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Wraparound in PBIS Schools Developing and Implementing

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Title: Wraparound in PBIS Schools Developing and Implementing


1
Wraparound in PBIS Schools
Developing and Implementing Comprehensive Plans
for Students with Intensive Needs
Source The Art and Science of Wraparound A
Training Manual for Practitioners, Trainers, and
System Leaders (Eber, 2003) September, 2003
2
Overall Goals for 2-Day Training
  • Understand wraparound as component of
    school- wide system of PBIS
  • Understand concepts for team and intervention
    procedures for 1-5
  • Gain experience with components of the
  • wraparound process
  • Assess readiness and plan next steps with
    wraparound process at your school

3
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success
1-5
1-5
5-10
5-10
80-90
80-90
4
Wraparound PBIS Whats the Connection?
  • PBIS is the application of positive behavior
    supports across all students and all settings in
    schools.
  • Wraparound is a critical feature of school-wide
    systems of positive behavior support.

5
Introduction Overview
  • Wraparound is a tool used to implement
    interagency systems of care in achieving better
    outcomes for youth and their families.
  • Wraparound is an important component of
    school-wide systems of positive behavior
    interventions and supports (PBIS)

6
What is Wraparound?
  • Wraparound is a process for developing
    family-centered teams and plans that are strength
    and needs based (not deficit based) across
    multiple settings and life domains.
  • Wraparound plans include natural supports, are
    culturally relevant, practical and realistic.

7
What is Wraparound?(contd)
  • Blending perspectives of team members results in
    a variety of traditional and nontraditional
    strategies that are directly linked to agreed
    upon outcomes.
  • The wraparound process creates a context for
    effective implementation of research-based
    behavioral, academic and clinical interventions

8
Integrating wraparound and PBIS
  • Establishing a school-wide system of positive
    behavior supports can establish environments in
    schools that help personnel feel more confident
    about wraparound approaches with students with
    significant needs.

9
Similarities Across all Three Levels
  • Team-based decision-making
  • Consensus around proactive strategies
  • Ownership by those closest to kids practical,
    real
  • Use real data to guide interventions
  • Translate teacher/family/student stories into
    data
  • Who, what, when, why
  • Whats it going to take to get improvement we
    want?

10
Intensive Intervention
  • Facilitate wraparound planning process
  • Family/student/teacher ownership of plan
  • Access full range of school and community support
    services across life domains
  • Home, school, community settings
  • Individualized academic and behavior
    interventions are integrated into wrap plans

11

Wraparound
  • used with individual students
  • plans reflect voice, priorities of youth and
    family
  • based on unique youth and family needs
  • culturally relevant teams and plans
  • built upon youth, family and provider strengths
  • uses traditional and non-traditional
    interventions
  • encompasses multiple life domains
  • resources are blended must be flexible
  • services are planned, implemented, and evaluated
    by a team
  • team supports youth, family and providers
  • unconditional - if the plan doesnt work, change
    the plan

12
Life Domains
School,
Community
Family,
  • Medical/Health
  • Recreational
  • Education/Vocational

  • Spiritual
  • Cultural
  • Social/Fun
  • Safety
  • Emotional/behavioral
  • Basic Needs
  • Legal
  • Relationships
  • Other

13
Establish Family Voice/Ownership
  • No blaming, no shaming
  • Start with strengths
  • They choose their own team
  • Focus on what they identify as needs
  • Listen to their story before the meeting
  • Validate their perspective
  • Communicate differently..

14
How are wrap teams different?
  • Roles are the focus (not job titles)
  • Natural supports
  • Focus on strengths
  • Family voice and ownership
  • Focus on needs (instead of services)


15
A Definition of Unconditional Care
  • Students dont fail plans fail.
  • When the plan fails, dont blame the
    youth/family.
  • Instead, change the plan.

16
What happens during the wraparound process?
  • Blending perspectives of team
  • members results in a variety of
  • traditional and nontraditional strategies
  • that are directly linked to agreed
  • upon outcomes.

17
Wraparound as a Component of a School-wide
Positive Behavior Support System
Are elements of wraparound consistent with
approaches used in schools for all kids?
  • Proactive?
  • Strength-based?
  • Team-based?
  • Family centered?
  • Voice, ownership?
  • Natural supports?

