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Basic Ag Awareness Agriscience Applications

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Title: Basic Ag Awareness Agriscience Applications


1
Basic Ag AwarenessAgriscience Applications
  • By Johnny M. Jessup
  • Agriculture Instructor/FFA Advisor

2
What is Agriscience?
  • The application of scientific principles and new
    technologies to agriculture.

3
Agriscience is
  • An applied science because it uses principles
    learned in biology, chemistry, and physics (the
    basic sciences) in a practical way.

4
Examples of Agriscience
  • Agronomy
  • Uses biology and chemistry to discover new ways
    to control weeds in crops.
  • Entomology
  • Uses biology and chemistry to study insect life.
  • Agricultural Engineering
  • Uses physics to develop new machinery.

5
Agriscience employs..
  • The scientific method to solve problems.
  • The steps to the scientific method are.
  • Identify the problem.
  • Review literature.
  • Form a hypothesis.
  • Prepare a project proposal.
  • Design the experiment.
  • Collect the data.
  • Draw conclusions.
  • Prepare a written report.

6
What is Agriculture?
  • Activities concerned with the production of
    plants and animals, and related supplies,
    services, mechanics, products, processing,
    processing, and marketing.

7
USDA refers to agriculture as.
  • Agriculture/ Agribusiness and renewable natural
    resources.
  • Another definition is food, fiber, and
    environmental systems.

8
Why is Agriculture/Agriscience Important?
  • Largest employer and the largest source of
    income in the United States and North Carolina.

9
Opportunities in Agriculture
  • Agricultural production is supported by many more
    careers than actually exist in production.
  • Many careers in agriscience products
    distribution are needed to grade, transport,
    process, package, market agriculture
    commodities.
  • Many careers for agriculture supplies services
    are also important.
  • Projections show that the average size of farms
    in the U.S. will increase while the number of
    farms will decrease.

10
Opportunities in Agriculture
  • Twenty percent of all jobs in the U.S. are
    agriscience related.
  • In addition to farming, agriscience jobs help
    support farmers to meet the worlds food fiber
    needs.
  • Areas include
  • Production
  • Processing, products, and distribution
  • Supplies and services.

11
World Outlook
  • The world population will grow as more people
    beget more people.
  • More children are surviving to adulthood.
  • More adults are living longer.
  • Population growth will.
  • Add stress to environmental systems of air,
    water, soil, and natural resources.
  • Create challenges to meet the demands for food
    and fiber (clothing and shelter).

12
Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience
  • Agriculture will always be an essential industry.
  • Increased commercialization of agriculture will
    continue.
  • New types of farming such as aquaculture (fish
    farming and farming the sea) will be used as well
    as traditional farming methods.

13
Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience
  • An expanded view of agriculture is necessary.

14
Divisions of Agriculture
  • Agribusiness
  • Agriscience Mechanics
  • Agronomy
  • Animal Science
  • Biotechnology
  • Horticulture
  • Natural Resources

15
What is Agribusiness?
  • Commercial firms that have developed with or stem
    out of agriculture.

16
Agribusiness includes.
  • Farming
  • Chemical company
  • Fertilizer dealer
  • Seed store
  • Tractor dealer
  • Horticulture
  • Landscape nursery
  • Greenhouse dealer
  • Horticulture supply company

17
What is Agriscience Mechanics?
  • The application of engineering principles in
    agricultural settings.

18
Agriscience Mechanics includes.
  • The design, operation, maintenance, service,
    selling, and use of power units, machinery,
    equipment, structures, and utilities in
    agriscience.

19
What is Agronomy?
  • The application of soil and plant sciences to
    land management and crop production.

20
Agronomy includes.
  • Crop Science
  • Soil Science
  • Turfgrass Management
  • Weed Science
  • Range Management

21
What is Animal Science?
  • The care, management, and production of domestic
    animals.

22
Animal Science includes.
  • Livestock
  • Companion Animals
  • Specialty Animals

23
What is Biotechnology?
  • The application of living processes to
    technology.
  • The use of microorganisms, animal cells, plant
    cells, or components of cells to produce products
    or carry out processes.

24
Biotechnology includes.
  • Genetics
  • Biochemistry
  • Microbiology
  • Toxicology
  • Plant Pathology

25
What is Horticulture?
  • Involves the producing, marketing fruits,
    vegetables, and ornamental plants.(Green
    Industry)
  • Continues to expand as the standard of living is
    raised.

26
Horticulture includes.
  • Greenhouse Management
  • Nursery Management
  • Landscape Architecture
  • Plant Physiology
  • Integrated Pest Management

27
What are Renewable Natural Resources?
  • Resources provided by nature that can replace or
    renew themselves.
  • Important both economically and for posteritys
    sake to maintain life.
  • Agriculture resources management will include
    pollution control.

28
Natural Resources - Forestry
  • Timber management for lumber, poles, post,
    plywood, and etc. is another part of the
    agricultural industry.

