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Their Future Depends on it!


Their Future Depends on it! Rethinking Homelessness Children living in homeless situations may perform two to three years below grade level in school. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Their Future Depends on it!

Their Future Depends on it!
Texas HomelessEducation Office
The University of Texas at AustinCharles A. Dana
Center2901 N IH 35, Room 2.200Austin, Texas
  • 1-800-446-3142
  • http//

Jointly sponsored by The United States
Department of Education The Texas Education
Agency Region 10 Education Service Center The
Charles A. Dana Center at the University of
Texas at Austin
  • Welcome!
  • NAEHCY Conference and Membership Info
  • Resource Packet contents
  • Website Resources
  • Contact Information

  • Welcome!
  • Tim Stahlke
  • Senior Program Coordinator
  • Phone 512/ 475-9709
  • Fax 512/ 471-6193

Statewide Responsibilities
Ensure equal access forhomeless students
Remove state and local barriers
Increase expectations
Our Goal
is to move every child ahead
by helping schools and communities
transform goodlaw into effective practice.
How we fulfill our responsibilities
Professional Development Resource
Materials and Website Statewide Homeless
Liaison Database Manage Competitive 3-year
Subgrant Program (2009-2012) Collaborate
with Local, State, NationalAgencies Hotline
In Texas 800-446-3142
Outline for Todays Workshop
  • Awareness
  • Identification and Enrollment
  • Delivery of Services
  • Collaboration and Coordination

  • 1. Awareness
  • What do you know about homelessness?

  • Contributing factors to homelessness
  • Poverty Guidelines
  • Poverty and Children
  • Numbers of homeless
  • Shelter Living
  • Cycle of Homelessness
  • Permanently Housed

Contributing Factors to Homelessness
The majority of poor families with children in
Texas have one or more working family members.
Contributing Factors to Homelessness
Lack of affordable housing
  • Lack or loss of economic support networks
  • Lack or loss of social support networks

Affordable Housing
  • Affordable housing 30 or less of the
    household income is dedicated to housing (rent
    or mortgage and utilities insurance or taxes are
    not included in this amount)

Affordable Housing
  • The key to understanding families living in
    homelessness is to think in terms of housing
  • Housing instability exists when families do not
    have the resources to have consistent, reliable
  • Families that have a high degree of housing
    instability will frequently bounce back and forth
    between having a temporarily stable housing
    situation and homelessness.

Affordable Housing
In 1970, there were 300,000 more affordable
housingunits available than therewere
low-incomehouseholdsthat needed them.
Affordable Housing
Today, there are 4.7 million morelow-income
households that needhousing than there are
affordablehousing units.
Affordable Housing
More than 14 million householdsin the U.S. have
criticalhousing needs --they spend more than
50of their income on rent or livein conditions
that threatentheir health and safety.
Affordable Housing
Full-time wages dont match the cost of
housing.At 5.15/hr you would have to work more
than 119 hours/wk (17 hrs/day, 7 days/wk)
to afford a two-bedroom apartment at the national
average. New minimum wage guidelines do little
to impact this.
Affordable Housing
There is no state, county, or metropolitan area
in the nation where someone working 40 hours a
week at minimum wage can afford the Fair Market
Rent for a two-bedroom rental.
Fair Market Rent is the fair price in a regional
housing market for a specific housing unit,
established by the U.S. Dept. of Housing and
Urban Development (HUD).
Affordable Housing
Thousands of people commute to work to avoid the
high cost of housing. Costs of commuting are
impossible to pay if you are a minimum wage
worker and only add to the housing costs.
Affordable Housing
A slowing economy with a housing bust like we
may are experiencing will only increase the
demand for rental housing and increase housing
costs for low-income families.
Affordable Housing
People who have recently leftwelfare for
work,but do not receive housing assistance,pay
an average of 64of their income for
housing.(23 if they do receive housing
Number of Persons Experiencing Homelessness
Texas estimate . . .
on any given night.
Contributing Factors to Homelessness
  • Lack of affordable housing

Lack/loss of economic support networks
  • Lack or loss of social support networks

Poverty Guidelines
What is the poverty line?
Is it an inadequate measure of real poverty in
this country?
Tour Poverty USA
Poverty GuidelinesUS Department of Health and
Human ServicesFederal Register, Vol. 73, No.15,
January 23, 2008
  • Persons in Family 48 Contiguous
  • or Household States and D.C. Alaska
  • 1 10,400 13,000 11,960
  • 2 14,000 17,500 16,100
  • 3 17,600 22,000 20,240
  • 4 21,200 26,500 24,380
  • 5 24,800 31,000 28,520
  • 6 28,400 35,500 32,660
  • 32,000 40,000
  • 35,600 44,500
  • Each addtlPerson 3,600 4,500

