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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (Continuous Quality Improvement) * Who is customer? What Level of Quality do they need? Are they purchasing to Some Quality Specification? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT


1
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (Continuous Quality
Improvement)
2
Who is customer? What Level of Quality do they
need? Are they purchasing to Some Quality
Specification? Any Safety Considerations? Future
Litigation? Ethical Issues?
3
QUALITY CONTROL  Inspection        
Destructive         Non-destructive        
Sampling  Process Control         Monitoring
Process (relates to inspection)         Feedback
Control         Statistical Process Control
(knowing when the process is out of
control)  Correction         Knowing what to
correct when process is out of control 
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Tools for Quality Control Check Sheets Pareto
Charts Why-Why Diagrams Cause Effect
Diagrams Flowcharts Histograms Scatter Diagram
Control Charts
6
Problem Solving Steps Plan Do Study Act
Link these Two in Quality Circle
7
PARETO CHART A graphical representation ranking
discontinuities from the most to least
significant. Used to help brainstorm what
discontinuities, if worked upon first, would be
the most likely to produce the greatest
improvement in quality.
CHECK SHEETS Used to keep a record of the number
and type of discontinuities over a specified
period of time or within a certain batch of
product.
  •   Class Example
  • Our manufacturing procedure is composed of
    several steps. Several of these procedures have
    lead to discontinuities noticed upon inspection.
    The steps causing defectives are as follows
  •         Caulking 198 defectives
  •         Fitting 25 defectives
  •         Connections 103 defectives
  •         Torque 18 defectives
  •         Gapping 72 defective
  •   A Pareto Diagram will be developed.

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WHY-WHY DIAGRAMS A systematic representation of
causes of why some occurrence happens. Used to
guide brainstorming sessions.
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FLOW CHARTS Flow charts are graphical
representations of the steps involved in a
process. Constructing a flow chart helps give a
better understanding of the systems involved.
13
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMS (Fishbone Diagram) Used
in brainstorming session to help identify the
causes of quality losses. This diagram is
particularly useful after the flow chart and the
Pareto diagrams have been developed.
Step 1 Decide on the quality characteristic
e.g. Reduction of wobble during machine
rotation Step 2 Set up the fish bone
backbone Step 3 Identify main factors causing
effect e.g. Workers, Materials, Inspection,
Tools Step 4 Add Cause to each branch
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Benefits of Cause and Effect Diagram         
Making diagram is educational in itself         
Outline relationship          Note what samples
need to be taken          Guide for
discussion          Causes are actively sought
and results written on diagram         
Appropriate data collected - no time
wasted          Shows level of technology
16
Problem Solving Steps Plan Do Study Act
Link these Two in Quality Circle
17
CONTROL CHARTS         Used to test if the
process is in control         Used to see if
significant changes have occurred in the process
over time
Discrete Data Charts or pn-p
charts Inspection on lot or batch Note
good/defective of parts inspected in the lot
n Fraction of defective in lot p Number of
defectives pn
Indiscreet or Continuous Data Chart or X-R
Chart Measurement at time intervals
Measurements compared - control over time.
Examples Length (mm) Volume (cc) Weight (gm)
Power (kwh) Time (sec) Pressure
(psi) Voltage (v)
18
- R CHART CONSTRUCTION
Class Example
In the manufacturing process for this example
parts are being machined with a nominal diameter
of 13 mm. Samples are taken at the following
times of day 600, 1000, 1400, 1800 and
2200, for 25 consecutive days. The diameter
measurements from these samples are presented on
the table in the next slide.
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Step 8 Plot Chart
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P CONTROL CHART CONSTRUCTION
Class Example
An inspector at the end of the manufacturing line
for the production of car wheel rims, at the end
of each shift, inspects the lot of wheel rims
made during that shift. On good days when the
welder is running properly, over 400 wheels are
made per batch. On poor days, as low as 50 to 60
wheels are made per batch. The inspector marks
on his/her check sheet for each batch the total
number of wheels inspected and the number of
defects returned for rework in each lot.
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Step 6 Draw P Control Chart
29
PN CONTROL CHART CONSTRUCTION
Class Example
On an assembly line of windshield wiper motors,
the inspector selects randomly 100 motors per
hour to examine. The inspector notes on the
check sheet the number of defective motors in
each 100 selected.
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ISO 9000
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Homework
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