18
Invest in UniversalIW high effective
Universal High 65IW high effective NO
Universal H 40
19
t 11.11 (335) plt .0001
t 2.30 (27) p lt .03
N223
N38
N223
N38
N17
N17
N169
N169
20
Wraparound works best within a proactive school
environment.
  • The focus is on what we want to see from
    students
  • Data is used to define needs and strategies
  • A team focuses on how to rearrange the
    environment
  • to make positive behavior more likely to occur

21
Social Competence Academic Achievement
OUTCOMES
Supporting Decision Making
DATA
Supporting Staff Behavior
SYSTEMS
PRACTICES
Supporting Student Behavior
22
What happens during the wraparound process?
  • The wraparound process creates a context for
    effective implementation of research-based
    behavioral, academic and clinical interventions

23
Unique Fit
  • Wraparound plans should be uniquely designed to
    fit individual students needs as opposed to
    making a student fit into a prescribed program.

24
Scott . The Targeted Team members agreed that
Scott, a second grader, needed Wraparound level
interventions to address work completion,
disrespect towards adults, and inability to
control moods. In the home setting Scott
exhibited physical symptoms such as headaches
and stomachaches in the morning and difficulty
completing homework assignments. Scott
reported that he did not like school.  
25
INTERVENTIONS All members of the team agreed
that Scott seemed sad and anxious. The mission
statement for Scott was that he would be happy
about school. The team implemented several
interventions to challenge Scott academically,
included him in the school-wide targeted
intervention of Check and Go, and developed a
school wide cool tool to address Scotts
disrespectful tone of voice. After much
discussion, the team agreed to put Scott in the
schools gifted program.
26
OUTCOMES and DATA Scotts teacher reports that
Scott has shown improvement in the amount of
work that he is completing in the second grade
classroom. The team has all seen remarkable
improvement in Scotts interactions with adults.
He is respectful and uses appropriate tone of
voice. His mother has reported that Scott has
not complained of physical ailments since
beginning the gifted program and has not had
difficulty going to school. When he arrives at
school he goes to Check and Go without reminders
and reports consistently to the Social Worker
that he is happy. The team is currently
looking at data related to Scotts attendance.
He has had frequent days off due to illness and
since this new plan has been implemented, Scott
has had perfect attendance.
27
STUDENT, N. The targeted team had initially
identified N. as a Wraparound student in October.
They collected baseline data and met with the
mother. Team members were frustrated with her
response and did not feel it would be productive
to continue. However, the Targeted Team
continued to bring up N. s name in their
meetings due to his lying and stealing behaviors.
In February, they agreed to re-visit the
option of Wraparound. At the same time they
began a Case Study Evaluation.
28
INTERVENTIONS The Social Worker and Wrap
Coach met with N.s mother at her home to have
initial conversation and obtain information for
the social history. Much of this meeting
focused on the intensive needs of the family.
N.s mother is losing her eyesight and has lost
much of her independence. There is very little
support in place for the family at this time.
The Wrap team met one time and initially
focused on N.s lying and stealing. They then
identified that N. was seeking peer attention by
lying about his life. His mother also shared
that N. feels helpless given his life
circumstances.
29
The team then implemented interventions to
address N.s need to have contact with peers
after school. The Principal contacted another
family that could provide transportation for N.
to get home from open gym. The school nurse
responded quickly to Ns need to have an eye
exam. He has since received eyeglasses for a
vision problem. The team is currently
investigating the interagency LAN for more
resources for this family.
30
OUTCOMES and DATA The school team has reported
that N appears to be happier, has become popular
among peers and interacts with them
appropriately. Data is being gathered
regarding lying and stealing behaviors.
31
Critical Shifts in Thinking Practice
  • From To
  • Focus on deficits Focus on strengths
  • Focus on problems Focus on needs

32
Critical Shifts in Thinking Practice
  • From To
  • Professional centered Child/family centered
  • Service Planning Individualized Wrap
  • plans

33
How Do we Know if the Team is Truly
Family-centered?
Does the family ( including the youth ) feel like
it is their meeting and their plan instead of
feeling like they are attending a meeting the
school or agency is having about them.
34
Using the Wraparound Process
  • Preparing for wraparound meetings through
    individual conversations with core team members
    is a critical first step.
  • The first contact with the family should feel
    different than being invited to a meeting.
  • A rich strength profile is a valuable tool for
    action planning.

35
Before, During and After Initial Conversations
  • Remember that the professionals dont get to
    choose or judge how families raise their kids.
  • Always start with a conversation ( not a meeting)
    with the family, getting their trust and
    permission before talking with others.

36
  • The initial conversation is the beginning of
    ensuring youth/family ownership of the process
    and the plan.

