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WRITING INSTRUCTION

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Title: WRITING INSTRUCTION


1
WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Instructor Professor Mavis Shang
  • Presenter
  • Dennis Chang-9610001M Rich Cheng 9610003M

2
  • FUNCTIONAL TASKS FOR
  • MASTERING THE MECHANICS OF WRITING AND
  • GOING JUST BEYOND

3
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Opening
  • Grice (1975)
  • Brief Introduction to This Chapter

4
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - Definition of Mechanics

5
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - The English Consonants
  • The sounds of consonant letters
    should depend on the environment in
  • which they occur.

6
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - The English Consonants
  • Ex c? /k/ /s/
  • c a, o, u, l, r ? /k/ cat, coach,
    cup, clock, crab
  • c e, i ? /s/ cell, city
  • c h ? /7/ chair
  • c k ? /k/ (in the middle or at the end of
    words) chicken, luck

7
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - The English Consonants
  • The consonant letter of h is very
    powerful in changing the sound when
  • its environment is varied.
  • Ex ch ? /7/ chair
  • sh ? /S/ shirt
  • th ? /8/ theater

8
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - The English Consonants
  • 1) When we teach consonants letters and
    sound correspondences, we
  • just need to focus on the
    difference.
  • 2) Students from different writing
    systems need countries need special
  • writing exercises, such as,
    Japan, Korea, Thailand and so forth.
  • (see Appendix A)

9
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - The English Vowels
  • 1) The vowel letters in English are
    more complex sound-spelling
  • correspondences but they still
    haves consistency and predictability.
  • 2) Basic Types of English Vowels
  • a) Consonant Vowel Consonant-CVC
    (known as the environment for short
  • vowels)
  • b) CV or CVCe (known as the
    environment for long vowels)

10
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - The English Vowels
  • 1) The environment CVC in all 5 vowel
    letters a, e, i, o ,u occurs as
  • simple lax (produce with relaxed
    muscle) and nondiphthongized, such
  • as, pan, pen, pin, pot and but.
  • 2) However, the same 5 vowels in the
    CVCe environment occur with
  • tense and diphthongized, such as,
    pane, Pete, pine, rope, and cute.

11
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - Monosyllabic Words
  • If learners know the rule that when we
    need to add the inflection
  • (e.g. -ing) to the final syllable
    stressed verbs, it needs letters doubling.
  • Ex sit ? sitting

12
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • What Do We Teach?
  • - Polysyllabic Words
  • 1) They also can apply the same rule to
    any polysyllabic verb.
  • Ex begin? beginning
  • 2) However, if the final syllable is
    not stressed, it doesnt need letters
  • doubling.
  • Ex open ? opening

13
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • How Do We Teach Mechanics?
  • - Aims to Teach Reading and Writing
    Mechanics
  • 1) to enhance letter recognition-especiall
    y when learners are from a
  • different writing system, such as,
    Korean, Japanese or Chinese
  • 2) to practice sound-spelling
    correspondences via all four language skills
  • 3) to help learners move from letters
    and words to meaningful sentences

14
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • How Do We Teach Mechanics?
  • - Types of Recognition Tasks
  • 1) Matching task
  • 2) Writing task
  • 3) Meaningful sound-spelling
    correspondence practice

15
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • How Do We Teach Mechanics?
  • - Types of Recognition Tasks
  • 1) Matching task
  • It helps learners develop effective
    recognition habits based on distinctive
  • graphic features. (Appendix A)

16
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
17
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • How Do We Teach Mechanics?
  • - Types of Recognition Tasks
  • 2) Writing task
  • It starts with basic letter
    formation and leads to meaningful writing of
    words
  • and sentences. (Appendix B)

18
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond

19
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond

20
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • How Do We Teach Mechanics?
  • - Types of Recognition Tasks
  • 3) Meaningful sound-spelling
    correspondence practice
  • It requires learners to focus on
    the pronunciation as well as the written shape
  • of the spelling patterns.
    (Appendix C)

21
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond

22
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • More Advanced Writing Tasks Developing Basic
    Communication Tools
  • - Considerations of Teaching Advanced
    Learners
  • 1) Task description 2)
    Content description
  • 3) Audience description 4)
    Format cues
  • 5) Linguistic cues
    6) Spelling and punctuation cues

23
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • Practical Writing Tasks
  • - These tasks are procedural in nature and
    have a predictable
  • format (e.g. list).
  • - Lists can be many types.
  • Ex Things to do list, Things completed and
    Shopping list

24
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • Practical Writing Tasks
  • - Things to Do List
  • It is useful to practice verb base
    forms.

