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Title: AP Psych Exam Prep


1
AP Psych Exam Prep
  • Student-generated study guide for the AP
    Psychology Examination

2
Statistics and Research Methods
  • Key Concepts
  • This chapter is about experimentation,
    specifically
  • Correlational research (are two things related?)
  • Case Study approach (reading case files)
  • Survey approach (giving surveys)
  • Naturalistic observation (watching subject in
    nature)
  • Longitudinal study (follows subjects over long
    periods of time)
  • Cross-sectional study (follows many subjects with
    something in common)
  • The goal of a psychological experiment is to
    define correlation and/or cause between two areas
    of psychological interest. The involves
    manipulating the independent variable and
    recording changes in the dependent variable as
    well as attempting to control other (confounding)
    variables. To accomplish this psychologists use
    such techniques as using representative samples
    (truly random), defining operational definition
    (what exactly they are measuring), making the
    experiment double-blind (neither the experimenter
    nor the subject knows whether they are a control
    or experiment group), and using placebos. Also,
    when order might matter psychologists use
    counterbalancing (meaning they do the experiment
    with one order and then others to see if there is
    a difference)
  • Statistics descriptive statistics simply
    describe a scenario. Inferential statistics use
    descriptive statistics to make an inference about
    a scenario.
  • Mean average
  • Median middle number (so in 12345 the median
    would be 3)
  • Mode most repeated number (so in 122345 mode
    2)
  • Correlation coefficient (how accurate a study is.
    If the absolute value of the coefficient is
    close to one, it is very accurate. Positive
    means a positive correlation, and negative means
    a negative correlation.
  • Statistical significance- usually when the
    correlation coefficient is greater than .95.
  • Gamblers fallacythat the same number or
    combination cant appear twice in a row (when in
    fact the laws of randomness dictate they will at
    some point in time)
  • Nominal data- names (Tom, James)
  • Ordinal data- ordered data (1,2,3,4)
  • Interval data- difference over an interval (40
    more teens smoked in 2004 than in 2005)
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • John B. Watson- father of Behaviorism
  • Stanley Milgrams study on obedience to an
    authority
  • Clever Hans the horse
  • Wilhelm Wundt- est. 1st psychology lab, in
    Germany
  • William James- wrote Principles of Psychology
    still highly respected today for its insights
  • Essay Themes
  • Designing and critiquing of experiments

3
Biological Bases of Behavior
  • Key Concepts
  • The Neural Chain consists of neurons- cells in
    the brains dendrites- branch-like projections
    that receive messages from other neurons
    soma-the cell body axon- the tail of the
    neuron along which electrical signals are
    conducted. Terminals- knobs at the end of axon
    neurotransmitters are released into synapse (the
    gap between the terminals of one neuron and the
    dendrites of receiving neuron) after neuron is
    fired there is refractory period where the cell
    cant fire again.
  • Neurotransmitters can be excitatory (stimulating)
    or inhibitory (slowing) agonist drugs that
    mimic action of neurotransmitters antagonist-
    drug that blocks action of neurotransmitter
  • The Nervous Systemconsists of CNS- brain and
    spinal cord PNS- sensory and motor neurons that
    connect the CNS to the rest of the body PNS
    divided into 2- somatic system- controls
    voluntary actions of the body autonomic system-
    largely voluntary and is further broken down into
    the sympathetic and parasympathetic system
  • Frontal- executive of brain, carrying out
    planning, decision making and judgement
  • Parietal- houses the somatosensory area, governs
    sense of touch, temp., and pain.
  • Occipital- houses the visual cortex
  • Temporal- houses auditory cortex, processes info
    from both
  • Reticular Formation- area that controls the
    arousal to attend to stimuli
  • Thalamus- located in midbrain routes or relays
    sensory info to appropriate destinations.
  • Medulla- old brain- helps control breathing and
    swallowing.
  • Cerebellum- center for motor function Pons-
    oldest structure of brain.
  • Limbic System Hippocampus forms new memories
    Amygdala associated with anger, fear, sex drive,
    responsible for evaluating emotional relevance
    of incoming info Hypothalamus works w/pituitary
    gland to regulate eating, drinking, sex drive
  • Genetic predisposition humans are born w/a
    tendency toward certain behaviors or
    characteristics (NOT BORN WITH TRAITS)
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Roger Sperrys experiments w/ split
    brain(severed corpus callosum-structure
    connecting 2 halves of the brain) patients
    concluded that the left side of the body is
    governed by right brain and vice versa. He also
    found that the left side of the brain houses
    language centers- including BROCAS area
    (controls speech muscles via motor cortex and
    WERNICKES area (allows words to have meaning, or
    interprets auditory code). Split brain patients
    are able to adapt over time.
  • Phineas Gage injured in accident doing RR work
    personality altered after metal rod driven
    through skull in frontal lobe and severed it from
    limbic system.
  • Essay Themes
  • How do neurotransmitters and hormones work to
    affect our behavior
  • Know the basic functions/structures of brain
  • Concept of genetic predispositions

