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Cities of South America

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Title: Cities of South America


1
Cities of South America
2
Lima, Peru
3
Odds n Ends
  • Population in metropolitan area 6.4 million
    (accounts for 1/3 of the nations population and
    workforce)
  • Total population (2003) 7.9 million growing
    over 4 annually
  • 90 Mestizo (mixed European and Native American)
    with small minorities of whites, blacks, and
    Asians
  • Capital and largest city of Peru (actually 10
    times larger than its second largest city)
  • It is the second oldest capital in South America
  • City accounts for 2/3 of entire nations GDP, tax
    collections, bank deposits, private investments,
    physicians, and university students

4
Life in Lima
  • Mass migration of Peruvians (campesinos) from
    the rural areas of the Andes to the city in
    search of a better life
  • Most of the city is occupied by residential
    areas
  • Citys core is filled with high density
    apartments, tenements, and pueblos jovenes or
    barriadas (shantytowns)
  • Middle and upper class live farther from the
    citys core
  • Continuous population increase has led too much
    overcrowding and a serious gap between the rich
    and poor
  • Overpopulation in these poor squatter
    settlements has led to a shortage of basic
    necessities such as running water and electricity

5
Government and Economy
  • Divided into 33 municipal districts each with
    an elected mayor and city council
  • Currency Nuevo Sol (1 US Dollar3.35 Nuevo Sol)
  • Lima dominates the nations service sectors in
    trade, finance, and retail
  • Majority of imports and exports move through
    citys Port of Callao (west coast of South
    America)
  • industries produce textiles, clothing, processed
    foods, and some machinery and vehicles
  • Has 2 major highways which connect Lima with the
    rest of the country

6
How it came to be
  • Founded January 18, 1535 by Francisco Pizarro
    after he conquered the great Incan Empire
  • Originally was named La Ciudad de los Reyes
    (The City of Kings) after the Christian Feast of
    the Epiphany where the Three Kings visited the
    Christ Child
  • A massive earthquake struck the city in 1746
    nearly destroying the city completely
  • In 1821 General Jose de San Martin, leader of
    the independence movement of Latin America from
    Spain, took over the city and 5 years later Lima
    became the capital of the independent nation of
    Peru

7
Things to see..
  • Beaches were once the main attraction in the
    summer however, the coastline has become
    increasingly polluted by untreated sewage
  • Plaza de Armas is the focal point of city life
  • Limas cathedral (1746) glass coffin which is
    said to contain Pizarros remains
  • Government Palace was built on the site of
    Pizarros house and is home to the countrys
    president
  • Limas City Walls some of which are still
    standing that were originally built to defend
    from Pirate attacks in the 16th and 17th
    centuries
  • Universidad Nacional de San Marcos (1551)
    oldest standing university in entire western
    hemisphere

8
Few more facts
  • Lima is not known for having much open green
    space or parks as it has mostly been taken over
    by buildings and residential growth
  • pre-incan ruins still standing Pachacamac
    (earthmaker)
  • Transportation includes
  • Taxis/Automobiles
  • Inner city busses
  • Lima Metro above ground mass transit system
  • Transportation has been a major cause of
    pollution since leaded petroleum is still widely
    used and there are no restrictions placed on
    automobile efficiency

9
Rio De Janeiro
  • Brazil

10
Demographics
  • Population 6,051,399
  • Ethnic Mix 70 white, 20 black, 10 other
  • Religion 75 Catholic, 25 other

11
Demographics (continued)
  • Although Rio de Janeiro occupies a setting of
    magnificent natural beauty, poverty and urban
    sprawl have spawned the favelas, densely crowded
    neighborhoods of flimsy shacks. In contrast to
    the more affluent neighborhoods along the citys
    southern beaches, favelas cover many of the
    citys northern hills.

12
Economics
  • Rios harbor is deep enough for the largest
    vessels to come alongside the wharves, which lie
    near the city center.
  • Through the port flows the major portion of
    Brazils imports and exports.
  • Rio is also a distribution center for the coastal
    trade.

13
Economy (continued)
  • The citys manufactures include textiles,
    foodstuffs, household appliances, cigarettes,
    chemicals, leather goods, metal products, and
    printed material. There are also two major
    airports.
  • Rios climate is warm and humid and is a success
    by being a major tourist center.

