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Space Systems Overview

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Title: Space Systems Overview


1
Space Systems Overview
  • CDR David D. Myre

2
What is a Space System?
  • Ground
  • Spaceflight Operations
  • Payload Operations (Can be separate)
  • Payload Data Processing (Hubble)
  • Space
  • Spacecraft
  • Supporting Craft (TDRSS, Progress)
  • Launch
  • Launch Vehicle Integration
  • Launch Operations

3
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
http//nmsp.gsfc.nasa.gov/tdrss/oview.html
4
What Does a Spacecraft Look Like?
  • Spacecraft appearance is almost always function
    over form
  • Physical constraints
  • Launch Vehicle
  • Payload Fairing
  • Loads
  • Power Required
  • Vehicle dynamics
  • Mission Trajectory
  • Pointing

HST
5
Spacecraft Description
  • Spacecraft have two main parts
  • Mission Payload
  • Spacecraft Bus
  • Mission Payload
  • A subsystem of the spacecraft that performs the
    actual mission (communications, remote sensing
    etc.)
  • All hardware, software, tele- communications of
    payload data and/or telemetry and command
  • There can be secondary payloads
  • Spacecraft Bus
  • Hardware software designed to support the
    Mission Payload
  • Provides
  • Power
  • Temperature control
  • Structural support
  • Guidance, Navigation
  • May provide for telemetry and command control for
    the payload as well as the vehicle bus

Mars Global Surveyor
6
TDRSS 1-7 Specifications
Dimensions 45 feet wide / 57 feet
long Weight 5000 pounds Design
Lifetime 10 years Power (EOL)
1800 watts Services KU S-Band
services Launch Vehicle Space
Shuttle Orbit Geosynchronous
7
Spacecraft Bus Subsystems
  • Electronic Power System (EPS)
  • Position and Attitude Control
  • Attitude Control System (ACS)
  • Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC)
  • Propulsion (OK, well call it Prop)
  • Command and Data Handling (CDH)
  • Data Handling (Mission Data)
  • Telemetry, Tracking and Command System (TTC)
  • Thermal Control System (TCS)
  • Structural Subsystem

8
UHF Follow-On
  • Features
  • Each satellite provides 39 channels for Ultra
    High Frequency (UHF) two-way communications,
  • Super High Frequency (SHF) anti-jam, command and
    tracking link and communication uplink for fleet
    broadcast over UHF
  • Uses S-band communications for the Space Ground
    Link Subsystem (SGLS). AFSCN TTC.
  • Flights 4-10 (Block II) also carry an Extremely
    High Frequency (EHF) package for secure, anti-jam
    communications, telemetry and commanding.
  • Flights 8-10 (Block III) add a Global Broadcast
    Service (GBS) package for one-way, high data-rate
    communications in place of the SHF package.
  • Projected orbital operational life of 14 years
    with an on-orbit storage life of four years.
  • UHF F/O Specifications
  • Weight 2,600 pounds
  • Orbital Altitude Geosynchronous orbit - 22,250
    miles
  • Power Plant Two deployed three-panel solar array
    wings supplying approximately 2400 watts. A
    single 24-cell nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery
    provides power during eclipse operations (Block
    III satellites have two four-panel solar wings
    supplying approx. 3800 W and a 32-cell battery).
  • Dimensions 9.5 feet high and 60.5 feet long
  • launch Vehicle Atlas-Centaur space booster
  • Launch Site Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fla.
  • Primary Contractor Boeing Space Systems, El
    Segundo CA

9
Voyager
  • The twin spacecraft Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were
    launched by NASA in separate months in the summer
    of 1977 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. As
    originally designed, the Voyagers were to conduct
    closeup studies of Jupiter and Saturn, Saturn's
    rings, and the larger moons of the two planets.
  • To accomplish their two-planet mission, the
    spacecraft were built to last five years.
  • But as the mission went on, and with the
    successful achievement of all its objectives, the
    additional flybys of the two outermost giant
    planets, Uranus and Neptune, proved possible --
    and irresistible to mission scientists and
    engineers at the Voyagers' home at the Jet
    Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
  • As the spacecraft flew across the solar system,
    remote-control reprogramming was used to endow
    the Voyagers with greater capabilities than they
    possessed when they left the Earth. Their
    two-planet mission became four. Their five-year
    lifetimes stretched to 12
  • Between them, Voyager 1 and 2 would explore all
    the giant outer planets of our solar system, 48
    of their moons, and the unique systems of rings
    and magnetic fields those planets possess.