4
Sensation and Perception
  • Key Concepts
  • Sensation- process of attending to and taking in
    stimuli from the environment (Sound, taste,
    touch, smell and vision)
  • Hearing Pitch- a tones highness or lowness
  • Taste- four sensations sweet, sour, salty and
    bitter.
  • Emotional responses to taste are hard-wired
  • We can still taste even without our tongue.
  • Smell- five million receptor cells at each nasal
    cavity
  • Olfactory receptors- recognize different odors.
  • Touch- four senses pressure, warmth, could and
    pain
  • Vestibular sense-body balance, located at the
    semicircular canals in the inner ear Kinesthetic
    sense- body part position and movement,
    receptors in joints and muscles
  • Sensory interaction- the principle that one sense
    may influence another, as when the smell of food
    influences its taste
  • Visual system Rods- sees black/right, and
    light/dark Cones- sees color, and clarity/acuity
  • Visual cortex- responsible for processing visual
    information
  • Blind spot- back of the eye, no rods and cones
  • Trichromatic theory- three colors, red, green,
    and blue, combine to see other colors
  • Opponent process theory- two kinds of cones (red
    and green)(blue and yellow)
  • Absolute threshold- minimum amount of stimulus
    you can detect at least 50 of the time it is
    presented
  • Difference threshold- the smallest difference
    between two stimuli that a subject can detect at
    least 50 of the time
  • Webers Law- two stimuli must differ by a
    constant proportion for a difference between them
    to be detected
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Ernst Weber- Webers Law
  • Gustav Fechner- the just noticeable difference or
    difference threshold
  • Essay Themes
  • Set, expectancy, schemas- our perceptual set or
    mindset affects our perception of the world
    around us our past experiences lead us to expect
    certain outcomes our schema is a framework we
    have in our heads based on our past experiences

5
States of Consciousness
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • -Hobson and McCarley- activation-synthesis dream
    theory
  • -Enest Hilgard
  • -Martin Orne- study of hypnosis
  • -Sigmund Freud
  • Key Concepts
  • Sleep- Five stages of sleep, stages 1-4 progress
    from light to deep sleep, stage 5 is called
    R.E.M. (rapid eye movement) Sleep cycle goes
    from 1,2,3,4 then back down 4,3,2,1, and then
    enters REM
  • Stage 1- light sleep, characterized by fairly
    rapid brain wave activity (recorded on EEG)
  • Stage 2- characterized by sleep spindles, spikes
    of very rapid electrical activity (largest
    percent of total sleep time spent in stage 2)
  • Stage 34- deep sleep or delta sleep, breathing
    and heart rate decrease
  • REM- active sleep/paradoxical sleep, brain is
    active, elevated hear rate and blood pressure,
    major muscle groups are paralyzed, where dreaming
    occurs REM deprivation studies suggest we need
    REM sleep
  • circadian rhythms- our biological clock (daily
    rhythm)
  • restorative theory- we sleep in order to
    rest/recuperate memory consolidation theory- we
    sleep so we can dream in order to sift through
    the days good/bad memories adaptive
    non-responding theory- evolutionary theory that
    it has always been safer/adaptive (good for ones
    survival) to sleep at night
  • Sleep Disorders
  • -Hypersomnia- getting/needing too much sleep
  • -Narcolepsy- a sudden, involuntary drop into
    sleep
  • -Apnea- sufferer frequently stops breathing
    during the nigh and must re-start themselves by
    awakening to some degree
  • -Night terrors- a frightened awakening w/ high
    physiological arousal (sweating, increased heart
    rate, etc) w/ no recall in the morning
  • Dreams
  • -Activation-synthesis theory- we synthesize or
    combine random elements into a dream or story
    line
  • -Most well known dream theory comes from Freudian
    psychoanalytic school of thought Freud dreams
    are the holy road to the unconscious
  • Hypnosis
  • -Two interpretations (1) very relaxed state in
    which the subject is more open to suggestion (2)
    altered state of consciousness (Ernest Hilgard)
  • Psychoactive Drugs-a chemical substance that
    impacts behavior, perceptions, moods, or mental
    processes