Poverty Guidelines
To determine whether or not the federal poverty
line is an adequate measure of real poverty in
this country, consider how it is calculated
Poverty Guidelines
The poverty line was established in the 1960s,
based on the cost of feeding a family an adequate
At that time, buying food was consideredto
require about a third of a familysincome so
the dollar figure that the U.S. Department of
Agriculture said would adequately feed a family
was multiplied by three to arrive at the poverty
Poverty Guidelines
That method is still used today, even though food
costs now typically make up only 21 of a
typical low-income familys budget.
Housing, childcare, transportation, andmedical
costs -- many of the things weexperience in
daily life are not factored into the poverty
guideline, even though these costs have
DRAMATICALLY increased in the last 40 years.
Poverty Guidelines
The poverty line does not take geographic
differences into consideration its a one
size fits all number, whether a family is
struggling in urban Manhattan,downtown
Dallas, orrural Mississippi.
Poverty Guidelines
What It Really Takes to Get By in Texas
(CPPP) finds that what a 2-parent,
2-child family needs to earn ranges from
29,982 a year in the Brownsville/Harlingen
area, to 45,770 a
year in the Fort
Worth/Arlington area.
Poverty Guidelines
Approximately 12.5 of the U.S. population now
lives in poverty -thats 1 in every 8
people.If you consider only children, the
number is higher than 1 in 6.
Poverty Guidelines
A minimum-wage worker would have to work more
than 70 hours a week, 52 weeks a year, just to
keep a family of four above the poverty line.
2.6 million Americans who work full-time all year
long still live below the poverty line.
Poverty Guidelines
The wealthiest 1 of American households now
own nearly 50 of the financial wealth in the
United States.
Poverty and Children
The younger a child is in Texas, the more likely
he or she is to live in poverty.
Percentage of Texas Children Living in Poverty
Poverty and Children
  • Over the past 30 years, poverty has become a
    problem of childhood and children.
  • Children, especially young children,bear the
    brunt of poverty.
  • Children are disproportionately poor.
  • Children are more likely to be poorthan any
    other age group.

Poverty and Children
  • Children under age 6 are particularly
    vulnerable to poverty.
  • Children living in families with a female head
    of household and no husband present (single moms)
    experience a poverty rate of 54.8 percent, more
    than five times the rate for children under 6 in
    married-couple families.

Texas Poverty
Source U.S. Bureau of the Census, March CPS and
American Community Survey
Stereotypes of Homelessness
  • FACT
  • 40 - 70 of the
  • homeless are families.
  • - National Law Center
  • On Homelessness and Poverty

Stereotypes of Homelessness
  • Children are Homeless
  • Children make up
  • About 45 of the
  • Homeless population.
  • - Urban Institute

Number of Children and Youth Experiencing
Nationwide estimates . .
  • 1989 - 272,773
  • 1991 - 327,416
  • 1993 - 744,266
  • 1997 - 841,730
  • 2000 - 930,232
  • 2002 - 1,350,000
  • 2005 - 1,450,000
  • 2007 - 1,500,000

Number of Children and Youth Experiencing
Texas estimate . . .
. . .not including the impact of the 50,000
students enrolled as a result of Hurricane
Katrina or the recent impact of hurricane Ike.
Children are Homeless
Children experiencinghomelessness experiencethe
trauma of loss
  • home / room / neighborhood /
  • family members / school / community /
    possessions / security / safety /
  • self esteem / predictable routines

Impact of Homelessness on Young Children
  • Compared with housed poor children, homeless
    children experience more health problems and
    other challenges.
  • Homeless children experience more mental health
    problems and receive fewer services than their
  • Many homeless children have either witnessed or
    experienced violence.
  • Only 15 of homeless preschool children are
    enrolled in preschool programs

The Challenge Before Us
  • Children living in homeless situations may
    perform two to three years below grade level in
  • For many children, every move costs them as much
    as 4-6 months of academic progress.
  • Casey Family Programs

Effects of Trauma on Homeless Children and
  • Enabling good decision- making by the parent/
    caregiver/unaccompanied youth
  • Help students recover from traumatic events
  • Preserving the best interest of the child or

Challenges of living in shelter situations
Loss of control and independence
  • Lack or loss of parental control/authority
  • Lack or loss of privacy

Cycle of Homelessness
Source Mary Ann Weinacht, Ed.D., Assoc.
Professor Mary Nan Aldridge, Ph.D., Professor,
Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas 79832
When is a person no longer considered homeless?
When they become Permanently Housed.
  • Developing a working definition for district
  • Recommended time-frames to consider
  • Challenges of doubled up families

  • A Quick Look at Homelessness
  • Hear Us My Own Four Walls
  • Winter 2006

  • A Quick Look at Homelessness
  • In Their Own Voices
  • Winter 2004
  • California Department of Education

Scholarships and Financial Aid
  • NAEHCY LeTendre Fund

FAFSA Fix legislation See Fact Sheet
Supporting Success Improving Higher Education
Outcomes for Students from Foster Care
There are no easy solutions to the problems of
educating homeless children and youth.
  • There are no legal remedies that will solve all
    the problems of educating homeless children and
  • There is not a lot of money available for
    educating homeless children and youth.

Schools were not designed to serve homeless
  • These children and youth live in situations that
    they do not control and we do not control
  • We cannot change their situations

  • We have to adjust our schools to meet the
    situations in whichthese children and youth are

  • What can schools do to help homeless children
    and youthobtain every educational opportunity
    that is possible?