37
  • No Blame. No Shame. Means you are not allowed to
    have an opinion while hearing someones story
    (unless there is an imminent safety issue).
  • -Pat Miles-

38
Its All About the Team
  • The team members represent strengths, needs and
    choices of the youth and family
  • Natural support persons are important team
    members to ensure cultural fit, independence and
    sustainable change over time.
  • The team focuses on needs identified and
    prioritized by the family, student and
    teacher(s).
  • The family needs to feels like it is their team
    and their meeting instead of feeling like they
    are attending a meeting a system is having about
    them.

39
Collaboration?
Sometimes people think they are collaborating
when they are merely sharing information at
meetings.
40
  • Examples of Roles a
  • Teacher could Provide
  • Academic Coach
  • Behavioral Coach
  • Friend
  • Crisis support
  • Respite provide
  • Translator

41
Building Capacity for Natural Supports
  • A student who had strong interests and skills
    with bicycles (actually, he had a history of
    stealing bikes, rebuilding them and selling them)
    was connected with the owner of a local bike shop
    who hired him to work there and, over time agreed
    to be a team member.

42
Examples of Natural Support People who have been
on teams
  • Colleagues
  • Friends
  • Extended Family
  • Neighbors
  • Coaches
  • Clergy
  • Bus Drivers
  • Babysitters
  • School Custodian
  • Crossing Guard
  • Classmates

43
Who is currently on team?
  • What role does each person feel they play with
    this child?

44
Why Use A Strength-focus
  • To engage team members.
  • Example Invite the teacher who has had success
    with student to be on the team.
  • To establish ownership of the team and plan.
    Example People the family feels connected with
    and supported by are active participants in
    designing interventions.

45
Why Use A Strength-focus
  • Ensure ownership in interventions. Example Ask
    the youth what activities he thinks will help
    keep him safe while mom works.
  • Ensure interventions are proactive. Example use
    activities the youth enjoys, likes to do wants
    to learn is good at.

46
How are strengths used continuously in the
wraparound process?
  • To engage team members
  • To establish ownership of team and plan
  • To ensure ownership in interventions
  • To ensure interventions are proactive
  • To continuously build on successes

47
A Good Question To Ask
What does this student need to function more
like a typical student who is doing OK in our
school and community
48
How to get to needs statements
  • how? - Service
  • what? - Goal
  • why? - Need/Function

49
Needs Vs. Services
  • A Friend to play with
  • Counseling
  • Tutoring
  • Placement in Sp. Ed.
  • Success with reading
  • Ways to communicate when angry

50
Differentiate Between Needs Services
  • When a team member states a
  • need as a service
  • The student needs a one-to-one aide
  • The student needs a special
  • education placement.

51
Needs vs. Services
  • Ask the team member
  • What do you hope would be accomplished if that
    service were provided?
  • Why do you think thats important for this young
    person?
  • How should you know if that service were
    effective?

52
Examples of Needs Statements
  • The student needs to know how to keep friends.
  • The student needs to learn how to express his
    anger without hurting others.
  • The parent needs to know her son is getting a
    fair shake at school.
  • The student needs to be reassured that he can
    complete the work.
  • The student needs to be reminded to refocus his
    energy when doing his seat.

53
An Example Of Different Perspectives What is
the need ?
  • Jims family member stated that lack of reading
    skills and transition to high school are their
    biggest concerns.
  • They are also opposed to the use of repeated
    suspensions and detentions. Jims school state
    that his acting-out behavior is their biggest
    concern.

54
An Example Of Different Perspectives What is
the need ?(contd)
  • The school also expressed a concern about their
    perceived lack of support from the family for
    behavior consequences imposed at school.
  • The student stated that he would rather get in
    trouble than look stupid in front of his friends.

55
Steps for Success
  • Make sure the people who the plan effects the
    most have the most ownership over it.
  • The process itself should feel supportive to the
    child, family, and teacher.
  • Recognize that your system or program may already
    have some of the features in place. Build on
    these as you initiate others.

56
Points To Keep in MindWhen Action Planning with
a Team
  • Data collection strategies may need to be
    designed by teams.

57
Points To Keep in MindWhen Action Planning with
a Team..
  • Scientifically sound strategies can fail if they
    dont fit with values and skills of those who are
    supposed to implement them.

58
Mapping a Route to Effectiveness(contd)
  • Effective wraparound plans go beyond
    crisis/safety needs and include strategies for
    skill development of youth, family or other core
    team members.
  • Effective wraparound plans may include strategies
    to support the adults (families, teachers) as
    well as the youth.