Essay Themes Know about Freud and psychoanalysis
for part of a possible essay question
6
Learning Theory
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • 1. experimented with dogs salivation after
    hearing a metronome without the presentation of
    food, dogs associate tone with food
  • 2. unconditioned stimulus (food), conditioned
    stimulus (metronome), unconditioned response (
    salivation at presentation of food), conditioned
    response ( salivation at the sound of metronome)
  • John B. Watson
  • 1. studied behaviorism
  • 2. Little Albert (white rat-gtloud noisefearful
    response)
  • B. F. Skinner
  • 1. connects behaviors with the consequences
  • Social/Observational Learning Insight Learning
    (Kohler) Latent Learning (Tolman) Learned
    Helplessness (Seligman)
  • Key Concepts
  • Classical Conditioning- based on the making of
    associations
  • Ex getting excited when you hear the music of
    an ice cream truck due to the music reliably
    predicting the arrival of the truck
  • Taste Aversions associate illness with certain
    food
  • Counter-conditioning ( replace relaxation with
    fear)
  • Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner) connects
    behaviors with the consequences Positive
    reinforcement (encourages good behavior)
    Negative reinforcement (encourages bad behavior)
    Punishment (discourages behavior) Primary
    reinforcers (unlearned) Secondary reinforcers
    (learned)
  • Continuous Schedules- Fixed Ratio (FR)specified
    number of desired responses Variable Ratio
    (VR)amount of responses not specified Fixed
    Interval (FI)specified passage of time Variable
    Interval (VI)varied period of time
  • Essay Themes
  • Compare/contrast operant and classical
    conditioning
  • The major schools of thought in Psychology
    (Behaviorism, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive,
    Biomedical, Humanist)

7
Memory
  • Key Concepts
  • Retrieval- the process of getting information out
    of memory storage
  • Recognition- a measure of memory in which the
    person need only identify items previously
    learned, as on a multiple-choice test
  • Implicit memories- retention independent of
    conscious recollection. Also called procedural
    memory.
  • Explicit memories- memory of facts and
    experiences that one can consciously know and
    declare. Also called declarative memory.
  • Serial position effect- our tendency to recall
    best the last and first items in a list.
  • Framing- the way an issue is posed how an issue
    is framed can significantly affect decisions and
    judgments.
  • Scans of the brain in action, and autopsies of
    people who had amnesia, reveal that new explicit
    memories of names, images, and events are laid
    down via a limbic system structure called the
    hippocampus.
  • When brain scans capture the brain giving birth
    to a memory they reveal activity in the
    hippocampus as well as in certain areas of the
    frontal lobes
  • Forgetting
  • Proactive interference- the disruptive effect of
    prior learning on the recall of new information.
  • Retroactive interference- the disruptive effect
    of new learning on the recall of old information.
  • Suppress- bring out happy memories
  • Repress- bury painful memories
  • Decay- the storage of memory decays as time goes
    on
  • Memory encoding the more something is
    processed, the better the chances of recall
    Chunking a means of facilitating encoding by
    breaking up numbers into 'chunks Schema a
    cognitive framework based on your current
    assumptions
  • Encoding error types, illustration using the 7
    dwarfs
  • Semantic remembering a dwarf who was really
    smart (the dwarf was doc)
  • Acoustic remembering dumpy or bumpy (the dwarf
    was grumpy)
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Elizabeth Loftus- people repress and suppress
    their memories eyewitness testimony study