25
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • Practical Writing Tasks
  • - Things to Do List
  • Ex a list for a group of students who are
    preparing a surprise birthday party
  • Things to do
  • 1. buy a present for Donna (Sharon) 2. Call
    Donnas friends (Gail)
  • 3. Write invitations (Dan)
    etc

26
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • Practical Writing Tasks
  • - Things Completed List
  • It is useful to practice past forms of
    verbs for students.
  • 1) -ed
  • 2) the deletion of a final e before
    adding -ed live ? lived
  • 3) double letter -ed when the end
    of the word is stressed can ? canned
  • 4) replacement of y with i when the
    base ends is C (consonant) y try ? tried

27
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • Practical Writing Tasks
  • - Things Completed List
  • It is useful to practice past forms of
    verbs for students.
  • Ex
  • Things completed
  • 1. planned the games for the party
    2. wrote the invitation
  • 3. bought the present
    4. called the friends
  • 5. tried to call Donnas mother
    etc

28
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • Practical Writing Tasks
  • - Shopping List
  • It is a good way to practice the
    spelling of the plural ending of countable
  • nouns and the use of quantifiers.
  • 1) /s/ when the end of the word is
    voiceless, we pronounce /s/ cups
  • 2) /z/ when the end of the word is
    voiced, we read /z/ pencils
  • 3) /Ez/ when the ends of the word
    are s, sh, ch, x, o, we pronounce /Ez/ watches

29
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • Emotive Writing Tasks
  • Emotive writing task is a personal
    writing activity which includes letters to
    friends, narratives describing personal
    experiences, personal journals or diaries.
  • 1) Letter Writing
  • 2) Personal Experience
  • 3) Journals and Diaries

30
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • School-Oriented Tasks
  • It is one of the most important functions
    of writing that students are
  • required to write assignments, summaries,
    essays and so on.

31
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • EARLY WRITING TASKS
  • COPING WITH THE MECHANICS
  • Dialogue Journal Writing at the Early Stages
  • - It enables students and teachers to
    interact on a one-to-one basis
  • and also is a very useful communicative
    event at the early stages
  • of learning to write in a new language.
  • - Peyton and Reed (1990)

32
Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of
Writing and Going Just Beyond
  • CONCLUSION
  • Objective of This Part
  • Advantages of Writing

33
  • Considerations for Teaching an ESL / EFL Writing
    Course

34
Steps for Teaching Composition
  • Called Product Approach
  • Principles of rhetoric and organization
  • ? rules for writing
  • A text for classroom discussion, analysis
  • Writing assignment
  • Read, comment on, and criticize papers

35
Process Approach
  • vs. Product Approach
  • Focus on general academic writing, personal
    writing (content course)
  • A cyclical approach
  • 1.) drafting
  • 2.) receiving feedback ( from peer or teacher)

36
The Writing Curriculum
  • Placement Considerations
  • Establishing Curriculum Principles

37
Placement considerations
  • To sort students into levels of writing
    proficiency (homogeneous)
  • Prerequisite for curriculum planning
  • (materials and methodologies)
  • Placement test
  • 1.) produce one or more writing samples
  • 2.) TOEFL Test for Written English /
  • 100-point ESL English Composition
    Profile
  • 3.) multiple-choice grammar tests ()

38
Establishing Curriculum Principles
  • Based on skill levels
  • For beginning or intermediate-level
  • 1.) the imitation of models
  • 2.) short texts
  • 3.) self-expression
  • For intermediate and advanced
  • 1.) creation of self-generated texts

39
ESL / EFL Writing Class
  • As a workshop to learn to produce academic essays
    through mastering techniques for
  • getting started ? generating ideas ? drafting
    papers ? anticipating revising ? utilizing
    feedback

40
The Writing Class
  • Syllabus Design
  • Techniques for Getting Started
  • Using Readings in the Writing Class
  • Writing Assignments
  • Responding
  • Goal-Setting
  • Shaping Feedback
  • Forms of Feedback
  • Error Correction