59
Effective plans clearly describe what the
positive change will look like as well as specify
who will do what to ensure that the desired
change is likely to be achieved.
60
Activities for building strengths may not
necessarily be contingent on a behavior change
but may be explicitly for the purpose of creating
success experiences.
61
Effective teams know when they do not yet have
enough information to design an effective strategy
62
Effective Behavior Interventions
  • Function based
  • Proactive
  • Have adequate dosage of
  • Instruction
  • Practice
  • Support
  • Encouragement
  • Monitoring

63
The task is not redesign the individual but to
redesign the environment in order to prevent
problem behavior and ensure an acceptable
behavior is produced instead-
Rob Horner
64
The purpose of doing a Functional Behavior
Assessment (FBA) is to guide the design of an
effective intervention. Therefore an FBA is not
complete until an effective strategy is in place
65
Points To Keep in MindWhen Action Planning with
a Team
  • Designing interventions without assessing the
    why of the problem can result in making the
    problem worse instead of better.
  • An FBA is not complete until an effective
    strategy is in place

66
Points To Keep in MindWhen Action Planning with
a Team
  • Scientifically sound strategies can fail if they
    dont fit with values and skills of those who are
    supposed to implement them.
  • Anticipating crisis events that may occur and
    designing response is essential for long term
    success.

67
Using the Wraparound Process (contd)
  • Propose draft needs statement with the family
    before the meeting.
  • Draw team members in during the meetings with
    questions and requests to share their story or
    perspective.

68
Collaborative Team Planning Form
ID___________
Summary Sheet
Youths Name_____________________________________
Referral Date________________
Meeting Dates ______________
______________ ______________
______________ ____________ ______________
______________ ______________
______________
Core Team Members
Extended Team Members
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
69
How are strengths used continuously in the
wraparound process?
  • To engage team members
  • To establish ownership of team and plan
  • To ensure ownership in interventions
  • To ensure interventions are proactive
  • To continuously build on successes

70
Life Domain Profile
Date
Perspective y youth f family s school c
community
Domain (see key at bottom of page)
Strengths, interests and current/past successful
strategies
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Domain Key s - safety ev - educational/vocationa
l cs - cultural/spiritual b - basic needs
f - family sr - social/recreational hm -
health/medical ls - living situation es -
emotional/psychological l - legal
71
Steps for Developing a Wraparound Plan
Step 1 Initial Conversations (story) Step 2
Start Meeting with Strengths Step 3 Develop a
Mission Statement Step 4 Identify Needs across
Domains Step 5 Prioritize Needs Step 6
Develop Actions Step 7 Assign Tasks/Solicit
Commitments Step 8 Document the Plan
Evaluate, refine, monitor transition
celebrate successes.
72
The Steps in the Wraparound Process
  • Initial conversation with child/family and




    others who are close to them.
  • Identify family perspective of strengths issues
  • Establish possible team members and mission from
    family perspective
  • Mission Why should this team exist?

73
Examples of Meeting Rules
  • We only share information that is useful for
    productive problem solving.
  • Everyones voice is valued respected everyone's
    opinion counts.
  • We will be supportive rather than judgmental
  • No put downs or interruptions.
  • We will monitor each other to remain
    strength-based.
  • The family choose what information about them is
    shared at meetings.
  • All team discussions will be considered
    confidential.

74
  • 2. Start team meetings with strengths
  • Clarify roles/connections
  • Summarize strengths and issues
  • Blend perspectives
  • Identify Needs (not services)

3. Through consensus, identify mission and needs
  • 4. Prioritize needs for immediate planning
  • Which are important to student/family?
  • Which are important to school?
  • Any safety needs?

75
The Steps in the Wraparound Process (Cont)
  • 5. Action Planning
  • Specific strategies
  • Creative and proactive approaches
  • Clear outcomes
  • Practical, realistic
  • 6. Ensure commitment to tasks
  • Is this going to work for you?

76
Life Domain Profile (continued)
Who y youth f family s school c community
Domain (see key at bottom of page)
Date
Issues and perspectives for future planning
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Y F S C
Domain Key s - safety ev - educational/vocationa
l cs - cultural/spiritual b - basic needs
f - family sr - social/recreational hm -
health/medical ls - living situation es -
emotional/psychological l - legal
77

Understanding Function
The most common problem behaviors in school and
in life serve a function
  • 1. to get something
  • attention, objects, power, self-stimulation
  • 2. to escape/avoid something
  • tasks, embarrassment, situations, persons

78
Questions to guide intervention strategies
  • What does it look like when?
  • Specific examples?
  • Last time it happened?
  • What happens before?
  • What happens during?
  • What happens after?

79
  • What happens around




    him/her?
  • What need is he/she




    having met?
  • How can we help meet the




    need differently?
  • How long does it last?