Additional Resources
  • Homeless EducationAn Introduction to the Issues

Domestic Violence, Homelessnessand Childrens
The Hidden Costs of the Housing Crisis
The Impact of the Mortgage Crisis on Children and
Their Education
  • 2. Identification and Enrollment
  • How does your school eliminate barriers?

Identification and Enrollment
  • Barriers to Enrollment/Success
  • Basic Provisions of the M-V Act
  • Homeless Liaison Duties
  • Definition of Homelessness
  • Unaccompanied Youth
  • Residency Questionnaires (SRQs)
  • Data Reporting Mechanisms
  • Determining Eligibility
  • School Selection

Do children experiencinghomelessness belong in
  • Yes, its the law!
  • More importantly--we have a moral responsibility
    to ensure that no one is excluded from public
    education because they are experiencing
    homelessness or poverty.

Barriers to Enrollment
  • Lack of transportation to or from temporary
  • Lack of immunization and medical records
  • Lack of school records
  • State guardianship/residencyrequirements not
    uniformlyinterpreted by school
  • Lack of birth certificate

Barriers to Enrollment
  • Youth ages 12 and up face additional
    barriers to school enrollment, for example
  • Attendance policies
  • Secondary school credit accrual

Barriers to School Success
  • Frequent mobility
  • Lack of staff awareness and sensitivity
  • Inability to complete school assignments
  • Lack of psychological services
  • Poor health and inadequate medical care
  • Physical needs -- food, clothing, health care

Barriers and Solutions
Students experiencing homelessness faced barriers
to enrollment, attendance, and success in
solutions were developed!
The Legal Framework
  • Federal statutes provide the foundation for the
    education of children and youth experiencing
  • State statutes, passed in response to the federal
    laws, provide an additional framework in Texas
    for the education of children and youth
    experiencing homelessness.

The Federal Law
  • A quick overview of the basic provisions in the
  • McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Assistance
    Improvements Act of 2001
  • AkaMcKinney-Vento Act

The Federal Law
. . . also known as
Title X Part C No Child Left Behind Act - 2001
Our children need adults who focus on
results. Former Secretary of Education Rod Paige
NCLB is important because it requires...
  • that all homeless youth have access to a free and
    appropriate public education
  • that every state review and revise all laws,
    regulations, practices, or policies that may act
    as a barrier to the enrollment, attendance, or
    success in school of homeless children and
  • that homeless children and youth have access to
    the education and services they need to ensure
    them an opportunity to meet the same challenging
    state standards to which all students are held.

  • Introduction to the Law and McKinney-Vento
  • An Overview for School Board Members and
  • Region 10 ESC-produced video
  • August 2004

The Federal Law
  • A quick overview of the basic provisions in the
  • McKinney-Vento Act

McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Act of 2001
The basic provisions of the McKinney-Vento Act
provide the framework for the duties assigned to
the Local Educational Agency Homeless
Liaison. Remember . . .
Establish a Homeless Liaison
  • A homeless liaison is a point person for homeless
    and highly mobile families at your school or
  • A homeless liaison is knowledgeable about all the
    laws and local rules that are relevant to
    homeless and highly mobile families and the
    local shelter policies and procedures.

McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Act of 2001
School administrators (superintendents and
principals), as the agents of school districts,
must insure that the McKinney-Vento Act
provisions are implemented.
McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Act of 2001
Service providers (shelter intake staff,
childrens activity coordinators, counselors,
community agencies) are also a critical component
to the success of the McKinney-Vento Act and the
dissemination of information to those who benefit
from its provisions.
Definitions of HomelessChildren and Youth
  • Lack fixed, regular, andadequate
  • Share housing (due toloss or hardship)
  • Live in hotels, motels,campgrounds, emergencyor
    transitional shelters were abandoned in
    hospitals or are awaiting foster care

Definitions of HomelessChildren and Youth
  • Primary nighttime residence not designed for
    ordinary use as a regular sleeping accommodation
  • Live in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned
    buildings, substandard housing, or bus or train

Definitions of HomelessChildren and Youth
  • Unaccompanied youth (youth not in the physical
    custody of a parent or guardian)
  • Migratory children who qualify as homeless
    because of their living situation

Required Posting/Notification
The McKinney-VentoAct requires publicnotice of
educational rights of children and youth
experiencing homelessness disseminated inevery
school districtat every campus --and wherever
servicesare accessed.
Number of Persons ExperiencingHomelessness -
Challenges to Identification
  • Different definitions of homelessness, depending
    on the program or funding source
  • Hidden population
  • Methodologies
  • Getting beyond stereotypes

Identifying Homeless Students
  • The McKinney-Vento Act requires public LEAs
    to identify children and youth in homeless
  • How identification takes place is not
    prescribed it should be auditable (i.e., SRQ).
  • There is no notification requirement in the
    law -- all eligible students must be reported.
  • Help for the liaison

Student Residency Questionnaire
  • Benefits for complying with the law
  • Cautions
  • Retention
  • Implementation suggestions

