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Give Me Liberty!

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Norton Media Library Chapter 16 Give Me Liberty! An American History Second Edition Volume 2 by Eric Foner I. Second Industrial Revolution Astounding pace and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 16
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 2
by Eric Foner
2
I. Second Industrial Revolution
  • Astounding pace and magnitude
  • Emergence of factory as foremost realm of
    industrial production
  • Emergence of wage labor as prevalent source of
    livelihood
  • Emergence of city as chief setting for
    manufacture
  • Leading industrial cities
  • New York
  • Chicago
  • Pittsburgh
  • Single-industry cities

3
I. Second Industrial Revolution (contd)
  • Expansion of national market
  • Eastern markets for western goods (agricultural,
    extractive)
  • Western markets for eastern goods (manufactured)
  • Central role of railroad
  • National brands, chains, mail order firms
  • Technological innovations
  • Leading breakthroughs
  • Thomas A. Edisons research laboratories

4
I. Second Industrial Revolution (contd)
  • Competition and consolidation
  • Volatility of marketplace
  • Downward pressure on prices Great Depression of
    1873-1897
  • Ruthless competition among businesses
  • Corporate initiatives to stabilize marketplace
  • Pools
  • Trusts
  • Mergers

5
I. Second Industrial Revolution (contd)
  • Industrial giants
  • Vast accumulation of wealth and power
  • Leading business figures
  • Thomas A. Scott (railroad)
  • Size and scope of Pennsylvania Railroad
  • Prototype of modern business organization
  • Andrew Carnegie (steel)
  • Personal rise
  • Vertical integration
  • Blend of philanthropy and dictatorial management
  • John D. Rockefeller (oil)
  • Cutthroat competition
  • Horizontal integration
  • Blend of philanthropy and dictatorial management

6
I. Second Industrial Revolution (contd)
  • Industrial giants
  • Popular perceptions of
  • Favorable captains of industry
  • Unfavorable robber barons
  • Workers conditions in industrial America
  • Advantages for skilled labor elite
  • High wages
  • Areas of control
  • Process of production
  • Pace of production
  • Training of apprentices

7
I. Second Industrial Revolution (contd)
  • Workers conditions in industrial America
  • Hardships for growing ranks of semi-skilled
    workers
  • Economic insecurity
  • Unreliability of employment and wage rates
  • Lack of pensions
  • Lack of compensation for injury or unemployment
  • Working conditions
  • Length of workday
  • Dangers of workplace
  • Odds against collective action
  • Breadth and depth of poverty

8
I. Second Industrial Revolution (contd)
  • Growing signs of class division
  • New urban middle-class neighborhoods
  • Exclusive world of the rich
  • Home and neighborhood
  • Resorts, social clubs, schools
  • Conspicuous consumption (Thorstein Veblen)
  • 1897 Waldorf-Astoria costume ball
  • Contrasts of wealth and poverty
  • Matthew Smiths Sunshine and Shadow
  • Jacob Riiss How the Other Half Lives

9
II. Transformation of the West
  • Overall themes
  • Variety of regions within West
  • Variant on global patterns of political and
    economic incorporation
  • Displacement of indigenous peoples
  • Promotion of business development
  • Promotion of population settlement
  • Vital role of government
  • Farming empire
  • Spread of land under cultivation
  • Pace and diversity of settlement
  • Wheat and corn production on Middle Border

10
II. Transformation of the West (contd)
  • Farming empire
  • Hardships of Great Plains farming
  • Hazards of nature
  • Hard labor and solitude (especially for women)
  • Call for large-scale irrigation
  • John Wesley Powell
  • Implications for small-scale farmers
  • Increasing market orientation of small farmers
  • Forms
  • Sale of crops
  • Purchase of manufactured goods
  • Impacts
  • Dependence on loans
  • Vulnerability to shifts in world markets

