate Schools , 2006
38
Post 9/11 Security Issues
  • New research priorities

39
New research priorities
  • Bioterrorism
  • Transportation security
  • Cybersecurity
  • Safety of the food supply

40
World events
  • Have made scientific travel much more difficult
  • Have altered science funding patterns and
    priorities

41
Increasing recognition of importance of ST to
innovation and economic prosperity
42
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43
…the committee is deeply concerned that the
scientific and technical building blocks of our
economic leadership are eroding at a time when
many other nations are gathering strength….
44
Recommendations
  • Improve k-12 science and math education
  • Strengthen US commitment to long-term basic
    research

45
(No Transcript)
46
American Competitiveness Initiative
  • Doubles funding over 10 years for physical
    sciences and engineering
  • Increased funding for teacher training and new
    curriculum materials
  • RD tax credits for industry
  • Comprehensive immigration reform

47
Many countries are recognizing the
science-economy (jobs) imperative
  • Israel
  • Japan
  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Sweden
  • US
  • Canada
  • China
  • India
  • European Union
  • UK

48
The point Science is good for
innovation Innovation is good for the economy
(and for other things
too)
  • Invest in science!

49
The context for science is being influenced by
  • Trends within science itself
  • Public attitudes
  • World events and government priorities/policies
  • Increasingly global character of science

50
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51
Percent international submissions and acceptances
at Science, 1992-2005
52
from AAU, 2006
53
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54
This all shows
  • High quality science is going on all around the
    world
  • Some countries are investing very heavily
  • And its working

55
The scientific enterprise is functioning in a
more global way
  • International research teams

56
Percent of US articles with international
collaborations 1988 vs 2001
-- NSF, SE Indicators, 2004.
57
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58
Globalization is also occurring in industrial RD
59
(No Transcript)
60
Message on globalization
  • Science and technology are now truly global and
    collaborative
  • If you want to be a full member of the scientific
    community, you need to participate in the global
    enterprise!

61
Summary thoughts
  • The world is changing
  • The societal context for science is changing
  • The enterprise of science itself is changing
  • It is ever-more global

62
(No Transcript)
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