Students Affected by Hurricane Ike
The Texas Education Agency
maintains information on the TEA
website with FAQs and up-to-date directives to
guide districts regarding the proper enrollment,
coding, and funding issues pertaining to
hurricane Ike.Please visit the following link
for this information http//
A Quick Word about PEIMS
  • Fall Submission
  • 110 Record only reported in Fall snapshot
  • At-riskhomeless is one of 13 at-risk factors for
    student reporting does not distinguish which
    factor(s) a student identified with
  • Title I, Part A
  • 6 code for student attending Title I, Part A
    School-wide Program campus
  • 7 code for student on Targeted Assistance
    Campus and participating in Title I, Part A
  • 9 code for student attending non-Title I, Part
    A campus but receives Title I, Part A services
    because student is homeless
  • Only code 9 identifies a student as homeless

A Quick Word about PEIMS
  • Summer Submission
  • 461 Record Title I, Part A
  • (students who received Title I, Part A services
    at any time during the year)
  • Title I, Part A Indicator Code This is the
    same code mentioned in the Fall submission
    6, 7, or 9
  • Title I, Part A Homeless Indicator Code
  • If student has an indicator code of 6 or 9,
    then Indicator Code is set to 1
  • If student attended a Targeted Assistance Campus,
    student will only have an indicator code of 7
    if student received some Title I, Part A
    instructional services during the year (reading,
    math, science, social studies)
  • Indicator Codes do not identify students who
    receive non-instructional Title I, Part A

Reporting Mechanisms
  • Federal reports and statewide McKinney-Vento data
  • Statewide data collection through TEA NCLB /
    eGrant system Homeless Students Enrolled
  • NOTE PK category

Determining Eligibility for M-V
  • Get the facts
  • Analyze the facts fixed, regular, adequate
  • Get additional input

Confirming Eligibility for M-V
  • Every effort to confirm a living situation must
    be sensitive and respectful-serving the academic
    interest of the student.
  • Dont delay enrollment!
  • Be positive and supportive.
  • Acknowledge the districts rights.
  • Find proof independent of student.
  • Maintain confidentiality.

School Enrollment
  • Enroll homeless child or youth immediately
    even if no records are currently available
  • Schools must contact childs or youths school
    last attended for academic and other records
  • Immediate referral to LEA liaison if immunization
    or medical records are unavailable from prior
  • Records must be kept, maintained, and available
    for future school enrollment

School Enrollment
  • Use quick assessments, if needed.
  • Legal guardianship is not required.
  • Use appropriate affidavits or forms.
  • Dont delay enrollment.
  • FERPA definition of parent and consent

School Enrollment
Educational Rights ofUnaccompanied Youth
  • Requires youth to be fully informed of their
    enrollment options and available educational
  • no separate schools basedon homelessness
  • comparable services(transportation,
    nutrition,educational programs and services)

(No Transcript)
School Selection
  • Serve the best interests of thestudent by
  • Continuing child or youth inschool of origin to
    the extent feasible or
  • Enrolling child or youth in a public school in
    the attendance area where the child or youth
    resides (even temporarily)

School of Origin
  • School of Origin
  • The school the child was attending when they
    became homeless
  • OR
  • The school in which they were last enrolled.

School Selection
Educational Stabilityand Continuity
  • Requires schools to keepchildren in the school
    of origin,except where contrary to thewishes of
    the parent or guardian
  • Child or youths right to attend their school of
    origin extends to entire duration of homelessness
  • Requires removal of barriers that contribute to
    exclusion or enrollment delay

School Enrollment / Selection
Student Attendance Accounting Handbook
  • Enrollment procedures
  • Withdrawal procedures
  • Documentation

The State Law
As of Summer, 2005 HB 25 Schools have 10 days
totransfer records.
The State Law
  • The Texas Education Code has
  • two important provisions that
  • directly affect homeless students
  • 25.085. Compulsory School Attendance.
  • Requires that all children attend school from
    the age of 6 until they turn 18.

Texas Education Code (TEC) School Selection
Texas state provisions guarantee students the
rights and access to public education stipulated
in the McKinney-Vento law. However, Texas law
also stipulates that children experiencing
homelessness may choose the school district they
wish to attend.
Texas Education Code 25.001(b)(5)
(b) The board of trustees of a school
district or its designee shall admit into the
public schools of the district free of tuition a
person who is over five and younger than 22 years
of age on the first day of September of the
school year in which admission is sought if (5)
the person is homeless, as defined by 42 U.S.C.
Section 11302, regardless of the residence of the
person, of either parent of the person, or of the
person's guardian or other person having lawful
control of the person....
Texas Education Code 25.001(d)
(d) For a person under the age
of 18 years to establish a residence
for the purpose of attending the public schools
separate and apart from the person's parent,
guardian, or other person having lawful control
of the person under a court order, it must be
established that the person's presence in the
school district is not for the primary purpose
of participation in extra- curricular activities.

Texas State Education Code (TEC) Enrollment
Students Living Separate and Apart from Parents
and Legal Guardians can attend school as long as
  • the students presence in thedistrict is not
    primarily forparticipation in extracurricularact
  • the student has not beenexpelled or removed to
    analternative educationprogram within the
    previous year

Texas State Education Code (TEC) Enrollment
Students Living Separate and Apart from Parents
and Legal Guardians can attend school as long as
  • the child or youth is not on probation or in need
    of supervision because of delinquent conduct or
  • the child or youth has not been convicted of a
    criminal offense and is not on probation or other
    conditional release.