41
Syllabus Design
  • Take into account curricular goals and the
    particular students
  • 1.) How much writing
  • 2.) What the timelines
  • 3.) What composing process
  • 4.) What grammar and syntax
  • 5.) What constitute progress
  • 6.) How much readings
  • 7.) How to grade

42
Techniques for Getting Started
  • Brainstorming
  • ? sharing their collective knowledge for their
    first
  • drafts
  • Listing
  • ? individual activity / produce as lengthy a list
    as possible
  • Clustering
  • ? a key word or central idea
  • Freewriting (speed writing)
  • ? write without taking the pen from the page /
  • provide an opening clause or sentence

43
Using Readings in the Writing Class
  • Models of what English texts look like
  • Input that helps students develop awareness of
    English prose style
  • Attention to particular stylistic choices,
    grammar features
  • Develop and refine genre awareness
  • Practice skills as summarizing, paraphrasing,
    interpreting, and synthesizing

44
Writing Assignments
  • Refered to as a Life Cycle
  • 1.) Let students know the context and reasons
  • 2.) Content be accessible and allow for multiple
    approaches
  • 3.) Be un-ambiguous and comprehensible
  • 4.) Further knowledge of content and skills
  • 5.) Rhetorical cues for format of finished
    assignments
  • 6.) Let students know how their output will be
    judged

45
Responding
  • What general goals
  • What specific goals on a particular piece of
    writing
  • What stage
  • What form
  • Who should provide
  • What students do

46
Goal-Setting
  • Teacher
  • 1.) implementing a variety of response types
  • 2.) training students to maximize feedback
  • on future writing occasions
  • Student
  • 1.) make the best use of commentary

47
Shaping Feedback
  • First draft
  • ? marginal and end comments
  • Second draft
  • ? further examined the second draft papers
  • Students should process and work with a teachers
    comments

48
Forms of Feedback
  • Embrace the value of Collaborative Learning
  • Oral Teacher Feedback
  • 1.) uncover potential misunderstanding
  • 2.) learn more in the one-to-one exchange
  • 3.)submit a cassette tape with each draft
  • Peer Response
  • 1.) gain a sense of audience
  • 2.) put students together in groups
  • 3.) must be modeled, taught, and controlled

49
Way to Guide Peer Response
  • Provide a short list of directed questions
  • Particular rhetorical feature discussed in class
  • Trained by reviewing an essay written by a
    students in a previous class
  • More complex and varied questions
  • ex What is the main purpose of this paper?
  • What have you found particularly effect
    in
  • the paper

50
Maximize the Value of the Feedback
  • Provide practice in the valuable skill of text
    analysis
  • Written responses as the basis for oral
    discussion between reader and writer
  • Focus not only grammar but training and
    instruction
  • Different cultures and participants

51
Error Correction
  • Grammar and editing feedback as well as
    instruction
  • Writing course is not a grammar course
  • Work on eliminate grammar and stylistic
    infelicities
  • Decide WHEN, WHO, WHICH, and HOW to correct

52
How to Call Students attention to errors
  • Point out specific errors by using a mark
  • Correct by writing in the corrected form
  • Label specific errors
  • Indicate the presence of error but not the
    precise location
  • Ignore specific errors

53
  • GRAMMAR IN WRITING

54
Grammar in Writing
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Barbara Hawkins
  • Doughty and Williams (1998)
  • Hillocks (1986)
  • Krashen (1982)
  • Jan Frodesen (2001)
  • the Importance of Grammar Instruction

55
Grammar in Writing
  • GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATING GRAMMAR IN
    WRITING INSTUCTION
  • Learner Variables
  • - Celce-Murcia (1985)
  • - Ferris and Hedgcock (1998)
  • - Reid (1998)
  • - Native Speakers versus EFL Students

56
Grammar in Writing
  • GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATING GRAMMAR IN
    WRITING INSTUCTION
  • Learner Variables
  • - Native Speakers versus EFL Students
  • Ex 1) unable to explain Gr. rules ?? able to
    explain Gr. rules
  • 2) acquire English by ear ?? learn
    English in classroom
  • 3) unfamiliar with Gr. terminologies ??
    familiar with Gr. terminologies