11
II. Transformation of the West (contd)
  • Farming empire
  • Budding trend toward large-scale farming
  • Features
  • California precedent
  • Cowboys
  • Diversity
  • Myth vs. reality
  • Rise and decline of cattle drives
  • Corporate West
  • Prominent manufacturing and trading centers
  • San Francisco
  • Los Angeles

12
II. Transformation of the West (contd)
  • Corporate West
  • Large corporate enterprises
  • Lumber
  • Mining
  • Railroad
  • Displacement of independent prospectors, farmers
  • Subjugation of Indians
  • Earlier transformations of Plains Indians
  • Eighteenth-century shift to hunting and farming
  • Arrival and coalescence of rival tribes

13
II. Transformation of the West (contd)
  • Subjugation of Indians
  • U.S.-Indian conflict on the Plains
  • Emergence in 1850s
  • During Civil War
  • President Ulysses S. Grants peace policy
  • Systematic onslaught on Indian life
  • By army, hunters
  • On villages, horses, buffalo

14
II. Transformation of the West (contd)
  • Subjugation of Indians
  • U.S.-Indian conflict further west
  • Defeat of the Navajo
  • Destruction of orchards and sheep
  • Removal to reservation
  • Defeat of the Nez Percé
  • Pursuit of and capture by U.S. Army
  • Removal to reservation
  • Chief Josephs Washington speech
  • Continuation of Indian resistance
  • Sioux-Cheyenne victory at Little Big Horn
  • Apache escapes and raids

15
II. Transformation of the West (contd)
  • Subjugation of Indians
  • Ongoing white encroachment
  • New western states
  • Railroads, soldiers, settlers
  • Indian reservations
  • Spread of
  • Impoverishment, exploitation
  • Reduction of Sitting Bull to popular spectacle
  • Federal assault on Indian culture
  • Imposition of white American values
  • Elimination of treaty system
  • Dawes Act
  • Provisions
  • Outcomes

16
II. Transformation of the West (contd)
  • Subjugation of Indians
  • Indian citizenship
  • Conditional offers of American citizenship in
    nineteenth century
  • Judicial obstructions to equal citizenship for
    Indians
  • Western courts
  • Supreme Court
  • Gradual expansion of Indian citizenship
  • Closing act
  • Ghost Dance
  • Wounded Knee massacre

17
III. Politics in a Gilded Age
  • Origins and meanings of Gilded Age
  • Political corruption
  • Widespread unease over
  • Manifestations of
  • Corporate lobbyists
  • Urban political machines Boss Tweed
  • Crédit Mobilier scandal
  • The political parties
  • Imprint of Civil War on each
  • Social and regional bases of support
  • Republican
  • Democratic

18
III. Politics in a Gilded Age (contd)
  • The political parties
  • Close division of popular support
  • Presidential elections
  • Congressional elections
  • Political stalemate
  • The state of American political democracy
  • Indications of vitality
  • Closely contested elections
  • Intense party loyalty
  • High voter turnout
  • Spectacular rallies and oratory

19
III. Politics in a Gilded Age (contd)
  • The state of American political democracy
  • Meager response to social problems of industrial
    era
  • Minimal nature of federal government
  • Size
  • Scale of activity
  • Deference of both parties to business interests
  • Divergence of parties over tariff policy
  • Convergence of parties over fiscal policy
  • Achievements of national politics (and their
    limits)
  • Civil Service Act
  • Interstate Commerce Act
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

20
III. Politics in a Gilded Age (contd)
  • Political ferment in the states
  • Debate over role of government at state and local
    levels
  • Potential points of intervention
  • Actual points of intervention
  • Popular campaigns for government action
  • Greenback-Labor party
  • Grange
  • Labor movement
  • Legacies of popular campaigns
  • Mixed results in short-term
  • Sowing of long-term debate on political and
    economic freedom

21
IV. Freedom in the Gilded Age
  • Debate over aspects of new social order
  • Relations between classes
  • Coexistence of poverty and wealth
  • Advent of permanent factory population
  • Defenses of Gilded Age inequalities
  • Justifications for concentrations of wealth, low
    wages
  • Uncoupling of principles of freedom and equality
  • New liberal reformers
  • Fear of lower-class democracy
  • Commitment to individual liberty and property
    rights

