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Implementing Alabama's RtI Framework: Interventions


Implementing Alabama's RtI Framework: Interventions, Interventions, Interventions STUDENT SUCCESS PST RtI Christine R. Spear, Education Administrator – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Implementing Alabama's RtI Framework: Interventions

Implementing Alabama's RtI Framework
Interventions, Interventions, Interventions
  • Christine R. Spear, Education Administrator
  • Alabama Department of Education
  • Dr. Denise P. Gibbs, Director
  • Alabama Scottish Rite Foundation Learning Centers

The portion of this presentation provided by Dr.
Gibbs is being provided today at no cost by the
Alabama Scottish Rite Foundation. The
philanthropy of the Alabama Scottish Rite
Foundation began in the 1950s in Alabama and
continues today. The mission of the Alabama
Scottish Rite Foundation is to provide help to
Alabama Schools as they work with students who
struggle in reading -particularly those students
with dyslexia.
3 Part Series at MEGA on AL RtI Framework
  • Part 1 Wed 815-1130 Problem Solving Teams
    Overview (to be repeated Thurs 1-415)
  • Part 2 Wed 1-415 Problem Solving Teams and
    Intervention Plans
  • Part 3 Thurs 815-1130 Interventions,
    Interventions, Interventions! (This session)

Alabama RtI Framework
  • Some documents for download at (special
  • Response to Instruction Alabama Core Support For
    All Students
  • A Problem Solving Team Process
  • A Problem Solving Team Process Sample Forms

Outcomes for this session
  • Participants will become familiar with
  • Some intervention scheduling issues and options
  • Principles of Tier 2 and Tier 3 reading, math,
    and behavior interventions
  • Specific examples of selected research-based Tier
    2 and Tier 3 reading, math, and behavior

The big picture (in case you missed parts
1and 2 yesterday)
Elementary Tier Model (K-3)
PlusSpecial Education
Tier 3
Intensive Intervention 60 minutes
Intervention 30 minutes per dayin the classroom
Tier 2
Comprehensive Core 90 minutes per day reading60
minutes per day math
Tier 1
Grade 4-12 Tier Model
PlusSpecial Education
Tier 3
Intensive Intervention classes
Differentiated strategy instruction in content
classes small group-intentional groupings
Tier 2
Tier 1
Core instructionStrategy instruction in content
classes whole and small group
RTIB K-12 Tiers
PlusSpecial Education
Tier 3
Intensive Intervention classes
Supplementalbehavior supports implemented in
Tier 2
Tier 1
Universal positive behaviorsupports practiced
school-wideor district-wide
Intervention Scheduling
In thinking about scheduling.
  • Remember the expected outcomes (80 15 - 5)
  • If we are achieving the desired results with our
    core instruction, only 20 out of every 100
    students will need intervention.
  • In a class of 20, only 4 should need Tier 2
  • Of those 20 out of 100 who need intervention, 15
    should reach grade-level proficiency with Tier 2
    and only 5 of 100 should need Tier 3
  • In a class of 20, only 1 should need Tier 3 !!
  • If you are not at 80 15 5, adjust where

K-3 Tier 2 Intervention Particulars
  • Best practice is to have the classroom teacher
    deliver the Tier 2 interventions.
  • Can build upon what the teacher knows about the
    student and observes in the daily Tier 1 context.
  • Deliver the Tier 2 additional small group
    intervention with fidelity
  • Document students participation in intervention
    and weekly progress monitoring results
  • Student Intervention Documentation Form

K-3 Tier 2 Intervention Outcomes
  • Decide within a reasonable period of time if this
    level of intervention support is sufficient
  • With most interventions, you should know within
    10-12 weeks if you are on the right track
  • Team analyzes progress monitoring data at 4 week
  • Data-based decision making graphs
  • If this level of intervention support is not
    sufficient, move the student to a more intensive
    level of support (Tier 3)

K-3 Tier 3 Intervention Schedules
  • Students receiving Tier 3 interventions, may not
    necessarily continue to participate in Tier 2
  • Tier 2 interventions need to be at a common time
    for each grade
  • This would allow a walk to intervention model
    if desired.
  • Tier 3 interventions could be scheduled to
    overlap with Tier 2 for each K-3 grade.
  • This minimizes the time out of the classroom
    for the student in Tier 3 intervention.