14
History
  • Rio De Janeiro is a city of southeast Brazil on
    Guanabara Bay, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean.
    According to tradition, it was first visited in
    January 1502 by Portuguese explorers who believed
    Guanabara Bay to be the mouth of a river.
  • Therefore named the city Rio De Janeiro River of
    January.

15
History (continued)
  • It became capital of the colony of Brazil in
    1763.
  • The Brazilian empire in 1822.
  • And of the independent country in 1889.
  • In 1960 the capital was transferred to Brasilia.

16
Significant Monuments/Markers
  • The Statue of Christ the Redeemer. Located at the
    top of Corcovado Mountain in Tijuca National
    Park. This great statue stands 2330 feet tall,
    holding the city of Rio in his arms. This is one
    of the most famous and most visited monuments in
    the world.

17
Significant Monuments/Markers(contd)
  • Sugar Loaf Mountain is one of
  • the more spectacular tourist
  • attractions in Rio de Janeiro.
  • The two mountains of Sugar
  • Loaf are located between
  • Guanabara Bay and
  • Copacabana beach in Rio de
  • Janeiro.
  • The view from the peak
  • of Sugar Loaf, 1,296 ft
  • (395m) above sea-level

18
Santiago, Chile
19
Santiagos Location
20
History - settlement
  • Santiago began as a fortified encampment known as
    Santiago de La Nueva Extremadura., it was the
    furthest outpost in the Spanish empire at the
    time.
  • Founded in 1541 by conquistador Pedro de Valdivia
  • Araucanian Indians destroyed the settlement and
    the Spaniards were besieged for two years. The
    eventual arrival of reinforcements from Peru
    enabled the city to be re-founded and Santiago
    settled

21
Population growth
  • Late 1600 settlement of 200 houses, with about
    700 Spaniards
  • Early 1900s had a population of 30,000
  • 1950 1.33 million
  • 1970 2.84 million
  • 2005 6.2 million (40 of Chiles population)

22
City Growth
  • In the beginning Haciendas or great farms were
    the background of the city
  • After independence from Spain in 1818, Santiago
    became capital of Chile and emerged as the most
    economically dynamic City of the new South
    American republics
  • Growth of the country's agriculture and mining
    industries served to boost Santiago's status and,
    throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the city
    experienced large-scale immigration from Europe

23
City Sprawl
24
Economy
  • Leading producing and exporter of Copper.
    Accounts for ½ of countrys exports
  • One of three big financial centers in South
    America along with Buenos Aires and Sáo Paulo
  • Some Companies that have South American
    headquarters in Santiago HP, Reuters, JP Morgan,
    Coca Cola, Intel, Motorola, Kodak, Nestle, and IBM

25
Some Architecture
26
More buildings
27
Santiagos biggest problems
Because of being located in a valley its
geographic location is Unfavorable for air
dispersal. To reduce air pollution the city has
restricted the operation of motor vehicles,
keeping 1/5th of all vehicles in Santiago off
the street each day. Government has also
Offered incentives for heavy industry to move
out of the city.
28
Smog and Decentralization
  • The government is now decentralizing Santiago due
    to its rapid and high growth rates. It is
    promoting out-migration to neighboring townships,
    the countryside, other cities and reducing
    in-migration to the city.
  • It also has some of the best mass-transit systems
    to help reduce pollution. It has a clean and
    safe subway system, one of the most extensive Bus
    services, and plenty of taxicabs. All of these
    systems are being upgraded and improved to help
    with growth.

29
Demographics
  • Population growth rate 1.27 6.2 million
    1.27 75,000 peeps per year
  • Economic Growth Rate
  • 6 GDP increase projected for 2005 and 2006
  • Age structure
  • 0-14 years 28 15-64 years 65 65
    years and over 7
  • Ethnic groups white and white-Amerindian 95,
    Amerindian 3, other 2
  • Religions Roman Catholic 89, Protestant 11,
    Jewish
  • Literacy Total population 95.2
  • Those in Poverty around 17, down from recent
    years, but very high

30
Brasilia
The capital of Brazil and model of urban
planning
31
The government constructed the city on an
undeveloped site during the late 1950s and the
early 1960s to encourage settlement in the
inland regions of Brazil.
Facts
  • Brasilia was planned for only 500,000
    inhabitants, its population has grown much more
    than expected.
  • Due to zoning laws and the basic layout, the
    majority of the population lives outside the city
    limits in the 9 lower income satellite cities.
  • Brasilia was the most famous new capital cite of
    the twentieth century.
  • It is a land mark in the history of town planning.
  • Ranked the 17th largest metropolitan area in 1996.