Texas State Education Code (TEC) Enrollment
However From a letter dated 8-02-05 from TEAs
Chief Legal Counsel
The exceptions cannot be used to prevent a
student eligible for admission under a different
provision of Section 25.001(b) from being
enrolled, including homeless students.
Office of the Attorney GeneralAddress
Confidentiality Program
  • Rules took effect May, 2008
  • Eligible persons are victims of
  • Domestic violence
  • Sexual Assault
  • Stalking

Office of the Attorney GeneralAddress
Confidentiality Program
  • Enrollment procedures
  • Person meets with Victim Services Counselor
  • Substitute legal address is established for the
  • Address is displayed on a participation card
    issued by OAG

Office of the Attorney GeneralAddress
Confidentiality Program
State and local agencies must accept the
substitute address in lieu of the persons actual
address. The substitute address has no relation
to the participants actual location within the
state. Additional
Additional Resources
  • Texas School Selection Guidance
  • TEA Correspondence Letter from Chief Legal

  • 3. Delivery of Services
  • Providing for Basic Needs

Delivery of Services
  • Transportation
  • Dispute Resolution
  • Title I and Homelessness
  • Child Nutrition Programs
  • IDEA (Special Ed.)
  • Immunizations
  • Foster and Substitute Care
  • Immigrant Services
  • Head Start

  • Transportation
  • Provisions
  • LEAs must adopt policies
  • and practices to ensure transportation is
    provided, at request of parent of guardian (or
    liaison on behalf of unaccompanied youth), to
    and from the school of origin
  • Apportion costs

Transportation Provisions
  • District Policies
  • TASB Policy Update 71 Language
  • USDE Guidance
  • Policy Guidance from NAEHCY

Transportation for Homeless Children and Youth
Strategies for Rural Districts
Resolution of Disputes
  • Enrollment Disputes
  • Admit child or youth immediatelypending
    resolution of dispute
  • School must provide parent/guardian or youth
    with written explanation of decision including
    statement of rights
  • Referral to liaison for dispute resolution
  • Liaison ensures unaccompanied youth is
    immediately enrolled

Access to Special Programs and Services
Children experiencing homelessness should have
access to district Title I services!
Coordination with Title I
  • Title I requires that districts provide services
    for children and youth who live in homeless
  • Children and youth experiencing homelessness are
    automatically eligible to receive Title I
    services by virtue of their homelessness

Coordination with Title I
From Cory Green, Senior Director, NCLB Division
at TEA
  • All homeless students, including those students
    who meet the definition as a result of evacuating
    their homes due to the hurricane, must be served
    with Title I, Part A, funds regardless of the
    campus they attend.

Title I Requirements
  • Reservation of Title I Funds
  • a local education agency needsto reserve funds
    to providecomparable services for eligible
    homeless children who do not attend participating
    schools, including providing educationally
    related support services to children in shelters
    and otherlocations wherechildren may live.-
    Sec. 1113

Access to Special Programs and Services
Title I Guidance
Strategies for calculatingset-asides and
providingservices with Title I, Part A Funds
Supplement not Supplant
Federal dollars must be used to provide services
that are not otherwise available through state,
local, or other resources.
Supplanting occurs when.
Federal dollars are used to provide services
that the SEA/LEA was required to provide under
other federal, state, or local laws.
Federal dollars are used to provide services that
the SEA/LEA provided with non-federal funds in
the previous year.
Federal dollars are used to provide services for
MV children that the SEA/LEA provides for non-MV
children with state or localresources
Supplant Exemptions
Language instruction programs under Title I, Part
Excess costs of providing services to children
with disabilities
Bilingual program funds, when carrying out a
court order that details services for LEP
Maintenance of Effort
LEA must spend at least 90 from state and
local funds as was spent in the previous year
Includes administration, instruction, health
services, pupil transportation, plant operation,
fixed charges, etc.
Excludes debt service, capital outlay,
expenditures from federal funds
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Provide comparable services to students in
non-Title I schools
Should assist students in meeting challenging
academic content and achievement standards
Can be used to provide homeless students services
not ordinarily provided to other Title I students
and not available from other sources
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Emergency food?
Yes, provided other resources are not available
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Rental assistance to preventloss of housing?
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Clothing for young childrenof teen parents?
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Medical/dental services for homeless students?
Yes, if funds are not reasonably available
from other sources
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Eyeglasses for homeless students?
Yes, if funds are not reasonably available
from other sources
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Birth certificates for homeless students?
Yes, if funds are not reasonably available from
other sources and lack of the document prevents
access to school
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Clothing for parents of homeless students?
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
GED testing fees for parents ofhomeless students?
Yes, if no other sources of funding are
reasonably available
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
GED testing fees for school-agehomeless students?
Yes, if no other sources of funding are
reasonably available
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Immunizations for school-agehomeless students?
Yes, if no other sources of funding are
reasonably available
How can Title I, Part Aset-asides be used?
Supplemental counseling?
Yes, if no other sources of funding are
reasonably available
Free and Reduced Price Lunch
  • Child Nutrition Programs Guidance
  • Categorical eligibility for homeless, runaway and
    migrant children and youth
  • Documentation of free meal eligibility for
    homeless children
  • Homeless children residing with another household
  • Duration of eligibility