K-3 Reading Schedule Tier 2 3 Overlap Example
  • Kindergarten
  • 9-1030 Tier 1
  • 1200-1230 Tier 2
  • 1200-100 Tier 3
  • Grade 1
  • 800-930 Tier 1
  • 100-130 Tier 2
  • 100-200 Tier 3
  • Grade 2
  • 800-930 Tier 1
  • 930-1000 Tier 2
  • 930-1030 Tier 3
  • Grade 3
  • 930-1100 Tier 1
  • 900-930 Tier 2
  • 830-930 Tier 3

Grade 4 Tier 3 _at_ 200-300 Grade 5 Tier 3 _at_
Schedule Examples
  • Schedule example with overlapping Tier 2 and Tier
    3 blocks for grades K-5
  • Schedule example with acceleration block with
    reading and with reading and math for grades K-5.
  • Schedule example with acceleration block for
    grades 6-12.

Acceleration Block A scheduling option?
  • A possible way to Raise the bar and close the
    gap? (DuFour, et al., 2010)
  • Borrow minutes from periods throughout the day
    to create an extra period
  • Schedule this early in the day
  • All faculty and all students participate
  • Intervention for tier 3 students
  • Entire year or until no longer needed
  • Enrichment for on level and above level students
  • Different classes each grading period?

4-12 Intervention Particulars
  • Tier 2 intervention is embedded in core
    instruction in every content area during time
    designated for collaborative group work
  • Intentional student grouping
  • Heterogeneous groups Orange day
  • Each Tier 2 student is partnered with a non-Tier
    2 student
  • Teacher spends time with each group
  • Homogeneous groups Crimson day
  • All Tier 2 students are grouped together
  • Teacher works closely with this group

Some VERY Useful Websites for INDEPENDENT Reviews!
  • What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)
  • http//
  • Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE)
  • http//
  • Promising Practices Network (PPN)
  • http//
  • National Center on Response to Intervention

Tier 2 Behavior Intervention
Some Tier 2 Ideas
  • Can be implemented in the classroom and monitored
    with a behavior report card.
  • Pre-Correction
  • Self Monitoring
  • Behavior Momentum
  • Check-in Check-out

Pre-Correctionexample from The Tough Kid Book
  • Example teaching a replacement behavior
  • The Sure I Will plan
  • replacement behavior for arguing
  • research shows it replaces arguing as well as
    increases compliance
  • for every teacher directive given, the student
    says Sure I Will
  • praise/reward randomly - about every 3 - 4th

  • Teach self-monitoring and targeted social skill
  • Plan carefully for success
  • Age 4 and above
  • Periodic, random checks on accuracy
  • initially only praise/reward accuracy (until 80
    accurate) then reinforce success related to
    behavior monitored

Behavior Momentumexample from The Tough Kid Book
  • Tom, will you help me hand out the papers?
  • Thanks Tom, please help me straighten up the
  • Now Tom, please sit down and do your math

Some Tier 2 Behavior Resources
  • Tough Kid series
  • The Behavior Education Program
  • Project RIDE

The Tough Kid Books and Audio Series
  • Practical Classroom Management Strategies
  • A Tough Kid is compliant lt 40, average kid
    complies with teacher requests 80 of the time

Behavior Education Program
  • Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools The
    behavior education program by Crone, Horner

Overview of BEP Elements
  • Daily positive adult contact
  • Check-in/Check-out system
  • Daily report card - Increased attention to
    behavioral goals
  • For all school settings
  • Home-School partnership
  • Collaborative team-based process

Project RIDE
  • Responding to Individual Differences in Education
  • K-6 students
  • 600 behavioral and academic tactics and 100

Tier 3 Behavior Intervention
Some Tier 3 Ideas
  • May include behavior intervention class utilizing
    various curricula such as
  • Skillstreaming Series
  • The PREPARE Curriculum Teaching Prosocial
  • Second Steps
  • I Can Problem Solve
  • Bullying Prevention Program