32
Demographics
  • Ethnic Division
  • Caucasian 55
  • Mixed Caucasian Africans 38
  • Africans 6
  • Other 1
  • Population In 2005 2,176,000
  • Population Growth Rate 1.28
  • Religion Roman Catholic 70
  • Languages Portuguese (official), Spanish,
    English, and French
  • Male to Female Ratio Males 52
  • Females
    48

33
Monuments
The Cathedral Metropolitan
The head of Brazilian president Juselino
Kubitschek.
JK Memorial
The Congress
Juselino Kubitschek Bridge
34
History
  • In the 18th century, Brazils governing
    authorities decided to transfer the capital from
    Rio de Janeiro to an empty inland area safe from
    naval attacks.
  • They agreed to move the capital to Brasilia,
    which is a plateau carved out of the state of
    Goias.
  • Construction began in 1956 by landscape
    architecture Lucio Costa and was completed on
    April 21st, 1960.
  • He used a Pilot Plan, which features two great
    intersecting axes. One for governmental and the
    other for residential, together they form a rough
    outline of an airplane.
  • East Federal government buildings.
  • The central intersection of important boulevards
    Bus terminals and hotels.
  • West More hotels, a sports arena, and a
    recreational facility.
  • North and South Residential areas, composed of
    six storied apartment buildings. Every fourth
    block there is a school, playground, shops,
    theaters, and more.

35
  • There are two major roadways in the city running
    east and west. The monuments and public
    buildings are located along the roadways.
  • The railroad runs north and south in a curving
    line, intersecting the bus terminal.
  • The goal was to use modern design and lots of
    land to contrast earlier cities, seen to be
    plagued by chaotic urban growth.
  • The city was seen to be sterile and overly
    controlled.

36
Economics
  • Driven by the Federal Government, which employs
    most of the cities workers, with 42 in services,
    31 in agriculture, and 27 in the industry.
  • Small scale industry, food services, and
    construction are also important.
  • Agricultural products include coffee, soybeans,
    wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus, and
    beef.

37
  • Positive Aspects
  • The city is not threatened by any kind of natural
    disaster.
  • Good climate and sunny days are very common.
  • Many and large green areas in the pilot plan.
  • Virtually no air pollution.
  • Negative Aspects
  • It is not a walking city, the distance between
    building and sectors require a vehicle.
  • Housing prices are very high, compared to other
    Brazilian cities.
  • Public transportation is inefficient.
  • Very few people are found on the streets.
  • The newer satellite towns have very few green
    areas.
  • Many of the famous buildings are beautiful but
    not functional.

38
Medellin,Antioquia
39
Medellin
  • Capital of Antioquia, a province of northeastern
    Colombia, bordering Panama and the Caribbean Sea.
  • Located in the Aburra Valley, at an altitude of
    about 1,500 meters.
  • The Rio Medellin River flowing northward, bisects
    the city.
  • The San Lucas Mts. and the Caucas River are
    located to the East of Medellin.
  • Medellin has an average annual temp. of 24
    degrees C.

40
Brief History
  • 1675 Medellin was founded.
  • 1862 Medellin became the capital of Antioquia.
  • 1951-1973 Population of Medellin nearly
    quadrupled due to immigration from the
    countryside.
  • 1970-1980 Economy began to deteriorate.
  • Urban planning was unable to control urban growth
    and city expanded onto the slopes of the
    surrounding Aburra mountains.
  • Ongoing process of de-industrialization led to
    accelerated process of urban decay.
  • 1980-1990 Medellin became headquarters for
    Colombian drug cartel led by Pablo Escobar.
  • The drug cartels were tolerated by government
    because it helped attenuate economic crisis. The
    huge influx of money generated expectations of
    quick improvement in living conditions.
  • New migration pattern developed. Gated
    communities were built on the flat terrain in the
    city by rich. Poor moved out higher into the
    Aburra mountains.
  • 1990-2000 Crime and assassinations grew to an
    all time high.
  • The state finally made efforts to cut the power
    of the Medellin cartel. Led to civil war,
    government vs. drug cartel. Reputation of city
    suffered internationally, it became known for
    uncontrollable drugs and violence.
  • War ended with assassination of Pablo Escobar in
    1993.
  • The city began to recover and rebuild itself.

