Political Effects of WWI By Mr. Baker Political Effects - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Political Effects of WWI By Mr. Baker Political Effects PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3b99bf-ODdiM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Political Effects of WWI By Mr. Baker Political Effects

Description:

Political Effects of WWI By Mr. Baker Political Effects During WWI - Russian Revolution Russia even before the outbreak of war had been facing serious social problems ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:329
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: mrbakerOr5
Learn more at: http://www.mrbaker.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Political Effects of WWI By Mr. Baker Political Effects


1
Political Effects of WWI
  • By Mr. Baker

2
Political Effects During WWI - Russian Revolution
  • Russia even before the outbreak of war had been
    facing serious social problems
  • There were widespread peasant revolts, strikes,
    and widespread poverty and hunger in the
    countryside
  • The Tsar Nicholas II had assumed personal
    responsibility for leading the armies and spent
    most of his time after the summer of 1915 at army
    headquarters

3
Political Effects During WWI - Russian Revolution
  • Suffered 7 million casualties, but still had 6.5
    million men and hope for the future
  • The Russian army lacked weapons and munitions.
    Many resigned from the army
  • The Tsar didnt like to govern the country when
    he was away running the army, his wife and
    Rasputin were left running the country
  • The Empress Alexandra, a narrow-minded,
    autocratic woman was left in charge. She did not
    use the ministers in government
  • Some questioned if Rasputin was leading the
    country. His death in December 1916 led to much
    public rejoicing

4
Political Effects During WWI - Russian Revolution
  • In March 1917, Petrograd (St. Petersburg) erupted
    in worker demonstrations.  The soldiers refused
    to fire on the crowds, joined the revolt, and the
    czar abdicated on March 15th
  • The Provisional Government decided to continue
    the war. This was a fatal mistake the war was
    probably the biggest single cause of discontent
  • After a couple of tries, the Bolsheviks succeeded
    in rallying support for a military assault on the
    government and seized control in October 1917

5
Political Effects During WWI - Russian Revolution
  • The Bolsheviks took Russia out of the war they
    saw it as a capitalist struggle to begin with,
    and they also needed time to strengthen their
    domestic government
  • They signed an armistice with Germany in December
    1917
  • The Russian government agreed to give up its
    claims to Finland, Poland, the Baltic States, and
    the Ukraine, and to pay a heavy war indemnity

6
Political Effects After WWI - New Governments
  • Monarchies were replaced in Russia, Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
  • Socialistic ideas experienced a boom
  • Revolution was in the air as people began to
    express their desires for a better way of life
  • Britain, France, and Germany all experienced a
    rise in socialism to deal with
  • Better working conditions
  • 8-hour work day
  • Collective bargaining
  • Wages
  • Housing

7
Political Effects After WWI - Treaty of Versailles
  • Germans were forced to sign in June 1919
  • Vengeance, not reconciliation, was the treatys
    dominant tone. The Allies hated Germany because
  • Money spent on war
  • Starting war
  • Deaths

8
Political Effects After WWI - Treaty of Versailles
  • Article 231 War Guilt Clause Germany had to
    accept everything as their fault
  • Reparations Payments for the cost and damage
    caused by the war
  • Germany had to pay 33 billion dollars
  • 500 million per year until 1988
  • Reduced army and made them be only defensive

9
Political Effects After WWI - Treaty of Versailles
  • Limited navy
  • No reserves
  • No tanks
  • No subs
  • No long-range artillery
  • No conscription
  • No colonies
  • No unions with other countries
  • Rhineland was to be demilitarized
  • Saar was to be occupied by France for 15 years
  • Poland was given a corridor to the sea with
    Danzig being the main port
  • Cant train soldiers to be general staff officers

10
(No Transcript)
11
Political Effects After WWI - Treaty of
Versailles Other Countries Reactions
  • Italy Didnt get the areas they had hoped for
    (Fiume)
  • China Upset because the Korean peninsula
    shouldve been theirs, but Japan got it
  • U.S. Didnt accept the treaty because of the
    League of Nations
  • Britain Softened their stance against Germany
  • France Upset that the U.S. and Britain had soft
    stances against Germany

12
Political Effects After WWI - Treaty of
Versailles the League of Nations
  • Was an international organization to settle
    international disputes
  • Its defects were
  • The Japanese were offended because her attempts
    to have a statement of racial equality were
    rejected
  • The U.S. and Central Powers (initially) were
    excluded
  • It possessed no armed forces of its own

13
Political Effects After WWI The U.S. Returns
To Isolationism
  • America's return to isolationist politics after
    the war caused them to reject Wilson's plan to
    join his new international peace-keeping
    community
  • America's abstention destroyed any real hopes for
    international cooperation to keep the peace,
    since France and England were not strong enough
    to do it alone because they were in so much debt

14
Political Effects After WWI Treaty of
Saint-Germain (Sept. 1919)
  • Broke up Austria-Hungary
  • Had to pay war reparations went bankrupt before
    they could be set
  • Couldnt enter into unions without consent of the
    League of Nations
  • Austrian army limited to 30,000 volunteers
  • Reduced their territory
  • Also dealt with railroad rights and navigation
    rights over the Danube River
  • Result - The vast reduction of territory,
    population, and resources of the new Austria
    severely affected its economy and made them
    resentful

15
Political Effects After WWI Treaty of
Saint-Germain (Sept. 1919)
  • Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were just as
    multi-national as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
    they replaced
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Czechs
  • Slovaks
  • Yugoslavia
  • Serbs
  • Montenegrins
  • Croats
  • Slovenes
  • Bozniaks
  • This caused future unrest
  • in the area