Skillstreaming Series
  • For students who display aggression, immaturity,
    withdrawal, or other problem behaviors.
  • Students develop competence in dealing with
    interpersonal conflicts, learn to use
    self-control, and contribute to a positive
    classroom atmosphere.
  • Three levels
  • PreK 1
  • Grades 2-5
  • Grades 6-12

The PREPARE Curriculum
  • For middle and high schools
  • 10 course length interventions
  • Reducing anger, reducing stress, reducing
  • 93 supplementary activities

Teaches, models, and reinforces skills in
empathy, impulse control, problem solving and
anger management
Second Step
  • Whole classroom
  • Pre-K through 9th grade
  • Teacher friendly
  • Lots of role playing and problem solving
  • Explicit teaching of social skills
  • Research validated
  • Small Group
  • Re-teach classroom lessons
  • More practice
  • More feedback
  • Use puppets and role-play

I Can Problem Solve(3 volume set)
  • Helps students resolve interpersonal conflicts
    and prevent antisocial behaviors
  • Three levels Preschool K-Primary grades
    Intermediate Elementary grades
  • USDOE and NASP awards

Bullying Prevention Program
  • Includes school-wide implementation and targeted
    intensive instruction
  • Additional cyber bullying prevention and suicide
    prevention materials

Math Instruction and Intervention Principles
What we are learning about math
  • What Works in Teaching Math (Slavin, et al.,
  • Reviewed 189 studies and found
  • Programs that emphasize classroom management,
    motivation, and collaborative groups are more
    effective that those that emphasize textbooks and
  • The most successful math programs encourage
    student interaction!

Tier 2 Math Intervention
Peer Assisted Learning Strategies - Math
  • Students work with a partner and take turns being
    the coach or player
  • WWC and BEE highly effective!
  • Awesome research!

Power Teaching
  • http//
  • Cycle of effective instruction
  • Active instruction
  • Teamwork
  • Assessment
  • Celebration
  • Elementary and middle school resources

Team Accelerated Instruction TAI Math
  • http//
  • Students in grades 3-8
  • Includes cooperative learning and interactive,
    individual instruction
  • Team goals which can only be achieved if all
  • Highest possible rating by BEE awesome
  • Correlated to AL standards!

Tier 3 Math Intervention
AMP Math System
  • Three levels for students in middle and high
  • Based on math focal points as detailed by the
  • Placement test
  • Lessons include whole and small group activities
    and individual practice
  • Schedule can be 45 minutes or 90 minutes per day.
  • Six problem solving strategies

  • For students in grades 5-10 who are 2 or more
    grade levels below their enrolled grade.
  • Three levels
  • Number sense
  • Rational numbers
  • Algebraic thinking
  • Assessments!!!
  • Direct instruction and online components

  • Seven levels (grades 2-8) with a placement test
  • Combination of teacher-led instruction,
    manipulatives, and online components
  • Assessments!!!!
  • Aligned with NCTM Math Focal Points
  • (now part of Cambium!)

Tier 2 Literacy Intervention Grades K-3
Effective Tier 2 Literacy Intervention
  • A standard treatment protocol may be a good
    option at this level.
  • Use screening criterion to determine students
    need for Tier 2 intervention.
  • Provide a broad-based intervention which will
    meet the needs of at least 75 percent of your
    struggling readers.

Some ideas from K-3 Intervention Research
Scammacca, N., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Wanzek,
J., Torgesen, J. K. (2007).
  • Extensive interventions (100 sessions or more)
    can be effective when provided by personnel other
    than certified teachers (e.g. paraprofessionals,
    teacher assistants, etc.) in small groups or
    one-on-one with appropriate training.