41
Important Information
  • Medellin is the second largest city in Colombia.
  • It has a population of almost 2 million people.
  • Ethnic groups Mestizo 58, white 20, mulatto
    14, black 4, mixed black-Amerindian 3,
    Amerindian 1.
  • Major exports coffee, cut flowers,petroleum,
    coal, apparel, and bananas.
  • Medellin has a literacy rate of 91.3.
  • Spanish is the dominant language, and Roman
    Catholic is the main religion.
  • Best known event is the Flower Festival, where
    citizens celebrate the cut flower business, which
    supplies around 70 of the flowers imported by
    the U.S.

42
Transportation
  • One of the major improvements for transportation
    in Medellin was the addition of the Medellin
    Metro.
  • Built in 1995, it was actually the first subway
    to be built in Colombia.
  • The main airport serving Medellin, is the Jose
    Mario Cordoba International Airport.

43
Medellin andPablo Escobar
  • Pablo Escobar is one of the most notorious names
    associated with Medellin.
  • His drug cartel penetrated the economic,
    socio-cultural, and political spheres of the
    city. He practically owned Medellin in the 80s.
  • Estimates are that his drug cartel was taking in
    an estimated 25 billion annually in the 80s.
  • Seen as a type of Robin Hood to the people of
    Medellin. He built stadiums and gave money to the
    poor. In return they served as lookouts and hid
    information from the authorities.
  • Once estimated by Forbes magazine to be the
    seventh-richest man in the world, with Medellin
    cartel controlling 80 of the worlds cocaine
    market.
  • In 1991, Escobar turned himself in for fear of
    extradition to the U.S.
  • Escobar was killed in 1993 after he escaped from
    prison.

44
Medellin Today
  • Today, Medellin is experiencing an urban and
    economic renaissance.
  • In 2003, 1.2 million square meters of property
    were developed into hotels, new housing, and
    office buildings.
  • The citys transportation network is a model for
    the rest of the Andes.
  • Universities and hospitals are top tier, with
    doctors being credited for such triumphs as the
    first kidney transplant in Latin America.
  • The city still experiences crime, but nowhere
    near as bad as past decades.
  • The 2 million residents of Medellin have never
    been more prosperous, with profits from exports
    triple what it was in the 90s.

45
Salvador, Brazil
46
(No Transcript)
47
Salvador - History
  • Founded in 1549 by Portuguese settlers led by
    Thome de Souza.
  • Salvador was the major port of Brazil during the
    Portuguese colonial rule, leading in sugar export
    and slave trade.
  • Salvador was the first capital of Brazil until
    1763 when Rio de Janeiro took its place.
  • Seat of the 1st Catholic Bishop of Brazil in
    1552, and is still an ecclesiastical center of
    power for Brazilian Catholicism.
  • 1583 Salvadors population was at 1600, making it
    one of the largest cites of the New World at the
    time. Even at the time of the American Revolution
    in 1776 Salvadors population was greater than
    any American colonial city.

The Church of Saint Francis
  • 1624 Salvador was taken by the Dutch, but soon
    recaptured by the Portuguese the next year.
  • Salvador was also the center for the Brazilian
    independence movement. On September 7th, 1882,
    liberation was attained.
  • 1948 population was 340,000
  • 1991 population was 2.08 million

48
Salvador - Geography
  • Salvador is located on a Peninsula on the
    Atlantic in northeast Brazil.
  • The city is on the Baia de Todos os Santos, or
    The Bay of All Saints.
  • The topography is predominately hill and valley.
  • Salvador is also at the heart of Reconcavo Baiano
    metropolitan region.
  • One of the distinct features of the city is that
    it is separated into two parts, an upper city
    (cidade alta) and a lower city (cidade baixa).
    This is due to an actual difference in elevation.
    The upper city is located on a bluff 230 ft
    above the lower city.

