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Chapter 1 Principles of Government


Chapter 1 Principles of Government Section 1 Government and the State Four Essential Features of a State Population. An area with fixed boundaries. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 Principles of Government

Chapter 1 Principles of Government
  • Section 1
  • Government and the State

Four Essential Features of a State
  • Population.
  • An area with fixed boundaries.
  • Sovereignty, or absolute authority, within its
    territorial boundaries.
  • A government which maintains order, provides
    public services, and enforces decisions that its
    people must obey.

Theories of the Origin of the State
  • Evolution theory developed from the family
  • Force theory one person uses force to establish
    a government over the people.
  • Divine Right theory the gods chose the rulers
    of the people
  • Social Contract theory the people gave the
    power to the government for protection of rights

The Purposes of Government
  • Maintain social order
  • Provide public services
  • Provide national security
  • Make economic decisions

Journal Discussion Question
  • During World War II, the government imposed
    hardships, such as the rationing of gasoline and
    food, on the U.S. Population. Are such measures
    justifiable? Why or why not?

Chapter 1 Principles of Government
  • Section 2
  • Forms of Government

Classifying Governments
  • Governments are classified by who governs the
  • Autocracy power resides in a single person.
  • Dictatorship such as Nazi Germany
  • Absolute Monarchy such as Saudi Arabia

Classifying Governments
  • Oligarchy a small group holds power in the
  • Communist China.

Classifying Governments
  • Democracy the people hold the sovereign power
    of government. There are two types of democratic
  • Direct democracy the people govern themselves.
    Used in VERY small communities.
  • Representative democracy the people from a
    specific area elect one person to speak for them
    in the government. Used in large populations.

Journal Discussion Question
  • Of the three governments previously stated, which
    of the three do you think is the best one to live
    in? EXPLAIN!

Characteristics of Democracy
  • To secure an equal opportunity for people to
    develop their own abilities. This is known as
    Individual Liberty.
  • Government is based on majority rule through the
    elected representatives, but respects the rights
    of minorities.

Characteristics of Democracy
  • Government is based on free and open elections in
    which every citizen of legal voting age has the
    right to vote. Every vote has equal weight.
  • Political parties choose candidates for office,
    respect voters decisions, and act as loyal

The Soil of Democracy
  • Certain conditions are needed for the development
    of democratic governments.
  • Countries where citizens participate fully in
    civic life are more likely to maintain a strong
  • Stable economies with a large middle class help
    to strengthen democracy.

The Soil of Democracy
  • A public school system open to all people helps
    promote democracy.
  • A strong civil society in which a network of
    volunteer programs and organizations independent
    of government help democracy flourish.
  • The people accept democratic values of liberty
    and equality.

Journal Discussion Question
  • As a community, what steps do you think we might
    take to encourage more people to participate in
    our democratic government? What do you feel
    prevents or makes people not want to partake in
    their government?

Distribution of Power
  • Unitary system gives all key powers to the
    central government.
  • Ex United Kingdom

Distribution of Power
  • Federal system powers are divided between a
    national government and state/ provincial
  • Ex Canada

Distribution of Power
  • Confederation multiple nations coming together
    to address issues affecting all member nations.
  • Ex. European Union

Legislative and Executive Branches
  • Presidential Government The two branches are
    completely separate. The two must work together
    for success.
  • Ex. United States

Legislative and Executive Branches
  • Parliamentary Government The executive leader
    comes from the legislative branch. The Prime
    Minister holds power until the legislature says.
  • Ex. United Kingdom

Journal Discussion Question
  • What are the major advantages of a federal system
    of government?

Chapter 1 People and Government
  • Section 3
  • Basic Concepts of Democracy

  • The American concept of democracy rests on these
    basic notions
  • A recognition of the fundamental worth and
    dignity of every person.
  • Respect for the equality of all persons.
  • Faith in majority rule and minority rights.
  • Acceptance and compromise.
  • Individual freedom.

Free Enterprise System
  • The Free Enterprise System is based on four
    fundamental factors
  • Private ownership
  • Individual initiative
  • Profit
  • Competition

Free Enterprise System
  • Economic decisions are made by the market through
    the law of supply and demand. When supplies of
    goods and services become plentiful, prices drop.
    When supplies become scarce, prices tend to rise.

Governments role
  • The United States has a mixed economy. This
    means that the government only becomes involved
    in the economy to protect consumers and to make
    sure that private enterprise is preserved.
  • The governments involvement is seen at all

Journal Discussion Question
  • Open your textbook to page 26.
  • What do you feel is the most important concept of
    American democracy?