57
Grammar in Writing
  • GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATING GRAMMAR IN
    WRITING INSTUCTION
  • Learner Variables
  • - Celce-Murcia (1985)
  • - Ferris and Hedgcock (1998)
  • - Reid (1998)
  • - Native Speakers versus EFL Students
  • - Error Avoidance

58
Grammar in Writing
  • GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATING GRAMMAR IN
    WRITING INSTUCTION
  • Situational Variables
  • - Celce-Murcia (1985)
  • - Little (1994)
  • - Gr. in different objectives of classes
  • - Gr. in different kinds of writing

59
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Analysis
  • - learn how to use different kinds of
    grammatical features and
  • grammatical systems
  • Advantages
  • 1) help learners get familiar with
    prescriptive grammar rules
  • 2) help learners realize implicit
    knowledge of grammar

60
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Analysis
  • - Considerations for Selecting Grammar
    Points and Materials for
  • Text Analysis
  • 1) depends on course objective to
    select materials
  • 2) learn to write from reading - Holten
    (1997)
  • 3) supplementary texts

61
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Analysis
  • - Considerations for Selecting Grammar
    Points and Materials for
  • Text Analysis
  • Six considerations for selecting texts
    and grammatical points for analysis
  • 1) be appropriate for students
    developmental stages
  • 2) reflect students writing needs
    for the course
  • 3) be sources of text analysis on
    assigned course readings
  • 4) be generally kept brief on the
    lessons
  • 5) enhance the texts by underlining
    or bolding certain elements
  • 6) follow text analysis on
    productive tasks

62
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Sample Text Analysis Lessons
  • - That and zero-that clauses
  • - Tense and Time Frame Shifts
  • - Demonstrative Reference

63
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Sample Text Analysis Lessons
  • - That and zero-that clauses
  • to help learners identify clauses in
    which that can be deleted optionally
  • before a complement clause
  • Ex 1) Margaret thinks shes smarter than we are
    just because shes smarter than we are.
  • 2) I know Im no longer young and pretty
  • 3) But I guarantee it wont happen again.
  • 4) It makes me feel good to know I might
    help save someone.

64
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Sample Text Analysis Lessons
  • - Tense and Time Frame Shifts
  • EFL writers are often confused about
    the verb tense shifts therefore, the
  • writing teachers should review the
    reasons why we need to shift verb
  • tenses and time frames.
  • Ex Tense from present to present perfect
  • Time Frames from present to past

65
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Sample Text Analysis Lessons
  • - Demonstrative Reference
  • The teachers give a text that has examples
    of both this used in pronoun
  • reference and this used in noun
    reference.

66
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Guided Writing Activities
  • - Guided writings focus students
    attention on language features that
  • are difficult to them.
  • - They encourage learners to expand their
    linguistic resources
  • through eliciting exercises of
    grammatical structures.

67
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Learners have to rewrite passage or
    short texts.
  • Ex 1) present time frame ? past time frame
  • 2) direct speech ? indirect speech
  • - Celce-Murcia and Hilles (1998)

68
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Revision and Editing Focused Exercises
  • - Sentence Combining
  • - Guided Paraphrase
  • - Text Elicitation
  • - Dictation
  • - Text Completion

69
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Revision and Editing Focused Exercises
  • The purpose of the exercise is to
    address learners grammar problems
  • with the focus of the particular
    grammatical structure.

70
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Revision and Editing Focused Exercises
  • Ex We tested velocity by placing a green trace
    dye on the surface of the lot, at a
  • measured point. After each run we
    estimated the vegetation cover using a five-point
  • pin frame. We placed the pin frame in 20
    places on the plot, moving downward.
  • Rewritten into Passive Voice
  • Velocity was tested by placing a green
    trace dye on the surface of the plot, at a
  • measured point. After each run, the
    vegetation cover was estimated using a five-point
  • pin frame. The pin frame was placed on the
    plot, moving downward.

71
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Sentence Combining
  • 1) Mellon (1969)
  • 2) This technique was to develop
    syntactic fluency which involved the
  • kernel sentence combining.

72
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Sentence Combining
  • Ex The man was old.
  • The man had gray hair.
  • The man walked down the street.
  • The man walked slowly.
  • Combined Sentence
  • The old, gray-haired man walked slowly
    down the street.