49
Salvador Geography (continued)
  • The lower city is on the waterfront and therefore
    is the commercial and financial sector of the
    city. There are docks and warehouses and also a
    naval base located there.
  • The upper city is the historic sector of the
    city, containing administrative buildings,
    cathedrals and colonial architecture.
  • Passage between the two is made by cable
    railways, winding roads, and a vertical
    pedestrian lift known as the Lacerda Elevator.

50
Salvador - Economy
  • Before the Brazilian Independence in 1823,
    Salvador was a major industrial and port city.
    In Brazil it was the center for trading sugar and
    tobacco, and also the slave trade during the
    Portuguese colonial era.
  • Today the port still plays a major role in the
    economy, exporting cacao, sisal, soybeans, and
    petrochemical products.
  • Also its role as an industrial city has declined,
    the local industries still include fishing, oil
    and gas extraction, cigar manufacture, an oil
    refinery, and tourism.
  • Ford Motor Company has a plant in the metro area.

51
Salvador Economy (continued)
  • Salvador today is attracting increasing numbers
    of tourists because of its setting. Also, in the
    1990s, the Bahian state government restored the
    Pelourinho district, which is located in the
    historic sector of the city in efforts to
    increase tourism further.
  • Northeast Brazil is an impoverished area with
    high birth rates and infant fatality rates.
    Salvador is no exception. Salvador had high
    crime and unemployment rates.
  • The average monthly income in the 1990s was
    equivalent to 447 dollars.
  • Sanitation had also been a problem in the poorer
    neighborhoods of Salvador. 1/3 of people have no
    sewage hookups or septic systems.
  • Markets are also tourist attractions in
    Salvador, such as Sete Portas and Mercado Modela.

52
Salvador - Culture
  • One of Salvadors distinguishing characteristics
    is its presence of colonial architecture in the
    Upper City. One of the buildings located there is
    a cathedral, still standing from the year 1572.
    Many other Baroque-style churches are also
    located there.

53
Salvador Culture (continued)
  • 15 Forts from the colonial period are also still
    standing in Salvador.
  • Salvador is also known for the influence of
    African culture on the city.
  • Candomble is an Afro-Brazilian religion practiced
    in Salvador. The city has over 1000 Candomble
    temples called terreiros.
  • The Afro-Brazilian martial dance of capoeira is
    also popular in Salvador.
  • Salvador has over 350 churches and has been
    called Black Rome.
  • The Carnaval celebration in Salvador is also a
    tourist attraction. Many visit to experience the
    circus and public street parades and parties that
    happen before Lent.
  • Distinct areas of Salvador are also tourist
    attractions such as Pelourinho, and the tourist
    market Mercado Modela. Pelourinho district was
    built when the city was the economic powerhouse
    of South America, and the buildings reflect the
    wealth of the city at the time.

54
Salvador - People and Places
  • Dorival Caymnil
  • Gal Costa
  • Gilberto Gil equivalent in Brazil to John
    Lennon or Paul McCartney in the U.S. He is a
    Grammy Winner and the current Minister of Culture
    in Salvador.
  • All MPB (Musica Popular Brasileira) stars.
  • Ruy Barbosa
  • Antonia de Castro Alves, a poet
  • Jorge Amado, a novelist
  • Jorge Amado, a novelist
  • State University of Bahia
  • Catholic University of Salvador
  • Lacerda Elevator vertical pedestrian lift built
    in 1873. Replaced in 1928 and now transports
    50,000 people daily between the upper and lower
    cities.
  • Church of St. Francis
  • Church of Third Order of St. Francis
  • Afro-Brazilian Museum.
  • Fort of St. Anthony of Barra built in 1580

55
Salvador Important Facts
  • Also known as Bahia for a long time.
  • 4th largest city in Brazil
  • Salvador had a population of 2,631,831 people in
    2004.
  • Major religions are Catholicism, Candomble,
    Protestantism, Espiritism, and recently Mormons.
    It is common for individuals to practice pieces
    of more than one religion.
  • Salvadors population has been growing as
    country-side dwellers move into the city.
  • Brazils oldest city.
  • 450th Birthday in 2000.
  • Gross Domestic Product per capita 4,309 Reals.
  • Gross Domestic Product 10,738,802 thousand
    Reals.
  • Making up most of the GPD is services with
    8,229,247 thousand Reals.