IDEA 2004 Reauthorization
  • IDEA now includes a definition of homeless that
    mirrors the McKinney-Vento definition
  • IDEAs child find provisions require that
    children with disabilities experiencing
    homelessness be identified, located and evaluated

IDEA 2004 Reauthorization
  • IDEA requires early intervention services to be
    made available to all infants and toddlersthe
    new law specifically mentions homeless children.
  • States are required to meaningfully involve
    homeless families and wards of the state in their
    special education programs for infants and

Special Education Provisions
  • Temporary placement
  • Use of existing ARD and IEP records
  • Transfer of records from previous campus
  • Assignment of a surrogate parent

Special Education Provisions
Shelter workers as surrogate parents
A public agency may select as a surrogate a
person who is an employee of a nonpublic agency
that only provides non-educational care for the
Special Education Provisions
Shelter workers as surrogate parents
  • 1) the shelter is not a public agency
  • 2) the shelter only provides non-educational care
    for the child
  • 3) the shelter worker has no interests that
    conflict with the interests of the child and
  • 4) the shelter worker has knowledge and skills
    that ensure adequate representation of the child.

Special Education Provisions
Shelter workers as surrogate parents
At ARD Federal law does not require the
attendance of an additional shelter worker who
is not surrogate parentthe surrogate parent or
school can invite another shelter worker to
Special Education Provisions
Questions and Answers on Special Education and
Homelessness Navigating the Intersections
ofIDEA and McKinney-Vento
  • Texas Attorney Generals Decision
  • April 15, 2004
  • 30-day provisional enrollment
  • Liaison must help student obtain records or
    necessary course of immunizations
  • Options to withdrawal

  • Texas Family Code,Sec. 32.003(a)(2)(A) and (B)
  • A child may consent to medical,
    dental, psychological, and surgical treatment for
    the child by a licensed physician or dentist if
    the child is 16 years of age or older and resides
    separate and apart from the child's parents,
    managing conservator, or guardian, with or
    without the consent of the parents, managing
    conservator, or guardian and regardless of the
    duration of the residence and the child is
    managing the child's own financial affairs,
    regardless of the source of the income.

Foster and Substitute Care
  • Substitute Care
  • Care of children outside
  • immediate family
  • Formal processes - not homeless(foster home,
    group home, residential treatment centers,
    kinship care, adoption, legal guardianship)
  • Informal processes - homeless(relative care,
    non-relative care, shelter care, transitional
    living, unaccompanied youth who meet M-V

Head Start
  • Compared to the non-homeless children
    served by Head Start, children experiencing
    homelessness were reported to
  • Have greater developmental delays,
  • To be more likely to have learning
    disabilities and developmental delays, and
  • To exhibit a higher frequency of
    socio-emotional problems.

Homelessness and Head Start
  • In their reports to the U.S. Department of
    Education in 2006, 60 of States reported that
    students in homeless situations had difficulties
    accessing Head Start programs.
  • Documented barriers to Head Start participation
    include lack of documentation, lack of
    transportation, insufficient program funding, and
    lack of awareness of homelessness.

Head Start Reauthorization
  • Numerous provisions in the Head Start
    reauthorization reference the McKinney-Vento
    Homeless Assistance Act
  • Main themes
  • Stability
  • Access
  • Support for success
  • Child-centered, best interestdecision-making

Head Start Reauthorization
  • Homeless children must be identified and
    prioritized for enrollment in Head Start programs
  • Families may enroll in Head Start while required
    documentation is obtained
  • Head Start programs must coordinate with
    McKinney-Vento personnel
  • Homeless children meet the low-income criteria
    for enrollment in Head Start programs
  • Increases outreach/services for families
  • M-V consistent definition of homelessness

Head Start Eligibility forHomeless Children
  • Homeless children are categorically eligible
    for Head Start 42 U.S.C. 9840(a)(1)(B)
  • All Head Start children are eligible for child
    nutrition programs
  • Children in foster care are eligible even if
    family income exceeds guidelines (current

Head Start Services toHomeless Children
  • Head Start programs can continue to serve 10 of
    their enrollment with children over the poverty
  • Head Start programs may serve an additional
    35 with children from families with incomes up
    to 130 of poverty.

Head Start Services toHomeless Children
  • However, in order to exercise this option, Head
    Start programs must demonstrate that they are
    doing outreach to, prioritizing, and meeting the
    needs of children who are homeless and children
    from families with incomes below poverty. 42
    U.S.C. 9840(a)(1)(B)
  • This provision is in effect immediately

Head Start Enrollment - Homeless Children
  • Requires Secretary to issue regulations to
    require Head Start Agencies to
  • Ensure that homeless children are identified
    and prioritized for enrollment
  • Allow homeless families to apply to, enroll in
    and attend Head Start programs while required
    documents are obtained in a reasonable time
  • Coordinate individual Head Start centers and
    programs with efforts to implement Subtitle VII-B
    of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act.
  • Definition of homeless matches M-V definition
    (i.e. includes awaiting foster care placement)