29
Other Examples include
  • Wildlife
  • Water
  • Fish
  • Soils
  • Air

30
What are Commodities?
  • Agricultural products which are sold.
  • Examples
  • Milk
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Beef
  • Cotton

31
U.S. Agricultural Commodities1 State Rankings
  • Beef
  • Dairy
  • Broilers
  • Eggs
  • Turkeys
  • Texas
  • California
  • Georgia
  • Iowa
  • Minnesota

32
U.S. Agricultural Commodities1 State Rankings
  • Swine
  • Horses
  • Sheep
  • Fruit
  • Vegetables
  • Iowa
  • Texas
  • Texas
  • California
  • California

33
U.S. Agricultural Commodities1 State Rankings
  • Cotton
  • Wheat
  • Corn
  • Soybeans
  • Peanuts
  • Texas
  • Kansas
  • Iowa
  • Illinois
  • Georgia

34
U.S. Agricultural Commodities (Market Value of
Products Sold)
  • Total Crops
  • California
  • Total Livestock
  • Texas
  • Total Ag Income
  • California

35
Top 10 U.S. Ag Commodity Exports
  • 1 Soybeans
  • 2 Corn
  • 3 Wheat
  • 4 Cotton
  • 5 Misc. Hort Products
  • 6 Poultry Meat
  • 7 Feed
  • 8 Edible Tree Nuts
  • 9 Pork
  • 10 Feed Grain

Consistently ranks in top 5 in U.S. grain
exports year after year. Number 1 meat export
as far as tonnage shipped from the U.S.
36
Top 10 Importers of U.S. Ag Commodities
  • 1 Canada
  • 2 Mexico
  • 3 Japan
  • 4 China
  • 5 South Korea
  • 6 Taiwan
  • 7 United Kingdom
  • 8 Germany
  • 9 The Netherlands
  • 10 Turkey

37
U.S. Dept of Agriculture
  • Secretary
  • Mike Johanns
  • Nebraska

38
U.S. Dept of Agriculture
  • Oversees the following
  • Food Safety Inspection
  • Commodity Grading
  • Meat
  • Fruit
  • Vegetables
  • Eggs

39
U.S. Dept of Agriculture
  • Oversees the following
  • School Lunch Program
  • Food Stamps
  • Agricultural Cooperatives
  • U.S. Forest Service
  • Cooperative Extension
  • Agricultural Marketing

40
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is 1 in the following
    commodities.
  • Tobacco
  • Sweetpotatoes

41
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is 2 in the following
    commodities.
  • Hogs
  • Christmas Trees
  • Turkeys

42
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is 3 in the following
    commodities.
  • Pickles
  • Trout
  • Total Poultry Eggs

43
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is 4 in the following
    commodities.
  • Blueberries
  • Broilers
  • Greenhouse/Nursery
  • Strawberries

44
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is 5 in the following
    commodities.
  • Catfish
  • Peanuts
  • Snap Beans

45
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is ranked in the top 10 nationally
    in the following commodities.
  • Apples
  • Cotton
  • Grapes
  • Tomatoes
  • Watermelons
  • Total Cash Receipts

46
North Carolina Agriculture
  • Ranking in Agricultural Income
  • 1 Hogs
  • 2 Broilers
  • 3 Greenhouse Nursery
  • 4 Tobacco
  • 5 Turkeys

Recently passed tobacco to crack the top 3.
47
SOURCE OF FARM CASH RECEIPTS, NORTH CAROLINA,
20036,916,349,000
48
North Carolina Agriculture1 County by Commodity
  • Hogs
  • Broilers
  • Greenhouse/Nursery
  • Tobacco
  • Turkeys
  • Duplin
  • Wilkes
  • Mecklenburg
  • Pitt
  • Sampson

49
North Carolina Agriculture1 County by Commodity
  • Cotton
  • Eggs
  • Cattle
  • Milk
  • Soybeans
  • Northhampton
  • Iredell
  • Iredell
  • Iredell
  • Robeson

50
North Carolina Agriculture1 County by Commodity
  • Corn
  • Christmas Trees
  • Peanuts
  • Sweetpotatoes
  • Wheat
  • Beaufort
  • Ashe
  • Martin
  • Nash
  • Robeson

51
North Carolina Agriculture
Top Ten Counties in Farm Cash Receipts, North
Carolina, 2003
52
North Carolina Agriculture
53
North Carolina AgricultureAgricultural Research
  • North Carolina has two land grant universities.
  • North Carolina State University (1887)
  • North Carolina AT State University (1891)

54
NC Dept of Agriculture
  • Steve Troxler
  • Current Commissioner
  • Guilford County

55
NC Dept of Agriculture
  • Oversees the following
  • All agricultural issues
  • Weights Standards
  • Food Drugs in North Carolina
  • NC State Fair

56
NC Dept of Agriculture
  • Oversees the following
  • Marketing
  • Farmers Markets
  • Goodness Grows Program
  • Research Stations
  • Structural Pests
  • Veterinarian Program

57
Professional Agricultural Organizations
  • Allow professionals the opportunity to network,
    learn, and communicate.
  • Provide trade shows and journals to update
    members on new methods, products, and technology.
  • Use membership dues to finance commodity
    advertisement, trade journals, and educational
    programs for members.