56
Sao Paulo, Brazil
57
History of Sao Paulo
  • The city was founded in 1554 by Jesuit
    Missionaries
  • Later was established as a simple urban outpost
    for coffee barons up until the 20th century
  • Officially became a city in 1711
  • Many immigrants from Japan, Germany, Italy,
    Arabia, and Spain came to work at the large
    coffee plantations scattered through the city
  • Sao Paulo grew in industrial strength around the
    turn of the century which caused the city to
    expand rapidly due to immigration

58
Economic and Political Systems
  • Sao Paulo has a diverse economy centered around
    its large industrial and commercial center
  • Close to one half of the countrys industrial
    output comes from the city of Sao Paulo
  • Sao Paulo State accounts for over ¾ of the
    countrys output of machinery, electrical goods,
    and rubber
  • Democratic government with one president, very
    similar to the United States Political system
  • Luiz Inácio da Silva is the current president

59
Demographics
  • The city has an area of 575 sq. miles
  • A population of 10.9 Million
  • Largest city in Brazil (near second largest in
    the world based on population)
  • 20 million people live in the greater
    metropolitan area of Sao Paulo

60
Social Aspects
  • Sao Paulo is home to the University of Sao Paulo
  • Has a major art museum known as MASP
  • Major symphonic orchestra known as OSESP
  • Grand Prix race track called Interlagos
  • Worlds largest private-owned sports stadium
  • Sao Paulo also takes part in the Carnival
    celebrations that go on all throughout South
    America (much like Mardi Gras)

61
Entertainment
  • Many shopping malls such as Shopping Morumbi, Sao
    Paulo Marketplace, Shopping Eldorado, and Jardin
    do Sul
  • Embu is a nearby city with many street vendors
    who sell a diverse array of art
  • Chohoscorias are famous for their barbeque type
    menu and unique setting

62
Poverty in Sao Paulo
  • Sao Paulo has a major problem with Poverty
  • Approximately 1,500,000 people now live in
    favelas (shanty towns) in Sao Paulo and
    surrounding areas
  • Crime has suddenly increased, and kidnappings and
    robbery are relatively common in the city

63
Ethnic Groups in Sao Paulo
  • Of the approx. 11 million people in Sao Paulo the
    breakdown is as Follows
  • 3 million descendents of the Portuguese
  • 3 million descendents of Italian
  • 3 million descendents of African heritage
  • 1 million Japanese (largest pop. Outside of
    Japan)
  • 1 million German

64
Rapid Population Growth
  • From a population of merely 32,000 people in
    1880, Sao Paulo has grown considerably in the
    last century
  • In 1980, the population was at 8.5 million
  • Today, the population is close to 11 million
  • Urban sprawl is evident in the first slide with
    the picture of Sao Paulo taken by satellite

65
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
66
Where is it?
Santa Cruz lies 416 meters above sea level and is
located in central Bolivia near the Piray River,
in the tropical llanos (plains) region east of
the Andes Mountains.
67
History of Santa Cruz
  • The land where Santa Cruz was founded on was
    inhabited by the ancient Aymará civilization, who
    lived on Lake Titicaca. Later, this civilization
    was conquered by the Incas, who were themselves
    conquered by the Spanish in 1538. Throughout the
    countrys colonial history, it was known as Upper
    Peru. Simon Bolivar led the country to
    independence in 1825. In its early years,
    independent Bolivia was ruled by a succession of
    caudillos (military dictators) who tried, with
    mixed success, to integrate the countrys three
    disparate regions the central region, the
    eastern Andes and the Altiplano into a national
    entity.
  • The city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra was founded
    by Ñuflo de Chávez on February 26, 1560.