Essay Themes Eyewitness recalls- can we trust
it? Short-term memory and long term memory- how
they work together?
8
Thought and Language
  • Key Concepts
  • THOUGHT Concepts- ideas that are grouped
    together because of shared characteristic. ex-
    Scottie and poodle- both dogs, but different
    Prototype is the best example of a particular
    thingConvergent thinking- the answer that one
    believes is what someone else wants to hear
    Divergent thinking- creative thinking "thinking
    outside of the box Incubation-leave an idea for
    a while and allow the mind to work on it
    unconsciously Humans are unique- metacognition
    which is thinking about one's own thinking and
    problem solving skills.
  • Algorithm is a step-by-step method of that
    guarantees a solution while heuristics are
    shortcuts, but doesn't promise an answer
    Availability heuristic is judging a situation
    according to what evidence is available
    ex-(afraid of plane crashes because they are more
    televised, when car crashes are much more
    common.) Representativeness heuristic is judging
    based on what we expect based on what we have
    experieced in the past.
  • Humans are sometimes limited by
    functional fixedness where people can only see
    something for it's conventional use Mental set
    is fixation of a particular way to solve a
    problem, trying to solve all problem the same
    way Framing- a way of presenting a problem that
    influences the way it is viewed Confirmation
    bias is our willingness to believe information
    that supports our views and ignore ones that
    differ from our view points.
  • Language How we acquire language and how it
    effects behavior is called psycholinguistics
    There is a debate between psychologists about to
    what extent we are programmed for language before
    birth stages of speech development. Cooing (2
    months), Babbling (same around the world at
    first, but then develops the basic sounds, or
    phonemes, of the surrounding language),
    Holophrastic (express thoughts in one word),
    Telegraphic speech (2 or 3 words)
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Noam Chomsky- theory of Language Acquisition
    device
  • Richard Kahnemon and Amos Tverley- researched
    problem solving
  • "Genie" and Victor "the wild child"- case studies
    about nature vs. nurture with regards to language
    and critical periods
  • Whorfian Hypothosis or Linguistic Relativity
    Theory- says that language influences the way we
    think

Essay Themes Critical Period Theory- window of
time when a child is most ready to learn
language, and if this opportunity is missed, they
might never be able to catch up
9
Developmental Psych
  • Key Concepts
  • Developmental theories divided into 2 categories
  • 1.) Continuity theory propose that development
    is very gradual 2) Discontinuity theory changes
    occur more dramatically
  • Teratogen is anything that harms the organism
    prenatal Ex. Alcohol
  • Imprinting is a newborns response to a stimulus
    in its environment Konrad Lorenz tinkered with
    this natural mechanism by replacing a mother duck
    with a surrogate
  • Harry Harlow refers to human newborns that need
    physical touch as contact comfort
  • Reflexes-Sucking, grasping, rooting (baby
    imitates steps), and moro or startle reflex
  • Babies mimic facial expressions
  • 4 stages of cognitive development -Sensorimotor
    stage (birth 2yrs) explore environment
    Preoperational stage (2 -7 yrs)- child pretend
    plays Concrete operational stage (7-11 yrs)-
    logical thinking Formal operational stage (11
    yrs and on)- considers future
  • Primary sex characteristics- directly involved
    with reproduction Secondary sex characteristics-
    development of puberty
  • Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Formulated a stage theory
    addressing our encounters with grief 5 stages-
    Denial, anger, bargaining, depression and
    acceptance
  • Laurence Kohlberg used a fictional story called
    The Heinz Dilemma to evaluate levels of moral
    reasoning in children
  • -Preconventional level (4- 10 yrs old) focus is
    rewarded
  • -Conventional level (10 13 yrs old) focus on
    social conventions
  • -Postconventioanl level (13) moral decisions
    based on right or wrong
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Eleanor Gibson did a visual cliff apparatus
  • Jean Plaget studied the thinking of youngsters
  • Mary Ainsworth found attachment styles for
    children
  • -Avoidant-child ignores mother when returns
  • -Secure-child distressed when mother
    leaves
  • -Resistant-child sends mix message
  • -Disorganized-child appears confused
  • Diana Baumrind described a set of parenting
    styles
  • -Authoritarian-parents establish rules strict
  • -Authoritative-parents are willing to listen
    explain rules
  • -Permissive-parents give children their freedom
  • -Neglectful-parents ignore raising their
    children
  • -Democratic-everyone has equal say in the family
  • Erik Erikson Stage theory of psychosocial
    development across the life span
  • -Trust vs. mistrust (birth 18 m)
  • -Autonomy vs. shame (18 m 3 yrs old) sense of
    internal control
  • -Initiative vs. guilt (3 7 yrs old) sense of
    right and wrong
  • -Industry vs. inferiority (7 10 yrs old)
    masters basic skills for success in society