80
  • What strengths can be used?
  • Who needs to be involved?
  • How will we know if it is




    working?

81
  • Are there interpersonal or
  • contextual factors that should be
  • considered (e.g. does it happen
  • with one specific person or in one
  • specific place?)
  • What motivational factors are
  • present among the child/family
  • team?

82
The Steps in the Wraparound Process (Cont)
7. Establish how to monitor progress
outcomes 8.Transition to more informal,
responsive supports and fade system
involvement.
How will we know if it is working?
83
Collaborative Team Planning Form
Target Review Date
Review Date
Domain
Needs and Outcome
Rating (circle)
Barrier
Date
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
N/A 1 2 3 4 5
Domain Key s - safety ev - educational/vocational
ls - living situation cs - cultural/spiritual sr
- social/recreational f - family hm -
health/medical l - legal b - basic needs ep -
emotional/psychological
Rating Key NA no longer a need or goal 4
unresolved or partially attained 1 unresolved
or worse not attained but improved 2
unchanged still a need or goal 5 resolved or
attained to families 3 resolved or attained but
not to families satisfaction
Scale is derived from Dunst, C.J., Trivette,
C.M. Deal, A.G. (1988). Enabling and
empowering families Principles and guidelines
for Practice. Cambridge, MA Brookline
84
Guiding Questions to Assist in Initial
Conversations (contd)
  • What has worked or hasnt worked and why do you
    think it has worked or not?
  • What challenges or barriers have you encountered
    as you have attempted specific strategies?
  • What is your hope, dream, vision of success with
    this youth/family?

85
The Steps of the Wraparound Process
  • Before action planning, the team must first reach
    consensus on priority needs
  • Actions must be agreed to, clearly documented and
    monitored by the team.

86
Examples of Meeting Rules
  • We only share information that is useful for
    productive problem solving.
  • Everyones voice is valued respected everyone's
    opinion counts.
  • We will be supportive rather than judgmental
  • No put downs or interruptions.
  • We will monitor each other to remain
    strength-based.
  • The family choose what information about them is
    shared at meetings.
  • All team discussions will be considered
    confidential.

87
Ownership Voice
The person who is supposed to implement the
strategy needs to be actively involved in
designing it or it probably wont work!
88
Using the Wraparound Process (contd)
  • Propose draft needs statement with the family
    before the meeting.
  • Draw team members in during the meetings with
    questions and requests to share their story or
    perspective.

89
Facilitating Wraparound
  • Effective wraparound facilitators guide the team
    process rather then do everything for the youth
    and family.
  • Wraparound facilitators need to be able to
    identify successes and challenges of guiding the
    team process.

90
Engaging team members so they have and will
continue to be listened to and heard with respect
is required meeting preparation!
91
A crisis is when the adults dont know what to
do Carl Schick
92
Implementing Wraparound Key Elements Needed
for Success
  • Engaging students, families teachers
  • Team development team ownership
  • Ensuring student/family/teacher voice
  • Effective interventions
  • Serious use of strengths
  • Natural supports
  • Needs vs. services
  • Monitoring progress sustaining
  • System support buy-in

93
Examples of Skills Functions
1) Team Development ? Facilitator
2) Positive Behavior Supports ? Behavior
Specialist
3) Family Support ? Family Partner
4) Effective Instruction -Master Teacher
94
Common Mistakes Found in Wraparound Plans
  • Over reliance on an existing categorical service
  • Neglecting crisis planning early in the process
  • Power struggles with youth, parents or systems
  • Failing to meet parents needs along with the
    youths needs
  • Emphasis on consumer compliance rather than
    consumer support
  • Building a system based team rather than a family
    based team
  • Throwing money at the problem

95
Building Capacity for Wraparoundin Schools
  • Identify and train facilitators
  • Train other school personnel about wrap teams
  • Ongoing practice refinement and skill
    development
  • Review data around outcomes of teams and plans
  • Establish full-continuum of PBIS in schools

96
Challenges or Roadblocks to Anticipate
  • Differentiating between needs services
  • Keeping team focused on strengths
  • while problem-solving
  • Family unable/unwilling to identify natural
    supports

97
  • System and Practice Challenges
  • others on team with lack of wraparound knowledge
  • pre-determined goals/services before team
    developed
  • conditioned to focus on problems
  • planning and preparation time
  • joining different perspectives
  • who will do the initial conversation(s)?
  • lack of existing natural supports for some
    families
  • getting schools to focus on proactive when
    serious
  • problem behavior has occurred

98
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