73
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Sentence Combining
  • 1) Mellon (1969)
  • 2) This technique was to develop
    syntactic fluency which involved the
  • kernel sentence combining.
  • 3) De Beaugrande (1985)
  • 4) Draft revision is one of the most
    useful applications of sentence
  • combining for advanced ESL
    learners which can achieve a better flow
  • of information through clearer
    connections between ideas.

74
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Sentence Combining
  • Ex
  • Written by Developing Writer
  • Oliver Sack is a neurologist. He wrote the
    article Brilliant Light A Chemical
  • Boyhood. In this article, he describes how
    his Uncle Tungsten influenced his love
  • of science.
  • Written by Experienced Writer
  • In Brilliant Light A Chemical Boyhood,
    neurologist Oliver Sacks describes how his
  • Uncle Tungsten influenced his love of
    science.

75
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Guided Paraphrase
  • The developing of paraphrasing is one
    of the most important skills in
  • academic writing which can support
    students claims and develop their
  • ideas.

76
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Guided Paraphrase
  • Ex 1) Original People trying to interpret a
    situation often look at those around them to
  • see how to react. (base
    reactions on )
  • Rewrite People trying to interpret a
    situation often base their reactions on those
  • around them.
  • 2) Original Even if a person defines an
    event as an emergency.....(decides)
  • Rewrite Even if a person decides that
    an event is an emergency......

77
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Text Elicitation
  • The writing teacher can give a topic or
    writing objective and a
  • grammatical structure or structure
    for students practice.

78
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Text Elicitation
  • Ex Text
  • In many U.S. towns, the opening of large
    retail chain stores known as superstores has
  • made it difficult for the local small
    business to keep customers.
  • However, some of these local businesses
    are now successfully using the Web to
  • increase sales and improve customer
    service.
  • Conditional Sentences
  • If customers shop at chain superstores
    instead of their local businesses, the local
    stores may
  • have to close.
  • Unless small businesses find new ways to
    attract customers, such as advertising on the
    Web,
  • they may no be able to compete with
    superstores.

79
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Text Elicitation
  • 1) In this exercise, surveys, graphs and
    research articles related to the
  • writing topic are good sources
    for eliciting summaries.
  • 2) It can help students diagnose
    their structural problems, develop
  • syntactic complexity and provide
    strategies for organizing and
  • displaying information.

80
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Dictation
  • 1) Dictation is a good way to help
    students understand the collocations
  • between grammar and vocabulary.
  • 2) three procedures in dictation

81
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Text Completion
  • three types of text completion
  • 1) Cloze passage
  • 2) Gapped text
  • 3) the third type

82
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Text Completion
  • Ex Cloze
  • __1__ pollution may be defined as __2__
    deterioration of __3__ everyday lifes natural
    resources. __4__ pollution is __5__ global
    problem that has affected __6__ quality of __7__
    water we drink, __8__ air we breathe and __9__
    land we use. __10__ scientific solutions to
    overcome __11__ problem have increased __12__
    destruction.

83
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Text Completion
  • Ex Gapped Text
  • passive, progressive aspect, present
    perfect, comparatives, superlatives, phrasal
    verbs

84
Grammar in Writing
  • ACTIVITIES FOR INCORPORATING GRAMMAR
  • INTO WRITING INSTRUCTION
  • Text Conversion
  • - Text Completion
  • Ex Third Type
  • Climatologists have predicted that the
    continual warming of the earths surface,
    commonly known as the greenhouse effect, could
    have dramatic consequences.
  • 1. (a) The melting of the polar ice caps could be
    one result.
  • (b) One result could be the melting of the
    polar ice caps.
  • 2. (a) This melting would, in turn, cause a rise
    of the sea level.
  • (b) A rise of the sea level would, in turn,
    be caused by this melting.

85
Grammar in Writing
  • ERROR DIAGNOSIS AND CORRECTION
  • Error Detection and Correction Exercises
  • - The First Type
  • The students are told how many errors
    there are with different types of
  • errors.
  • Ex The text below has the following errors 1
    preposition, 1 verb tense, 1 subject-verb
    agreement,
  • 1 missing article.
  • This paper report on survey about values.
    Our English class take the survey last week in
    UCLA.