Essay Themes Stage Theories Nature vs. Nurture
debate
10
Motivation and Emotion
  • Key Concepts
  • Ethology- focuses on biological bases for
    behavior. Instinct innate, preprogrammed,
    unlearned behavior in response to some stimulus
  • Sociobiology- people behave in ways that are most
    likely to perpetuate and assure the survival of
    their own genes.
  • Drive Theory- we all have needs that must be
    fulfilled. Maintain homeostasis.
  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory- we strive to bring
    our thoughts, attitudes and behaviors into
    agreement with each other. Cognitive
    homeostasis
  • Arousal Theory- each of us has his/her own sense
    of appropriate arousal and we act in ways to
    remain at a comfortable arousal level.
  • Yerkes Dodson Law prediction about the
    relationship between arousal level and
    performance suggests that there is an interaction
    between aroused states, the difficulty of the
    task to be carried out and eventual performance
    on that task.
  • Incentive Theory- we are pulled toward behaviors
    by rewards or incentives External (extrinsic
    motivation)- payment, cash Internal (intrinsic
    motivation)- personal satisfaction
  • Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs- Maslow
    theorized that we all have needs we must meet. We
    are motivated to meet those needs Physiologic
    needs- food and water Shelter and safety needs
    Need for belonging and companionship Self
    esteem Self actualization
  • Lateral Hypothalamus- hunger center
  • Ventromedial Hypothalamus- satiety center
  • Cultural Contributions- TV ideals of beauty
  • Social Contributions- eating at social events
  • External Cues- food is prepared. Time for lunch
  • Aggression
  • Hostile Aggression- carried out for its own sake
    Instrumental Aggression- aggression working
    toward some other goal besides the aggression
    itself. Ex bumping someone out of the way to get
    possession of the ball.
  • Emotion James-Lange Theory- physiological
    changes occur and then later label those signs of
    emotion Cannon-Bard Theory- recognition of
    physiological changes and the awareness of the
    emotion are processed simultaneously by the
    thalamus Schachter-Singer Theory- one can
    interpret the identical physical sensations
    differently according to the context in which
    they occur.
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Abraham Maslow- Hierarchy of needs
  • Clark Hull- Drive theory
  • Edmund Wilson- Sociobiology
  • Konrad Lorenz- ethology
  • Leon Festinger- Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Essay Themes Opponent Process Theory Account for
some particular human behavior from the different
motivation perspectives ie ethology,
sociobiology, etc.
11
Personality
  • Key Concepts
  • Personality Theories
  • -Nature vs Nurture- predisposed biology or
    learned behavior.
  • -Stability of personality across situations- do
    we have characteristics same no matter the
    situation?
  • -Situationist- people have different
    personalities for different situations
  • Trait Theory
  • -Trait- characteristic tendency toward certain
    behaviors or emotions no matter what the
    situation.
  • -Cardinal trait- dominates. Central trait- second
    most dominant. Secondary trait- less defining.
  • -Factor analysis- 16 personality factors to
    catalog traits
  • -Type A personality- driven, competitive, rigid,
    intense Type B personality- laid back, easy
    going
  • -Big Five openness, conscientiousness,
    extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
  • Psychoanalytic Theory -Unconscious conflict,
    having to do with early childhood (Freud)
    Iceberg effect- conscious mind on top,
    unconscious mind bottom of iceberg Id-
    unconscious mind Ego- how one behaves Superego-
    how one should behave Defense mechanisms-denial,
    projection, regression, and suppression
    Psychosexual stages- Oral, anal, phallic,
    latency, genital
  • Neo-Freudians- Jung and Horney- thought Freud put
    too much emphasis on male bias and sexual
    conflict
  • Social Cognitive Theory and Behavioral Theory-
    Self efficacy-sense that one can control outcomes
    in ones environment Attribution Theory-
    situational, dispositional, fundamental
    Explanatory styles- how you explain a situation,
    positively or negatively
  • Humanistic Theory - People strive to reach
    fullest potential, which includes
    self-actualization and fully functioning.
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Perspective/Name
  • Psychoanalytic/Freud
  • Learning/Skinner
  • Social cognitive/ Behavioral/Bandura
  • Humanist/Maslow
  • Essay Themes
  • Explain anxiety/depression from each of the
    following perspectives psychoanalytic,
    behavioral, cognitive, etc.