Head Start Enrollment
  • Programs expected to maintain 97 of funded
  • Must maintain wait list and conduct outreach
  • If under 97 funded enrollment, Secretary must
    collaboratively develop plans and timetables for
    reducing under-enrollment, taking into
    consideration changing demographics, mobility of
    populations, and the identification of new
    underserved low-income populations

Head Start Enrollment
  • If, after receiving technical assistance and
    developing and implementing a plan for reducing
    under-enrollment, a Head Start agency still
    operates with less than 97 percent enrollment,
    the Secretary may recapture or withhold funds.
  • However, Secretary can waive or reduce funding
    reductions if causes of enrollment shortfalls
    include serving significant numbers of highly
    mobile children the shortfall is not
    significant or the shortfall can reasonably be
    expected to be temporary.

Head Start Regulations
  • Issues for Regulations and Implementation
  • Identification
  • Prioritization
  • Reasonable time frame
  • Licensing requirements (i.e., child care
    immunization requirements)
  • Placement stability
  • Transportation
  • Coordination
  • Confidentiality/information-sharing

Criteria for Applicantsfor New Head Start
  • Requires as a criteria for applicants for new
    Head Start programs a plan to meet the needs of
    homeless children and children in foster care,
    including transportation needs

Considerations in Allocating Funds to Expand
Existing Head Start Programs
  • The extent to which applicants have undertaken
    community-wide strategic planning and needs
    assessments involving the LEA homeless liaison,
    and organizations providing services to
    children in foster care, homeless children,
    child abuse prevention services, protective
  • The extent to which applicants coordinate
    with LEA homeless liaisons

Head Start Collaboration
  • Requires Head Start agencies to coordinate and
    collaborate with the agencies responsible for
    administering section 106 of the
  • Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (42
    U.S.C. 5106a), parts B and E of title IV of the
    Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 620 et seq. and
    670 et seq.), and programs under Subtitle VII-B
    of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act
  • Requires each Head Start program to establish
    channels of communication between Head Start
    staff and McKinney-Vento liaisons to facilitate
    coordination of programs

Head Start Collaboration
  • Requires Head Start programs to develop and
    implement a family outreach and support program
    in coordination with outreach efforts under the
    McKinney-Vento Act
  • Requires Head Start State Collaboration Directors
    to develop a strategic plan that will enhance
    collaboration and coordination with and services
    provided for homeless children, children in
    foster care, and children referred to Head Start
    programs by child welfare agencies, including
    agencies and State officials responsible for such

Head Start Infants and Toddlers
  • Requires Early Head Start programs to
    coordinate services with programs in the
    community for homeless infants and toddlers
  • Provides funds for technical assistance to
    Early Head Start programs to create special
    training and technical assistance initiatives
    targeted to serving high risk populations, such
    as children in the child welfare system and
    homeless children, and provide professional
    development designed to increase program
    participation for underserved populations of
    eligible children

Head Start Data Collection
  • Requires Head Start programs to collect data on
    the number of homeless children and children in
    foster care participating in the program
  • Requires the Secretary to prepare a report on the
    status of children in Head Start programs,
    including homeless children, children in foster
    care, and children referred by child welfare

Head Start Research
  • Requires the Secretary to carry out research,
    evaluation, and demonstration activities in order
    to use the Head Start programs to develop, test,
    and disseminate new ideas and based on existing
    scientifically based researc, for addressing the
    needs of low-income preschool children (including
    children with disabilities, homeless children,
    children who have been abused or neglected, and
    children in foster care)

Head Start Monitoring
  • Requires the Secretary to ensure that reviews are
    conducted by review teams that include
    individuals who are knowledgeable, to the maximum
    extent practicable, about the needs of homeless
    children and children in foster care

Head Start Next Steps Working Together
  • Work with HUD Continuums of Care - see HUD web
  • Include school liaisons, local homeless
    coalitions, and local homeless providers in
    community needs assessment
  • Convene joint trainings
  • Share materials at state, local, and national
  • Identify and share best practices

Other Special Populations
  • Migrant students
  • Immigrant students
  • Immigrant students and Title III

Additional Resources
Housing Agency and School District
Collaborations Educating Homeless Children and
Youth A Guide to Their Rights School-to-Prison
Additional Resources
Checklist for Local Educational Agency
Services TASB Policy Update Language TEA
McKinney-Vento Guidance USDE McKinney-Vento
  • Thank you!
  • Session Evaluations
  • Video
  • Celebrate Living!

Challenges / Solutions -- Homelessness
Nothing will work if YOU dont work!
McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Act of 2001
We stand on the brink of comprehensive change in
the culture of education . former Education
Secretary Rod Paige
  • Vignettes


What Would YOU Do If?