16
Political Effects After WWI Treaty of Trianon
(Nov. 1920)
  • Hungary lost 2/3 of its territory and 3.3 million
    people
  • When the Romanian Army infringed upon the
    cease-fire line, the Allied powers asked Hungary
    to acknowledge the new Romanian territorial gains
  • Unable to reject the terms, but unable to accept
    the treaty, the democratic government resigned.
    It was replaced by a Communist government
  • The Romanian army attacked and won
  • The Allied powers restored the Hungarian state
  • Army reduced to 35,000 no conscription
  • Was to recognize the rights of minorities in her
    borders
  • Amount of reparations was never set

17
Political Effects After WWI Treaty of Trianon
(Nov. 1920)
  • Results - Caused economic problems and ethnic
    unrest. They sided with Germany in WWII

18
Political Effects After WWI Treaty of Sevres
(Aug. 1920)
  • Ottoman Empire renamed Turkey
  • Territory shrunk
  • Created the Kingdom of Hejaz (later Saudi Arabia)
  • Created Armenia
  • Greece and Italy got territorial gains
  • Mandates were given to
  • Britain
  • Iraq
  • Palestine
  • France
  • Lebanon
  • Syria

19
Political Effects After WWI British Mandate of
Palestine
  • The United Kingdom was granted control of
    Palestine by the Versailles Peace Conference
  • During World War I the British had made two
    promises regarding territory in the Middle East
  • Britain had promised the local Arabs, through
    Lawrence of Arabia, independence for a united
    Arab country covering most of the Arab Middle
    East, in exchange for their supporting the
    British
  • Britain had promised to create and foster a
    Jewish national home as laid out in the Balfour
    Declaration, 1917

20
(No Transcript)
21
Political Effects After WWI Treaty of Sevres
(Aug. 1920)
  • Allies controlled the Empires finances
  • Everyone was to be granted free transit through
    the Empire
  • Goods in transit were to be free of customs
    duties
  • Property of citizens from Germany, Austria,
    Hungary, and Bulgaria was to be liquidated
  • Army reduced to 50,000, reduced navy, reduced air
    force
  • Were supposed to give up the people responsible
    for committing massacres during the war to an
    Allied Tribunal, but this was never executed
  • The Dardanelle Straits were to be open in both
    peace and war

22
Political Effects After WWI Treaty of Sevres
(Aug. 1920)
  • Results
  • Created areas under Western control that were
    nationalistic and sought their autonomy
  • Fostered resentment of the occupying Western
    forces
  • Some Middle Eastern countries, like Iran, would
    create a good relationship with Germany
  • Didnt resolve the issue over a Jewish homeland

23
Political Effects After WWI Treaty of Neuilly
(Nov. 1919)
  • Bulgaria established borders over contested
    territories
  • Reduce army to 20,000
  • Pay reparations of over 400 million
  • Results Resentment over the loss of lands led
    them to occupy them with the Nazis during WWII

24
(No Transcript)
25
Political Effects After WWI Fear of German
Resentment
  • Locarno Treaty
  • Signed in October 1925
  • The Germans renounced any desire to change their
    western frontier with France and accepted the
    loss of Alsace-Lorraine
  • Britain and Italy guaranteed the western
    frontiers of France and the continued
    demilitarization of the Rhineland against a
    flagrant breach but what did that mean?

26
Political Effects After WWI Fear of German
Resentment
  • Locarno Spring
  • Had eased tensions between France and Germany,
    but France was still suspicious of Germany
  • From 1925-1929, relations were better between the
    two countries
  • France had an alliance with Poland and
    Czechoslovakia, but these two countries couldnt
    be counted on for French security
  • Britain wouldnt aid France if they attacked
    Germany

27
Political Effects After WWI Kellogg-Briand Pact
  • Created by the U.S. Secretary of State and French
    Foreign Minister
  • Agreement signed in 1928 that renounced war as a
    way to resolve disputes
  • A total of 62 nations signed the treaty,
    including the U.S., Italy, Germany, France, Great
    Britain, Russia, and Japan

28
Political Effects After WWI - Stab In the Back
Hitlers Rise
  • The German and Austrian populaces, with their
    censored presses, had been kept in the dark about
    the recent military defeats of their armies, so
    that the surrender came as a complete, nasty
    surprise
  • As Germany itself had not been militarily
    conquered, its citizens expected a mild,
    negotiated settlement, and were stunned by the
    harsh peace treaty that their new leaders
    eventually agreed to
  • In the years after the war, conspiracy theories
    grew up in which Germany had been defeated not on
    the battlefield, but by treacherous politicians
    at home. Adolf Hitler would later use these
    theories to great effect in rallying opposition
    to German democrats, socialists and communists

29
Political Effects After WWI Stab in the Back
Hitlers Rise
  • Adolf Hitler, a veteran of the War's worst
    firestorms, desperately sought a reason for
    defeat
  • Imbued with a burning hatred of Jews, Bolsheviks
    and even Democrats, the solution was simple - the
    country had been stabbed in the back by the
    November Criminals, or in Hitler's words "a gang
    of despicable and depraved criminals!"

30
Political Effects After WWI - Stab In the Back
Hitlers Rise
  • The First World War created the Dictator that the
    world would bitterly come to know
  • He himself admitted this in 1941, saying "When I
    returned from the War, I brought back home with
    me my experiences at the front out of them I
    built my National Socialist community"
About PowerShow.com