12
Testing and Individual Differences
  • Key Concepts
  • Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.)/ Emotional Quotient
    (E.Q.) I.Q.
  • mental age/chronological age x 100, E.Q. or
    emotional intelligence is the ability to
    perceive, express, understand, and regulate
    emotions.
  • Mental age chronological age typical of a given
    level of performance applies to children only
  • Gifted/retarded gifted- high I.Q., over 130 to
    140 retarded- low I.Q., below 70
  • Flynn effect I.Q. scores have steadily risen in
    America in the last half century
  • Achievement vs aptitude tests mastery of some
    body of knowledge or skills vs ability to do or
    learn something in the future Performance vs
    paper and pencil actually doing a task vs tests
    like those in school
  • Personality assessment self report
    inventories- ex) Minnesota Multiphasic
    Personality Inventory (M.M.P.I.) and Myers-Briggs
    Inventory Projective tests subjects impression
    of ambiguous stimuli is thought to say
    something about that individual, ex) Rorschach
    and Thematic Apperception Test (T.A.T.)
  • Characteristics of Sound Assessment
    Standardized- given in same manner, under same
    time limitations, and with identical instructions
    from administrator to administrator
    Norms-established by giving an assessment to a
    representative sample of individuals similar to
    the population for whom the test is designed
    Reliability- consistency of scoring procedures,
    types of reliability-test/retest, split half,
    inter-rater, intra-rater Validity- whether or
    not the test actually assesses what it claims to
    assess
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Defining Intelligence
  • Charles Spearman General Intelligence (G) and
    Specific Intelligence (S)
  • Louis Thurstone identified eight clusters of
    primary mental abilities opposed Spearmans G
  • J. P. Guilford cube model- like a rubics cube
    where each block is a type of intellectual
    ability, over 100 types in model
  • Raymond Cattell crystallized intelligence-accumul
    ated knowledge and verbal skills, increases with
    age and fluid intelligence- ability to reason
    speedily and abstractly, decreases with age
  • Robert Sternbergs Triarchic Theory- agrees with
    MI, believes in three aspects of intelligence-
    analytical, creative, and practical
  • Howard Gardners theory of multiple
    intelligences (MI), intelligence is not one thing
    but made up of many things
  • Testing
  • Alfred Binet father of intelligence testing,
    first person to develop intelligence test, the
    test assessed ones ability to learn
  • Lewis Terman Standford-Binet, amended English
    version of Binets test, still used today to
    measure I.Q.
  • David Wechsler Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
    Children (WISC) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence
    Scale (WAIS), these are the most commonly used
    I.Q. tests, tests developed for specific age
    groups

Essay Themes Test bias two types of bias- test
detects not only innate differences but also
differences caused by cultural experiences, often
test items make middle-class assumptions bias
can also mean whether a test is less valid for
some groups than for others Culture fair testing
similar to test bias, cultures vary so
intelligence will vary from culture to culture
13
Abnormal Psychology
  • Key Concepts
  • Clinical psychology field of study devoted to
    the causes, characteristics, and treatments of
    psychological disorders
  • DSM-IV-R Diagnostic and statistical manual
    helps clinicians to identify mental disorders
    controversial because labels from manual could
    cause the individual to live up to the symptoms
    accompanying the disease
  • Operational definition of each disorder describe
    their characteristics and the frequency and
    duration of those symptoms
  • Abnormal Behavior behavior that is disturbing to
    others, violates cultural standards, disturbing
    to self, and irrational and maladaptive
  • Mood or Affective disorders Major depression
    deep sadness, feeling hopeless Seasonal
    affective major depression triggered by changes
    in season Bipolar sudden shifts in mood from
    deep depression to extreme euphoria
  • Biomedical model focuses on brain chemistry
  • Sociocultural theorists social and environmental
    factors lead to a disorder
  • Dissociative disorders Dissociative fugue
    amnesia and physical relocation Dissociative
    amnesia large scale memory loss for events or
    identity
  • Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid delusions and
    hallucinations
  • Disorganized confused speech and inappropriate
    emotions Catatonic no emotion or responsibility
    and frozen body parts
  • Undifferentiated category for all others
  • Diathesis stress model- biological
    predisposition environment
  • Developmental disorders Autism, Attention
    deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, Conduct disorder
  • Personality disorders Antisocial rebellious,
    deceitful, manipulative Narcissistic
    exaggerated sense of ones own value Histrionic
    insatiable need for attention Paranoid chronic
    sense of being observed Border line
    instability
  • Somatoform disorders Conversion disorder
    convert psychological stress to physical
    symptoms Hypochondriasis preoccupation with
    fear of an illness
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • David Rosenhan conducted a study that showed how
    the application of a label influences how
    subsequent behaviors are perceived. He reported
    hearing voices, was admitted to an institution as
    a schizophrenic. Once admitted he returned to
    normal behavior and never reported auditory
    hallucinations. No one from the staff ever caught
    on even though he remained a patient for 3 wks.
  • Essay Themes
  • Major schools of psychological thought