68
Important Facts
  • Total Population 1,364,389
  • Full Name of the city is Santa Cruz de la Sierra
  • It is the Capital of the Santa Cruz Department(or
    State)
  • Is considered the fastest growing city in Bolivia

69
Economy
  • Santa Cruz is a trade and processing center
    for sugar, rice, cotton, fruit, soy, and corn.
  • Has a strategic and commercial importance
    because of its central location.
  • There are also natural-gas reserves and an
    oil refinery nearby.
  • Important industries are leather crafting,
    sugar refining, and alcohol production.
  • A rail line gives the city access to both the
    Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

70
Culture
  • The predominant religion is Roman Catholic, but
    there is a scattering of other Christian faiths.
    Indigenous Bolivians, however, have blended
    Catholicism and their traditional beliefs. An
    example is the near synonymous association of
    Pacha Mama (Mother Earth) and the Virgin Mary.
  • Spanish is the official language throughout
    Bolivia, although only 60-70 of the population
    speaks it, and then often as a second language.
    The indigenous languages of Quechua and Aymara
    are the preferred languages. When bargaining in
    rural markets, a Quechua word or two will not
    only endear you to the vendors, but usually get
    you an extra orange or more juice! Several other
    small indigenous groups speak their own
    languages. English is understood in the best
    hotels and in airline offices and travel
    agencies, but it's of little use elsewhere.
  • Bolivian food consists mainly of meat, corn
    pancakes, rice, eggs and vegetables. Local
    specialties include pique a lo macho, grilled
    beef and sausage lechón, suckling pig and cuy,
    whole roasted guinea pig-however, some delicacies
    may only be for the most adventurous stomachs.
  • Religious Affiliations of the population of Santa
    Cruz
  • Catholic 1,046,463 - 76.6 of the citys
    population
  • Evangelical 136,993
  • Others 14,505
  • None 28,564
  • Not Specified 100,512

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Major Landmarks/Attractions
  • Piraí River The riverbanks are often the spot
    for weekend picnics.
  • Municipal Zoo One of the best zoos in South
    America, features birds, reptiles, mammals, from
    the region as well as endangered and exotic
    species.
  • Plaza 24 de Septiembre Ideal for relaxing and
    watching sloths hanging in the tall trees.
  • The Cathedral Located on the Plaza 14 de
    Septiembre, the cathedral dates back to the early
    1600's. The cathedral museum displays religious
    art work, gold and silver artifact from the
    Jesuit missions.
  • Museo de Historia Natural Display a collection
    of flora and fauna of the region.

72
Landmarks (Continued)
  • Lomas de Arena de El Palmar Located 16 Km south
    of Santa Cruz these large sand dunes and fresh
    water lagoons are ideal for weekend picnics and
    swimming.
  • Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado Really worth
    seeing, this spectacular natural park, about 440
    Km northeast of Santa Cruz, has an incredible
    scenery of waterfalls, rivers, rainforests and a
    wide variety of flora and fauna (alligators, pink
    dolphins, caimans, river otters, tapirs, spider
    monkeys, etc.).
  • Jesuit Missions From Santa Cruz, east across the
    Río Grande, this circuit of Jesuit missions.
    founded between 1696 and 1760, composed by the
    mission of San Javier, San Ramón, San Ignacio,
    Concepción, San Rafael, Santa Ana, and San José
    de Chiquitos were declared "World Heritage" by
    the UNESCO World Heritage Committee on December
    12, 1990 in Alberta, Canada.
  • El Fuerte de Samaipata (Fortress) 120 Km
    southwest from Santa Cruz, the entire Inca ruins
    complex of around 40 hectares was declared "World
    Heritage" by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee
    on December, 2nd 1998 in Kyoto, Japan.

73
Pictures
74
Buenos Aires, Argentina
75
About Argentina
  • 21 Provinces
  • 4,466,896 sq. mi.
  • Population of 37 Million
  • 11 Million of which are in Buenos Aires
  • Pampas fertile farming ground

76
Brief History
  • 1536- Founded by Spaniards looking for Gold
  • 1580- Permanent Spanish Settlement
  • 1617- Given its own Governor in and had
    provincial status
  • 1776- Capital of New Viceroy controlled Territory
  • 1810- Severed from Spanish Empire, establishes
    its own government
  • 1862- Capital of Argentina
  • 1880- Federalization, Beginnings of Urbanization

77
Important Factors
  • Most European of all Latin American Cities
  • Known as the Paris of South America
  • Wide Boulevards, Leafy Parks, Grand Architecture,
    and lots of Monuments
  • 47 barrios, each one with its own distinct flavor
    and culture

78
Porteños Population
  • Population Area
    Sq. Mi. Pop. Per Sq. Mi.
  • Capital Federal- 2,904,000 77
    37,638
  • Inner Suburbs 5,202,000 360
    14,436
  • Outer Suburbs 3,094,000 633
    4,886
  • Urbanized Area 11,200,000 1,070
    10,467
  • Buenos Aires is ranked 4th in the worlds highest
    urban populations, behind only Shanghai, Bombay,
    and Karachi. When considering metropolitan area
    however, it falls to 17th.