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 1
Elsie Johnson and her five children left their
home because of
domestic violence in October of last year. She
and the children
moved into a shelter for thirty days, then they
had to leave because
their time was up. Elsie tried to get
Section 8 housing, but a major natural disaster
had occurred and there was nothing available, so
she moved in with her mother, Zelda Jeffrey.
Both Elsie and Zelda lived in Metropolis ISD
Zeldas home was located within a block of the
boundary of Zinger ISD. Mrs. Jeffreys home was
not large enough for Elsie and all five children,
so Elsies sister, who lived in Zinger ISD, said
she would take the two oldest children to live
with her, and then enrolled the two oldest
children in Zinger ISD. Elsie learned from the
liaison that her children could attend Zinger, so
although she was residing in Metropolis ISD, she
believed it would be best if all of her children
were in the same district, so she enrolled the
other three in Zinger ISD as well. It is now
August of the next year and Elsies situation has
not changedshe is still with her mother, where
she and her three children live together in one
bedroom of Zeldas home. Elsie has a full-time
job where she makes just a little less than 7.00
an hourhardly enough to support herself and five
children in a separate household. She is still
on the waiting list for Section 8 housing.

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 1
Elsie and the three children have just shown
up to register at the
elementary school in Zinger ISD where
they attended last year. Questions 1. Must
Zinger ISD enroll the children? 2. If yes to
Question 1, what are the requirements for free
lunch and transportation?

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 2
Johnny Angels parents are divorced. During
the school year, Johnny,
who is 15, lives in New Mexico with his
father, who was granted
custody of him by a judge. He spends
the summers with his mom and
her boyfriend. After a great
summer with his mom, Johnny decided that he was
not going back to New Mexico to be with his
father, whom Johnny claimed was very abusive
toward him. Johnny and his mom went to
Metropolis ISD to register Johnny right before
school started but they were told theyd need
Johnnys records from New Mexico before they
could enroll him in MISD. They were able to get
the records, but someone from Johnnys school in
New Mexico alerted his father that Johnny was
trying to enroll in Metropolis ISD. Mr. Angel
called the school several times and told the
school to not enroll Johnny, so the school told
Johnny they could not enroll him and that he
should just go back to New Mexico and make up
with his father.

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 2
Questions 1. Did the school district follow
federal and state laws? 2. What was correct or
incorrect about how the district handled this
situation? 3. Does the fact that Johnny claimed
he was abused have any bearing on what the
district should do? 4. How can the district
move from compliance to commitment?

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 3
LaKeisha Pepper, 17, started working part-time
at a fast-food
restaurant six months ago through a work program
at Zinger ISD.
She and her manager, Dirk Lama, became
romantically involved
it was love at first sight! LaKeishas
mom, a psychiatrist, believed that this was just
a passing phase and didnt get too concerned
until LaKeisha began staying away from home for
longer and longer periods of time. LaKeisha and
Dr. Pepper started to get into strong arguments
over LaKeishas relationship with Dirk. Finally
LaKeisha got very disgusted with her mothers
intolerance and threats and moved in with Dirk,
who resides in Metropolis ISD. LaKeishas mom
contacted the police, but because of LaKeishas
age, and because there was no sign of physical
sign of abuse or neglect, the police would not
get involved. LaKeisha decided it would be best
if she started her final year of school in
Metropolis ISD, so she attempted to enroll
herself there, in the high school that is located
in the attendance zone where Dirk livesabout 3.5
miles from his house. Metropolis ISD
reluctantly enrolled LaKeisha even though her
mother threatened a lawsuit if the district went
ahead and enrolled her. Dr. Pepper also objected
when she found that MISD considers LaKeisha

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 3

Questions 1. Did the district take the
appropriate action regarding LaKeishas
enrollment in MISD? 2. Is the district
required to label LaKeisha homeless? Is she
homeless? 3. What could the district do to move
from compliance to commitment?

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 4
Snookie Smiley is 5 years old and moves around
with her mother to
various relatives homes, all of whom live in
Metropolis ISD. Last
year, because of her homeless status, she
was able to attend Pre-K at
Jenkins Elementary School, which was
directly across the street from
where her Aunt Kitty, with whom
she was living, resided. Snookie was with Aunt
Kitty for most of the year, and Aunt Kitty would
walk her to and from school every day. Right
after school was out in May, Snookies mom
started getting into drugs again so Aunt Kitty
kicked her out of the house. Snookie could have
stayed, but Snookies mom wouldnt let her. The
two moved in with a friend of Snookies mom,
Linda, and her daughter, Brenda, in the Harry
Potter Elementary School attendance zone, which
is also in Metropolis ISD. Snookies mother
didnt like Harry Potter Elementary very well,
and wanted Snookie to attend Jenkins again this
year. Jenkins Elementary is on the other side of
town, about 12 miles from where she is staying

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 4

Questions 1. What are Jenkins and Harry Potter
Elementary Schools required to do in order to
remain in compliance with Federal and State
statutes? 2. What could the schools do to move
from compliance to commitment?

What Would YOU Do If? Vignette 5
Mr. and Mrs. Chatsworth Longfellow both work
at the local community
college in Zinger and have a combined
income of about 140,000.
They bought an older home about three
years ago for a very
inexpensive price and fixed it up nicely so
they and their two children
would be comfortable. The
Longfellows learned a few months ago that a new
high-tech factory was coming to Zinger, forcing
housing values to skyrocket, so they sold their
home for about three times what they paid for it.
They used some of the profit to pay off debts
and the rest to buy a brand new 28-foot camp
trailer and a dualie truck. They put the
trailer on some land they bo