10
Ground
  • Ground Activities
  • Spacecraft Flight Operations
  • Payload Operations
  • Payload Data Processing
  • Payload Data Dissemination
  • Facilitated By
  • Real-Time Processing
  • Payload Dissemination Infrastructure
  • Powerful Payload Processing Facilities
  • Mission Simulations

Can Be Merged
11
Launch
  • Selection
  • Enough throw weight
  • Enough cube (volume)
  • Acceptable ride
  • Good record
  • Integration
  • Launch loads imparted to spacecraft
  • Mechanical/Electrical Integration
  • Understand launch flow and count

12
Space System Development
  • All systems development start with a mission
    need (the Why)
  • Then mission requirements are developed to meet
    this need (the What) often along with a concept
    of operations
  • Note Often we make the mistake of putting the
    How in the Mission Requirement
  • From 1 and 2 above develop derived requirements
    for (the How)
  • Space
  • Mission orbit
  • Payload Types (Communications, remote sensing,
    data relay)
  • Spacecraft Design
  • Ground
  • Facilities and locations
  • Computers/Software
  • Personnel/Training
  • Launch segments
  • Note The requirements generation process is
    often iterative and involves compromises
  • Remember, Mother Nature gets a vote and her vote
    counts

13
Spacecraft Development Process
Requirements Development
  • Some types
  • Waterfall (sequential)
  • Spiral (iterative)
  • Basic Sequence
  • Conceptual design
  • Detailed design
  • Develop detailed engineering models
  • Start production
  • Field system
  • Maintain until decommissioned
  • DoD mandates integrated, iterative product
    development process

Detailed Design
Engineering Development Production
Field (IOC)
14
Textbook Answer
15
Serial (waterfall) Development







  • Traditional waterfall development process
    follows logical sequence from requirements
    analysis to operations.
  • Is generally the only way to develop very large
    scale systems like weapons, aircraft and
    spacecraft.
  • Allows full application of systems engineering
    from component levels through system levels.
  • Suffers from several disadvantages
  • Obsolescence of technology (and sometimes need!)
  • Lack of customer involvement/feedback
  • Difficult to adjust design as program proceeds

http//www.csse.monash.edu.au/jonmc/CSE2305/Topic
s/07.13.SWEng1/html/text.html
16
Concurrent versus serial development
  • The Concurrent development and manufacturing
    processes intended to optimize overall time to
    market and development productivity.
  • Incorporating customer needs/requirements into
    measurable and predictable targets ensuring that
    the product meets or exceeds expectations.
  • Use simulation-led analysis and problem solving
    to design out problems and validate new designs
    before expensive prototypes and tooling are
    built.
  • Product testing ahead and concurrent with
    development programs to understand and quantify
    product performance before production is
    contemplated.
  • Note Also Allows full application of systems
    engineering to assure requirements are
    methodically managed from component levels
    through system levels.

http//www.iti-oh.com/TechKnowledgy/ParadigmShift.
htm
17
Spiral Development
  • Software Development Centric Example
  • Good features
  • In this approach, the entire application is built
    working with the user.
  • Any gaps in requirements are identified as work
    progresses into more detail.
  • The process is continued until the code is
    finally accepted.
  • The spiral does convey very clearly the cyclic
    nature of the process and the project life span.
  • Not so good features
  • This approach requires serious discipline on the
    part of the users. The user must provide
    meaningful realistic feedback.
  • The users are often not responsible for the
    schedule and budget so control can be difficult.
  • The model depicts four cycles. How many is enough
    to get the product right?
  • It may be cost prohibitive to tweak the product
    forever.
  • Simply put Build a little Test a little!
  • Can this work for every type of project?

From http//www.maxwideman.com/papers/linearity/s
piral.htm And Barry Boehm, A Spiral Model of
Software Development and Enhancement, IEEE
Computer, 1988
18
Systems Engineering
  • A logical process for system development
  • Functional physical decomposition of system
    into logical parts
  • Involves development of system requirements
  • System Analysis
  • Requirements Development
  • Interface Requirements
  • Requirements Validation
  • Test Demonstration
  • Simulation
  • Analysis
  • Physical/functional configuration audits
  • Integration Test Planning
  • Cradle to Grave lifecycle planning
  • Treaty provisions and DoD regulations require
    disposal of satellites at the end of life.