86
Grammar in Writing
  • ERROR DIAGNOSIS AND CORRECTION
  • Error Detection and Correction Exercises
  • - The Second Type
  • Students are given a text with
    numbered lines and they are told all of the
  • line numbers have a certain type of
    error.
  • Ex Identify and correct all of the verb form
    errors in the following text. Use the guide below
    to find the errors.
  • 1. The Olympics were hold in Sydney,
    Australia
  • 2. in 2000. Athletes from all over the
    world partici-
  • 3. pated. The Olympics have inspire many
    young
  • 4. people to excel in athletics.

87
Grammar in Writing
  • ERROR DIAGNOSIS AND CORRECTION
  • Error Detection and Correction Exercises
  • - The Third Type
  • It is using sentences that students
    wrote as the material to focus on one
  • error type.

88
Grammar in Writing
  • ERROR DIAGNOSIS AND CORRECTION
  • Editing Strategies and Techniques
  • - four kinds of techniques
  • 1) Read-Aloud Technique
  • 2) Pointing to Words
  • 3) Slow-Down Techniques
  • 4) Word Processing Grammar Checkers

89
Grammar in Writing
  • ERROR DIAGNOSIS AND CORRECTION
  • Teacher Feedback on Errors
  • - four guidelines and suggestions for
    providing feedbacks
  • 1) underlining or highlighting errors
  • 2) major errors
  • 3) frequent errors
  • 4) mini-conference

90
Grammar in Writing
  • CONCLUSTION
  • An Overview of This Chapter

91
  • WRITING

92
Writing Convention
  • Handwriting
  • ? different orthography
  • Spelling
  • 1.) Difficult the sound of a word and the
  • way it is spelt
  • EX paw, poor, pore, pour, daughter
  • EX or, word, information, worry
  • 2.) Not all varieties of English spell the
    same
  • words in the same way
  • EX color / colour, theater / theatre
  • 3.) Layout and punctuation

93
Help Students Improve Spelling
  • Attention to the common spelling of the phonemes
  • Look at different ways of pronouncing the same
    letters
  • Exercises to discover spelling rules
  • Through reading, especially extensively
  • Attention to spelling problems and explain

94
Approaches to Student Writing
  • Deciding whether we focus process or product
  • Whether students study different writing genres
  • Whether we encourage creative writing
  • How the computer can be

95
Process and Product
  • Pre-writing ? Editing ? Redrafting ? Publishing
  • Process Writing
  • 1.) drafting
  • 2.) structuring
  • 3.) reviewing
  • 4.) focusing
  • 5.) generating ideas and evaluation

96
Writing and Genre
  • Let them look at typical models
  • Consider different factors
  • 1.) knowledge of the topic
  • 2.) the conventions and style of the genre
  • 3.) the context in which their writing will be
  • read, and by whom

97
Creating Writing
  • Imaginative tasks such as writing poetry,
    stories, and plays
  • 1.) some kind of achievement
  • 2.) feel pride and want it to be read
  • Appropriate reader audience
  • 1.) put writings up on a class noticeboard
  • 2.) copy it in class magazines
  • 3.) set up a web sites

98
Writing as a Cooperative Activity
  • Give more detailed and constructive feedback
  • Be broader than an individual's normally was
  • Work well with both process and genre-based
    approaches
  • 1.) reviewing and evaluation are enhanced
  • 2.) the generation of ideas is more lively
  • 3.) create genre-specific texts successfully

99
Using the Computer
  • Removes the problem of poor handwriting
  • Allow the computer user to edit his or her
    material at great speed
  • Ease the task of achieving correct spelling
  • Working in groups, more visible to students
  • Enhancing the participation
  • Get students to write e-mails

100
The Role of the Teacher
  • Motivator
  • Resource
  • Feedback provider

101
Writing Applications
  • Activity 1 Pauls business trip
  • Practice basic punctuation such as capital
    letters, comma, apostrophes and full stops
  • Pre-writing
  • During-writing
  • Post-writing

102
  • Activity 2 The genre analyser
  • Write reviews of plays, concerts, or films
  • Pre-writing
  • During-writing
  • Post-writing

103
  • Activity 3 A poem
  • Memorize one sentence of a poem and dictate it to
    each other
  • Pre-writing
  • During-writing
  • Post-writing

104
  • Activity 4Julias story
  • Write the next sentence in Julias story which
    has just passed to them
  • Pre-writing
  • During-writing
  • Post-writing

105
  • Thank you for your attention!!
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