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Advanced Democracies

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Advanced Democracies Defining Paths Freedom and equality States and sovereignty Social change and conflict Economic Change * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Quiz How are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Advanced Democracies


1
Advanced Democracies
  • Defining
  • Paths
  • Freedom and equality
  • States and sovereignty
  • Social change and conflict
  • Economic Change

2
Quiz
  • How are Postmodern values different from Modern
    values?
  • What is the major dilemma facing Advanced
    Democracies in regard to the welfare state and an
    aging population?

3
Defining Advanced Democracies
  • Which countries are these?
  • Past definitions first, second, third worlds
  • Problems with these terms democracy and
    capitalism, end of Cold War
  • Countries move between different categories!
  • Definition institutionalized democracy and high
    level of economic development

4
Paths of Advanced Democracies
  • How did they get to where they are today?
  • Various paths of democratization and
    industrialization
  • Early democratization and industrialization (US,
    Canada)
  • Late democratization, early industrialization
    (Germany)
  • Late industrialization, late democratization
    (Japan)

5
Freedom and Equality in the Advanced Democracies
  • All share
  • institutionalized liberal democracy
  • Private property and free markets
  • High level of economic development
  • Differences, though, in how freedom and equality
    reconciled
  • Civil liberties
  • Participation and competition
  • State role in the economy (liberal, social
    democratic, mercantilist)

6
States and Sovereignty
  • Hallmarks of modern politics
  • Changing in the advanced democracies?
  • Pull of authority upward Integration
  • Pull of authority downward Devolution
  • Both challenge state power

7
Integration and the European Union
  • Created after World War Two
  • Idea to prevent war through interdependence
  • Pool resources to have greater authority in
    international system (Cold War)
  • Slow development from 1951 to present
  • Transfer of sovereignty incrementally

8
Institutions of the EU
  • Bodies that reflect domestic political
    institutions, with some differences
  • European Commission representatives appointed
    from member states, make legislation
  • Council of Ministers ministers from member
    states cabinets, approve legislation
  • European Parliament directly elected members
    that approve legislation
  • European Court of Justice interprets EU law

9
From Intergovernmental to Supranational?
  • EU has gained more power over time
  • No longer intergovernmental
  • Now supranationallike a state of its own
  • Monetary Unionmost member states gave up own
    currency in 2002 for euro
  • Major loss of sovereigntycountries central
    banks lost many of their traditional powers
  • How good has been euro for EU members?

10
Enlargement of the EU
  • In 2004, took on ten new members
  • Most post-communist countries of Eastern Europe,
    former Soviet Union
  • How will this affect EU?
  • Decision making in a larger body
  • Costs of subsidies and benefits for poorer new
    members causes conflict
  • Former Soviet States Skepticism
  • Far from over

11
Rejection of the EU Constitution
  • Why?
  • - Fear of loss of Sovereignty (Too Liberal and
    too Socialist)
  • - Too long and too difficult to understand
  • - Democratic Deficit

12
Supranationalism and Democracy
  • Who controls the EU?
  • Absence of direct popular control
  • Notion of the democratic deficit
  • Recent rejection of EU constitution by some
    members has led to confusion over future of EU
    and what changes are needed

13
Devolution and Democracy
  • Power not just moving up, as with EU
  • Also moving down
  • Devolution powers and resources are transferred
    away from central state institutions and vested
    at a lower level

14
Why Devolution?
  • Counter public mistrust of distant government
    and state
  • Greater flexibility and local participation
  • Resolve ethnic or national identity conflicts by
    giving more power to discontent groups
  • Helps reinvigorate politics or simply undercuts
    state sovereignty?

15
Limits of Devolution
  • Post-September 11, move back toward
    centralization
  • State power increased, devolution seen as a
    possible threat to security

16
Social Change and Conflict Postmodern Values
  • Changes at societal level as well
  • Traditional modern values
  • Rationality and science
  • Individualism and autonomy
  • Materialism
  • Growing skepticism of these values by 1960s
  • Environmentalism
  • Criticism of nationalism and patriotism

17
The Content of Postmodern Values
  • Less focused on idea of progress
  • Quality of life issues more central
  • Health
  • Environment
  • Leisure
  • Personal equality
  • Diversity
  • Hostility to centralized power (devolution,
    integration)

18
Diversity, Identity, and the Challenge to
Postmodern Values
  • Are postmodern values really taking hold?
  • Affected in part by wave of immigration across
    advanced democracies
  • Large numbers
  • Diverse groups of peoples within and between
    advanced democracies

19
Identity and Migration
  • Assimilation or multiculturalism?
  • Will migration undercut postmodern values?
  • Will advanced democracies become more different
    from each other due to migration?

20
Economic Change Postindustrialism
  • Modern economies built upon industrialization,
    away from agriculture
  • Now moving from industry and toward service
    sector non-tangible goods
  • Finance, insurance
  • Communication, education
  • Legal, health care
  • Majority of people in advanced democracies now
    work in service sector

21
Postindustrialisms Effects
  • Greater devolution of industry?
  • Less hierarchical
  • More virtual
  • More international
  • More flexible and autonomous
  • Reinforces postmodern values?
  • Marginalization of those without education?
  • Shapes new political struggles?
  • How much of this is over-exaggerated?

22
Maintaining the Welfare State
  • Important element of most advanced democracies
  • Wide array of social expenditures enjoyed by
    society
  • But problems as well
  • Increasingly expensive, such as health care,
    pensions
  • Populations getting older!
  • Who will pay for this?
  • Migration as a way to solve? Will people accept?

23
Future Issues
  • States face integration and devolution
  • Societies face new values and old ideologies
  • Economies face changing workplace and aging
    workforce
  • How will these areas in combination transform
    freedom and equality in the coming decades?
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