Some ideas from K-3 Intervention Research
Scammacca, N., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Wanzek,
J., Torgesen, J. K. (2007).
  • All of the effective Tier 2 interventions
    included training in
  • phonological awareness
  • decoding, and word study
  • guided and independent reading of progressively
    more difficult texts
  • writing exercises
  • engaging students in practicing comprehension
    strategies while reading text

Intervention studies illustrating effective
Tier 2 options.
Early Interventions in Reading(Torgesen and
Mathes, 2005)
  • 120 lessons, 40 minutes, 3-5 students.
  • Mathes, et al 2005 study .
  • Excellent gains after 91 hours of instruction.
  • Only 1 of the students were reading below the
    average range (30th percentile)!
  • Intervention students had steeper rates of
    improvement than typical readers on word reading,
    passage fluency, and phonological awareness.
  • Published by SRA.

Responsive Reading Instruction(Denton and
Hocker, 2006)
  • 40-minute lessons 3 students.
  • Mathes, et al 2005 study .
  • Excellent gains after 91 hours of instruction.
  • Only 7 of the students were reading below the
    average range (30th percentile)!
  • Intervention students had steeper rates of
    improvement than typical readers on word reading,
    passage fluency, and phonological awareness.
  • Published by Cambium Learning.

Sound Partners(Vadasy, et al, 2004)
  • 11 tutoring (paraprofessionals)
  • 30-minute lessons
  • Average gains from 10th percentile to 50th
    percentile after 80 lessons
  • Published by Cambium Learning

Tier 2 Intervention Grades 4-12
Grades 4-12 Tier 2 Strategies
  • Strategies which are utilized in both Tier 1 and
    Tier 2 for grades 4-12 must be grounded in
  • Research provides clear evidence of what works
    with students in grades 4-12.
  • Marzanos High Impact Strategies
  • Get everyone to use the Magnificent Seven
    strategies while they are reading.

Gains From Instructional Strategies Research
Findings (Marzano, 2001)
Gains From Instructional Strategies Research
Findings (Marzano, 2001)
The Magnificent Seven..
  • Good readers use these seven comprehension
  • Making connections to prior knowledge
  • Inferring and predicting
  • Asking questions
  • Determining important ideas and summarizing
  • Visualizing
  • Synthesizing and retelling
  • Monitoring and clarifying understanding of text

Engagement Strategies(Rozzell Scearce, 2009)
  • Strategies to get students to be active
    participants in classes
  • Three-step Interview
  • Jigsaw Modified

Cooperative and Partnered Learning Tools(Rozzell
Scearce, 2009)
  • 3-Step Interview
  • Form random pairs
  • Students answer what do you already know about
    or what are two big ideas from or other
  • Students listen to and summarize their partners
  • Put two pairs together and students introduce
    their partner and share their partners response
    this is my partner Carol and she said that...

Cooperative and Partnered Learning Tools(Rozzell
Scearce, 2009)
  • Jigsaw Modified
  • Divide text into 4 segments and have 4 students
    in each group (Home team)
  • Students number off 1-4 and then regroup by those
    numbers (expert team).
  • 1s discuss segment 1, 2s discuss segment 2,
  • Home team group reconstitutes and each segment is
    then discussed
  • Design an assessment to see how well the groups
    acquired the information from the various sections

Vocabulary Strategies
  • Marzanos Six steps
  • Introduce the term authentically
  • Have student restate the meaning in their own
  • Use / create visuals
  • Get to a deeper understanding (associations,
    connections, etc)
  • Vocabulary discussions
  • Word play
  • Vocabulary Visual Word Association (VVWA)

Vocabulary Tree (Beers, 2003)
  • 1. Choose a root word you want for students to
    study and have them write it in the root of the
  • 2. Under the root, students write its definition.
  • 3. In the trunk of the tree, students write a key
    word that you provide that uses that root.
  • 4. Under the word, students write the definition
    of the word.
  • 5. Then in the branches of the trunk, students
    write as many other words as they find that use
    that root.
  • 6. Students define the word and copy a sentence
    that uses it. This could be a sentence they
    heard, one they read, or one they said
  • 7. In the twigs of the branch, they record where
    they heard or found the sentence.