Deep Space 1
19
Systems Engineering Verification
The classic V for system development
20
Spacecraft Integration and Test
  • CDR David Myre

21
Spacecraft Integration and Test
  • Methodical process for test of spacecraft to
    validate requirements at all levels
  • Sequence
  • Perform component or unit level tests
  • Integrate components/units into subsystems
  • Perform subsystem tests
  • Integrate subsystems into spacecraft
  • Perform spacecraft level test
  • Integrate spacecraft into system
  • Perform system test when practical

22
System Integration and Test
  • Types
  • Functional testing
  • Do subsystems work together?
  • Fit check payload fairing, adapter
  • Environmental testing
  • Thermal vacuum, shock and vibration testing
  • Combined functional and environmental testing
  • Usually spacecraft level thermal vacuum involved
    integrated functional testing
  • Final System demo Do all segments work together,
    mainly ground and space
  • Payload or system characterization
  • Performance can be altered by the space
    environment
  • Often performed in thermal vacuum chamber
  • Can Use a combination of hardware in loop and
    simulation
  • Ground Testing
  • Systems like propulsion and attitude control
    cannot be operated safely on the ground
  • May use stimulators for sensors like sun
    earth sensor, or star tracker.

NOAA-N Prime, 6 Sep 03
Got to the site below and play the movies if
internet connection available http//www.boeing.c
om/defense-space/space/bss/hsc_pressreleases/photo
gallery/uhf_f11/uhf11_video/uhf11_movies.html
23
Summary
  • Functions
  • Mechanical (form and fit)
  • Electrical/Electronic (power up to operational
    test)
  • Process
  • Starts at component level (e.g. transmitter,
    power supply)
  • Continues at subsystem level (e.g. electronic
    power system, attitude control system)
  • Ends with end-to-end test of entire system
  • Spacecraft Challenge
  • Effectively test spacecraft on the ground so it
    works in space!

24
Design Verification and Qualification Testing
  • Design Verification
  • Validate design precepts and models
  • Examine system limitations
  • Build Test, Build Test
  • Qualification
  • Determine system suitability for mission
  • Provides tool for customer to measure success of
    the enterprise
  • Allows time for fixes to meet requirements may
    involve warranty period

25
DoD Test Process
  • Developmental Testing
  • Design Verification
  • Qualification
  • Acceptance Testing
  • Operational Testing
  • Operational Assessments (OAs)
  • Phased Operational Testing (OT)
  • Mandated by law to protect YOU!

From COMOPTEVFORs Web Page http//www.cotf.navy.
mil/ In 1971, however, OPTEVFOR was designated
the Navy's sole independent agency for
operational test and evaluation. This move was in
response to Congressional and Secretary of
Defense initiatives aimed at improving the
defense material acquisition process.
26
Types of Design/Qual Tests
  • Functional
  • Life Testing (could involve structural,
    thermal, illumination, power cycling, radiation
    exposure etc.)
  • Component to System Level
  • Often performed in between other forms of test
  • Structural
  • Static Tests
  • Dynamic Tests
  • Thermal
  • Thermal cycling
  • Thermal vacuum

Magellan
27
Launch Flow
  • Pack and Ship (Spacecraft Launcher)
  • Dry run spacecraft moves, lifts etc.
  • Transportation loads can be driving cases for
    spacecraft structure
  • Establish launch operations
  • Admin and work spaces for launch team
  • Test to insure no damage during shipping
  • Perform limited subsystem and spacecraft tests
  • Establish communications with all players (launch
    base, groundstation)
  • Perform rehearsals
  • Multiple data and voice networks must be
    established
  • Support spacecraft (TDRSS) must be in place

28
Review
  • Discussed the Segments of a space system Ground,
    Space and Launch
  • Introduced major subsystems of typical spacecraft
  • Introduced the concept of systems engineering
  • Discussed Integration and Test of Spacecraft

29
(No Transcript)
30
Another View Eye Chart Anyone?
31
International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory
(Integral)
INTEGRAL is an European Space Agency mission with
instruments and science data centre funded by ESA
member states (especially Denmark, France,
Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland), Czech
Republic and Poland, and with the participation
of Russia and the USA
32
Concurrent Development
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