79
Maps
80
Demographics
  • Only .05 inhabitants of Buenos Aires are of
    Native Decent
  • Most Porteños are of Spanish or Italian Decent,
    though there are also sizeable percentages of
    German, Arab, Jewish, Armenian, Anglo-Irish,
    Korean, Japanese, and Chinese
  • Italian and German names outnumber Spanish ones
  • 96 Catholic

81
Economy
  • Buenos Aires is the financial, industrial,
    commercial, and cultural hub of Argentina. Its
    port is one of the busiest in the world
    navigable rivers connect it to the Argentine
    North-East, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. As a
    result, it serves as the distribution hub for a
    vast area of the south-eastern region of the
    continent.
  • Agricultural products such as meat, grain, dairy,
    tobacco, wool, and hide from pampas.
  • Industries include automobile manufacturing, oil
    refining, metalworking, machine building, and the
    production of textiles, chemicals, clothing, and
    beverages.

82
Government
  • Political Instability from 1945-1983
  • La Guerra Sucia and the 10,000-30,000
    Disaparecidos
  • Distrust in National Government
  • Today Three Branch style similar to US
  • Gobernador Felipe Solá

83
Population Reference Bureau
84
Thank you very much, thats all for me.
85
Bogotá, Colombia
86
Origins
  • Founded in 1538 by Jimenez de Quesada as capital
    of New Granada
  • Was known as the Athens of America
  • Jose Acevedo y Gomez led the first successful
    revolt in 1810.
  • After Bolivars decisive victory in 1819, Bogotá
    became the capital of Greater Colombia.

87
Origins, cont.
  • When the country divided in 1830, Bogotá became
    the capital of what we know today as Colombia.
  • Much of the city was damaged by rioting in 1948,
    after the assassination of radial leader Jorge
    Eliecer Gaitan.
  • In 1955 Bogotá and the surrounding area were
    organized as a Special District, which became
    the Capital District in 1991.

88
Demographics
  • Population of roughly 7.8 million people
  • Located at altitude of 8660 feet above sea level
    at the base of two mountains in the Northern
    Andean Range.
  • Population is currently increasing at rate of 5
    per year, mostly due to rural residents flocking
    to the city.
  • Currently, the urban area covers 384.3 square
    kilometers.

89
Religions
  • 97 Christian
  • Other religions observed include
  • Islam
  • Judaism
  • Primal/Indigenous
  • Secular

90
Economy
  • Bogotá is Columbias largest economic center, and
    its residents refer to Bogotá as Colombias
    first city.
  • It is home to most foreign companies doing
    business in Colombia, as well as Colombias main
    stock market.
  • Three largest sectors of Bogotás economy are the
    export of coffee, emeralds, and flowers.

91
More on the Economy
  • Colombias coffee is prized as the finest in the
    world, and it is the worlds largest producer of
    the product.
  • In downtown Bogotá, millions of dollars of
    domestically produced rough and cut emeralds are
    bought and sold daily
  • As much as 55 of all flowers sold in the United
    States are imported from Colombia.

92
Culture
  • Bogotá is home to several universities
  • Universidad del Rosario, the oldest in Colombia
  • National University of Colombia
  • Los Andes University
  • Pontifical Javerian University
  • Universidad Externado de Colombia
  • University of Santo Tomas

93
Festivals
  • Festival Iberoamericano de Teatro
  • Most important theatre festival in Latin America
    and Spain.
  • Bogotás Half-Marathon
  • International marathon that takes place between
    June and August, with 200 million pesos in prizes
  • La Candelaria
  • A neighborhood of Bogotá where a great number of
    cultural events occur. It is home to several of
    Bogotás universities.

94
Transportation
  • Bogotá is a modern city with a modern
    transportation system consisting of
  • Airlines
  • Busses
  • Taxis
  • The Transmilenio
  • A train that serves the outskirts of the city
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