  • Some word root sources
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//

Reading Comprehension Active Reading Strategies
  • Before strategies
  • Set the stage
  • Assess and build content knowledge
  • During strategies
  • Metacognition
  • Support and monitor comprehension
  • After strategies
  • Review, organize
  • Evaluate, extend, and transfer content knowledge

Think Aloud Powerful for differentiating!
  • 1. Read a selection aloud to the class (or to a
    small group in the class)
  • Orally describe the thinking going on in your
    head as you make sense of the text.
  • As you prepare to do this, you might use sticky
    notes as prompts.
  • Can teach students how to do this also.

  • ABC Graffiti (Rozzelle Searce, 2009)
  • Present the topic of the brainstorm to the
  • Students list all the letters of the alphabet
    down a sheet of paper, leaving room beside each
    letter to write out the rest of a word or phrase.
  • Students work individually thinking of as many
    words as they can that are associated with the
    topic and write the words beside the appropriate
  • After a few minutes, let the students pair up or
    work in small groups to fill in blank letters
    they have not yet completed.
  • Allow students to share with the entire class
    possible terms for the different letters of the

  • Cornell Note-Taking (Allen, 2004)
  • Provide Cornell Note-Taking form or folded paper
  • Read text and model for students the notes you
    would take while reading that text
  • Develop questions that the notes would answer
  • Use notes and questions to summarize the main
    ideas in 2-3 sentences.

  • 3-2-1
  • Purposes (1) self-monitor comprehension, (2)
    identify important details in the content, (3)
    make connections to content, and (4) identify
    areas in the content where understanding is
  • Procedure
  • After reading a portion of text, viewing a
    portion of a video, or listening to a portion of
    a lecture students working alone, with a
    partner, or in small groups fill out a 3-2-1
  • 3 Important Details
  • 2 Connections
  • 1 Question I Still Have
  • Students repeat the procedure until the entire
    content has been completed.
  • Students can use the important details from their
    3-2-1 charts to summarize the entire lesson.

Free Graphic Organizers
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//

Content Literacy Strategy Resources
  • Power Tools for Adolescent Literacy (2009) by Jan
    Rozzelle Carol Scearce
  • Strategies for engaging students
  • Comprehension strategies (before, during, and
  • Vocabulary strategies
  • Strategic learning
  • Website with free downloadables

Content Literacy Strategy Resources
  • Inside Words Tools for Teaching Academic
    Vocabulary Grades 4-12 (2007) by Janet Allen
  • 22 vocabulary strategies with examples for use in
    secondary content classes
  • Includes a CD with graphic organizers.

Content Literacy Strategy Resources
  • Tools for Teaching Content Literacy (2004) by
    Janet Allen
  • 15 before, during, and after strategies for use
    in content classes (with examples)

Content Literacy Strategy Resources
  • More Tools for Teaching Content Literacy (2008)
    by Janet Allen
  • More than 20 additional strategies with graphic
    organizers for easy implementation.

Tier 3 Interventions K-3 Principles and Examples
Tier 3 Literacy Interventions
  • No standard treatment protocols at this size will not fit all!
  • Word-level interventions
  • Comprehension/Vocabulary interventions

Word-level Interventions Emphasize(Simmons
Kame'enui, 2004)
  • Phonemic awareness (prerequisite skills)
  • Letter sound correspondence
  • Regular word reading (using decoding skills)
  • Regular word reading in text (lots of text!)
  • Irregular word reading
  • Advanced word analysis
  • All six syllable types
  • Prefixes and suffixes

Comprehension/Vocabulary Interventions Emphasize
  • Magnificent seven (Pearson, et al., 1992)
  • Making connections to prior knowledge
  • Inferring and predicting
  • Asking questions
  • Determining important ideas and summarizing
  • Visualizing
  • Synthesizing and retelling
  • Monitoring and clarifying understanding of text
    and vocabulary

Tier 3 Word-Level Interventions
  • If student is dyslexic (weak in phonological
    skills, in phonics, and in spelling but strong in
    problem-solving and listening comprehension)
  • a dyslexia-specific, word-level intervention (one
    that is Orton-Gillingham-based) may be the best
    Tier 3 choice.