22
IV. Freedom in the Gilded Age (contd)
  • Social Darwinism
  • Application of evolutionary science to social
    problems
  • Implications for social policy
  • Acceptance of poverty, material inequality
  • Rejection of public relief, economic regulation
  • Notion of undeserving poor
  • William Graham Sumner What Social Classes Owe to
    Each Other
  • Liberty of contract
  • Link to Social Darwinism
  • Themes
  • Freedom as limited government and unrestrained
    market

23
IV. Freedom in the Gilded Age (contd)
  • Liberty of contract
  • Themes
  • Sanctity of labor contract
  • As arbiter of free labor
  • As beyond reach of public intervention
  • Promotion by the courts overturning or
    distortion of regulatory legislation
  • Munn v. Illinois
  • Wabash v. Illinois
  • Pro-business slant in ICC cases
  • U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co.
  • Use of Sherman Antitrust Act against labor
  • Lochner v. New York

24
V. Labor and the republic
  • 1877 railroad strike and emergence of labor
    question
  • Resurgence of labor movement
  • Knights of Labor
  • Size and diversity
  • Range of activities
  • Variety of programs
  • Common targets
  • Ideologies of Social Darwinism and liberty of
    contract
  • Growing loss of economic independence
  • Inequalities of wealth and power
  • Corruption of democracy by concentrated capital

25
V. Labor and the republic (contd)
  • Middle-class reformers
  • Unease over social conditions, concentrated
    capital, class conflict
  • Range of social prescriptions
  • Leading works of social criticism
  • Henry Georges Progress and Poverty
  • Statement of problem
  • Single tax solution
  • Conceptions of freedom
  • Mass popularity
  • Laurence Gronlunds The Cooperative Commonwealth
  • Popularization of socialist ideal in America
  • Core socialist principles
  • Socialism as outcome of peaceful evolution

26
V. Labor and the republic (contd)
  • Leading works of social criticism
  • Edward Bellamys Looking Backward
  • Futuristic utopian novel
  • Themes
  • Embrace of cooperation, interdependence,
    equality, economic security, powerful state
  • Rejection of class strife, individualism,
    inequality, competition
  • Impact
  • Inspiration for Nationalist clubs
  • Influence on reform thought

27
V. Labor and the republic (contd)
  • Social Gospel movement
  • Seedbed
  • Emerging strain within Protestantism
  • Variant within Catholicism
  • Themes and initiatives
  • Critique of Social Darwinism, laissez-faire
    doctrine, Gospel of Wealth
  • Vision of equalization of wealth and power,
    checks on competition
  • Efforts to ameliorate working-class conditions
  • Promotion of cooperative organization of economy

28
V. Labor and the republic (contd)
  • 1886 Labors great upheaval
  • Explosive growth of Knights of Labor
  • Nationwide May Day demonstration for eight-hour
    day
  • Haymarket Affair (Chicago)
  • Background
  • Iron moulders strikes of 1885 and 1886
  • Killing of strikers by police
  • Bloodshed at Haymarket Square
  • Scapegoating of labor movement
  • As violent
  • As vehicle of immigrant radicals

29
V. Labor and the republic (contd)
  • 1886 Labors great upheaval
  • Haymarket Affair (Chicago)
  • Haymarket martyrs
  • Arrests, trial, and conviction of anarchists
  • Hangings, imprisonment, commutations
  • Albert and Lucy Parsons
  • Labor and politics
  • Spread of independent labor political campaigns
  • Connection to Knights of Labor
  • Major goals
  • Electoral successes
  • New York mayoral campaign of Henry George
  • Decline of Knights of Labor

30
Studyspace link
http//www.wwnorton.com/foner
31
End slide
This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set
for Chapter 16
Give Me Liberty! An American History 2nd Edition,
Volume 2
by Eric Foner
W. W. Norton Company Independent and
Employee-Owned
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