14
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
  • Key Concepts
  • trephining- drilling of hole into skull of
    patient to show evil disorder causing spirits the
    door
  • Philipe Pinel (19th century France) Dorthea Dix
    (19th Century America) tried to get other to see
    sufferers require nurturance and treatment, not
    incarceration.
  • 20th century- deinstitutionalization, those with
    mental disorders can be helped, even cured
  • Psychiatrist- medical doctor with specialty in
    mental health, can prescribe medicine Clinical
    psychologist- PhD rather than MD, refer you to
    get medicine Counselor- licensed to practice
    psychotherapy
  • Eclectic- rely on many different techniques
  • Key to success- warmth/trust in relationship
  • Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Model
  • -Psychoanalytic- achieve insight through
    uncovering of unconscious internal conflict Free
    association- patient lets mind roam freely,
    release of feelings is cathartic Word
    association Dream Interpretation
  • -Psychodynamic- attempts to focus more on here
    and now, weekly/less long term therapy sessions
  • Behavioral Model- Classical/operant conditioning
    with social learning Token economies-
    reinforcers for desired behavior, trade in coin
    for some reward Aversive therapy- stop
    problematic behaviors with negative association
    Systematic desensitization- most successful,
    deconditioning responses to fears, aka
    counter-conditioning (replacing one response with
    a more desirable one) Implosion/implosive
    therapy- mental flooding
  • Cognitive Model
  • -focus on hurtful/irrational though processes
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Albert Ellis rational emotive therapy
    (Cognitive)
  • Aaron Beck (cognitive school of thought)
  • Neo-Freudians Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen
    Horney
  • David Rosenham
  • Abraham Maslow motivation and personality
    theory
  • Carl Rogers Rogerian Approach, person/client
    centered therapy, UPR (unconditional positive
    regard)
  • Philipe Pinel (19th century France) Dorthea Dix
    (19th Century America) tried to get other to see
    sufferers require nurturance and treatment, not
    incarceration.

Essay Themes major schools of psychological
thought
15
Social Psychology
  • Key Concepts
  • Social psychology examines the impact of groups
    on individuals exploring the human interplay
    between self and others.
  • Di-individualization a term used to account for
    some individual behaviors in group settings.
    This could describe any sense of the loss of
    identity and personal responsibility in a crowd.
  • Social trap sometimes individuals behave in ways
    that are unproductive simply because they fear
    others might do so.
  • Tragedy of the commons this is a kind of
    social trap. A long-term self-interest is best
    supported by cooperation, but people often end up
    competing, to the detriment of all.
  • Social loafing individuals in a group that
    apply less effort then they would if on their
    own.
  • Group think members of a group find themselves
    going along with the flow of the group.
  • Group polarization group decisions end up as
    extreme versions of the individual members
    predispositions.
  • Social facilitation suggests that the audience
    influences you in ways that depend upon the task
    you are performing.
  • Social inhibition an audience gathers around
    when you are trying to do something youve never
    done before its likely its presence will hinder
    your performance.
  • Compliance he has essentially persuaded you to
    choose to do what he wants to do.
  • Name Hall of Fame
  • Stanley Milgram- electric shock study
  • Solomon Asch- conformity studies
  • Philip Zimbardo- conducted mock prison study at
    Stanford University
  • Fritz Heider- attribution theory
  • Essay Themes
  • Obedience and conformity (the studies of Asch and
    Milgram)
  • Attribution theory and the attitudes and concept
    of prejudice
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