Examples of Tier 3 Word-Level Interventions
  • Project Read
  • Slingerland
  • Spalding Writing Road to Reading
  • S.P.I.R.E.
  • Take Flight
  • Wilson Reading System

Tier 3 Comprehension-Vocabulary Interventions
  • If the student has relatively strong word level
    skills but very weak listening comprehension and
    vocabulary along with poor reading comprehension
  • an intervention to improve language skills which
    are fundamental for school success may be the
    best Tier 3 choice.

Examples of Tier 3 Comprehension/Vocabulary
  • Corrective Reading Comprehension
  • Language for Learning
  • Language for Thinking
  • Text Talk
  • Voyager Passport
  • http//

Tier 3 Interventions grades 4-12Principles and
Effective literacy interventions
  • Word-level interventions
  • Multisyllabic words
  • Monosyllabic and multisyllabic words
  • Comprehension interventions

A few examples of effective word-level
  • Wilson Reading System
  • Corrective Reading
  • Earobics REACH http//
  • Alphabetic Phonics (Texas Scottish Rite Literacy

Wilson Reading System (1988)
  • for students with below 3rd grade level
    word-level skills.
  • 60-90 minute lessons
  • Group size 1-6
  • Orton-Gillingham based, multisensory, sequential,
  • Steps 1-6 focus upon decoding and encoding
  • Steps 7-12 focus on advanced word analysis,
    vocabulary, and comprehension
  • Grades 2-12

Corrective Reading (1998 2008)
  • Tier 3 intensive word-level and/or comprehension
  • Grades 4-12
  • Four levels for decoding and four levels for
  • Scripted lessons
  • Extensive skill practice
  • Outstanding research data on efficacy

LANGUAGE! (4th Ed.)
  • Tier 3 intensive word-level and comprehension
    intervention (could be a parallel ELA course?)
  • Grades 3-12
  • phonemic awareness/phonics, word
    recognition/spelling, vocabulary/morphology,
    grammar/usage, speaking/writing,
    listening/reading comprehension
  • 90 minute lessons

Earobics REACH
  • Grades 4-8 or struggling readers in high school
  • 72 units taking students from lexile of 360 to
  • Computers and an avatar!
  • Fiction and nonfiction
  • Comprehension, fluency, vocabulary, and phonics
  • Built-in assessments and progress monitoring
  • Very engaging!

REWARDS (Reading Excellence Word Attack and Rate
Development Strategies)
  • Tier 3 intensive word-level intervention for
    students with 3rd to 5th grade word-level skills
  • Grades 4-12
  • 20 lessons 40-50 minutes in length
  • Lessons 1-12 focus upon decoding multisyllabic
    words and lessons 13-20 focus on fluency

Alphabetic Phonics Texas Scottish Rite Hospital
Literacy Program
  • 160 one hour lessons on DVD
  • 1 year
  • Training provided through an orientation video
  • Students 14 years and older
  • Groups of 10 or fewer

A few examples of effective comprehension
  • Corrective Reading Comprehension
  • Read 180 Enterprise
  • http//
  • AMP-Achieving Maximum Potential
  • http//
  • Voyager Passport Reading Journeys

READ 180 Enterprise Ed. (2006)
  • Tier 3 intensive comprehension and word-level
    intervention (best if word-level skills are 3rd
    grade or higher)
  • Stages B and C for middle and high school
  • 9 workshops lasting 4-6 weeks in each stage
  • targets decoding, fluency, vocabulary,
    comprehension, and writing skills
  • 90 minute lessons with whole group and small
    group activities (computer, direct instruction,
    and independent reading)
  • Assessments!

AMP Reading Program (2006)
  • Tier 3 intensive comprehension intervention
  • Interest level 6-12, reading level 3-5
  • Seven comprehension strategies
  • Content specific strategy use for Science, Math,
    and Social Studies
  • Vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension

Voyager Passport Journeys
  • Whole group, small group, and on-line instruction
  • Targets middle and high school students reading
    3-4 years below grade level
  • Builds comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency
  • Uses DVDs to build background knowledge and to
    improve student engagement
  • Includes benchmark and progress monitoring tools