58
Cooperative Extension Service
  • Located in all 100 counties and the Cherokee
    Indian Reservation.
  • Provides information for those working in
    agriculture.
  • Best free source of information for small
    agricultural businesses.
  • Administers the 4H program.

59
Professional Agricultural Associations
60
Progress in Agriculture
  • Mechanization helps 2 of Americas work force to
    meet the food fiber needs of our nation.
  • There has been a reduction from 90 of the
    nations populace involved in farming 200 years
    ago.

61
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • George Washington
  • In 1785, he became the first American to own
    mules.
  • Also introduced agricultural concepts such as
    terracing, crop rotation, and the use of cover
    crops.

62
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Eli Whitney
  • Invented the cotton gin in 1793.
  • Turned cotton into an usable product by removing
    cottonseed from the cotton fiber.

63
Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin
64
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • In 1814, Jefferson had his moldboard plow cast in
    iron.
  • Was a marked improvement over the inefficient
    European plow.

65
Thomas Jeffersons Plow
66
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Cyrus McCormick
  • Invented the grain reaper in 1834 to save labor
    in cutting wheat, oats, and similar crops.
  • Later a threshing machine was added and it became
    known as a combine.

67
Cyrus McCormicks Reaper
68
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • John Deere
  • In 1837, improved the iron plow by inventing the
    steel moldboard plow.
  • Need caused by tough prairie soils.

69
John Deeres Plow
70
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Edmund W. Quincy
  • Invented the mechanical corn picker
    in 1850.
  • Anna Baldwin
  • Changed the dairy industry in 1878 by inventing a
    milking machine to replace hand milking.

71
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Joseph Glidden
  • Invented barbed wire in 1874.
  • Used for livestock fencing.
  • Tamed the west by allowing ranches with fixed
    boundaries to be established.

72
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
  • Advocate of vocational education/skills
    development.
  • The school was later given land-grant status.

73
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • George Washington Carver
  • Director of agricultural research at Tuskegee
    Institute in early 1900s.
  • Found new uses for soybeans, peanuts, and
    sweetpotatoes.
  • Diversified southern agriculture.

74
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • John Froelich
  • Invented the 1st gasoline powered tractor that
    could go forwards and backwards in 1892.
  • His Waterloo Tractor Company was later bought out
    by the John Deere Co. in 1918.

75
John Froelichs Tractor
76
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Benjamin Holt
  • Invented the traction system found on modern day
    tanks and bulldozers.
  • Company went one to become Caterpillar Inc.
  • This is where tractors get their name.

77
Benjamin Holts Tractor
78
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Harry Ferguson
  • Invented the 3 point hitching system on tractors.
  • Met with Henry Ford in 1938 and had the famous
    Handshake Agreement.

79
The Handshake Agreement
80
Ferguson Insignia on a Ford Tractor
81
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • In 1954, the tractor finally surpasses the mule
    as the main source of agricultural power.

82
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • Soybeans
  • Known as the Yellow Jewell to the Chinese.
  • Worlds most important source for vegetable oil.
  • Provide basic materials for hundreds of products.
  • Used as major food source in China in the form of
    tofu.

83
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • Baked Potatoes
  • USDA developed the pest resistant variety of
    potato called the BelRus.
  • A superior baking variety.
  • Bred to grow well in New England.

84
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • Aerosols
  • Developed by the U.S. military to create a bug
    bomb to combat malaria.
  • Present day pressurized cans originated from that
    early research.

85
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • Beltsville Small White Turkey
  • A 8-10 lb. turkey developed by USDA researchers.
  • Need arose when American families decreased in
    size and 30lb. turkeys became too much.

86
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • The Green Revolution
  • Process whereby many countries became self
    sufficient in food production in the 1960s by
    using improved crop varieties and practices.

87
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • The Green Industry
  • The modern horticulture industry with emphasis on
    turf and landscape plants.

88
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • Cultivated Blueberries
  • Blueberry industry launched when high-quality,
    large-fruited blueberries were developed.
  • Blueberries had to be picked from the wild before
    this development.

89
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • Nutritional Values
  • Detergent chemical methods were developed to
    analyze nutritional value of feed stuffs.
  • Procedures now widely used in both human animal
    nutrition.

90
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • Biological Attractants
  • Chemicals only produce short term results.
  • Traps created to capture large numbers of insect
    populations for integrated pest management
    programs.

91
Recent Breakthroughs in Agriscience
  • Mastitis Reduced
  • Human Nutrition
  • Fire-Ant Control
  • Coccidiosis Control
  • Exotic Flowers
  • Satellites Nitrogen-Gas Lasers
  • Sugar Beet Rice Hybrids

92
Agriscience and the Future
  • The average American farmer produces enough food
    and fiber for 128 people.
  • As the worlds population increases, it will
    require a more sophisticated agriscience industry
    to keep pace with
    demand.

93
Agriscience and the Future
  • The science of food production, processing, and
    distribution will require
  • College graduates to fill roles as scientists,
    engineers, and other professionals.
  • USDA reported an
    increased demand for graduates from
    agricultural colleges in the 90s.

94
Designed By
  • Johnny M. Jessup, FFA Advisor
  • Hobbton High School
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