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Curriculum-Based Language Intervention

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Title: Curriculum-Based Language Intervention


1
Curriculum-Based Language Intervention
  • Wendy Robinson
  • wrobinson_at_aea11.k12.ia.us
  • February 3, 2010

2
Outcomes
  • Participants will
  • Be able to state the links between oral
    narratives and academic success.
  • Participants will be able to write
    curriculum-based goals (quantity versus
    qualitative)
  • Participants will be able to implement
    story-based interventions to improve oral
    expression skills.
  • Participants will be able to implement main idea
    summarization strategy to improve oral expression
    skills.

3
Why is this important?
  • Oral language skills are the foundation of
    literacy skills. The competency of a students
    language skills typically determine the
    competency of a students reading and writing
    skills.
  • The attainment of literacy skills is critical for
    academic and life success.
  • 60-70 of preschool children with communication
    concerns are at-risk for literacy failure by
    grade two.
  • Language and communication skills are considered
    the hidden curriculum in most schools.

4
How does this quote relate to oral language and
school success?
  • Words are used to think. The more words we know,
    the finer our understanding of the world.
  • (Stahl, 1999)

5
Teach broadly
  • Content (comprehension, relevant details,
    vocabulary, main idea, story structure)
  • Form (grammar, complex sentences)
  • Use (express thoughts, ideas, convey meaning in
    spoken and written form)

6
What do children get from being read to?
  • Preparing children to read the next level
  • More complex language
  • More academic vocabulary (words that are useful
    in school)
  • Continued appreciation of the enchantment of the
    story

7
What do children get from narrative discourse?
  • Foundation for reading and writing
  • Critical for developing reading comprehension
    skills (vocabulary, can determine important
    information, story structure)
  • Improves ability to express ideas beyond the
    sentence level
  • Provides opportunities to use formal book talk

8
Assess efficiently!
  • Total Words Spoken (general outcome measure -
    vital sign)
  • C - units, average words per c-unit
  • Story grammar components

9
Narrative Discourse - Three Basic Error Patterns
  • Comprehension - student typically displays slow
    retrieval of words, use of nonspecific
    vocabulary, and provides insufficient details for
    listener understanding. These students usually
    have limited verbal output and often do not
    understand story structure.

10
Narrative Discourse Pattern
  • Structure - student often has trouble planning
    and/or including all essential story components.
    Sometimes these students can provide the missing
    information if cued or asked questions targeting
    the missing story components.

11
Narrative Discourse Pattern
  • Organization - student typically has problems
    organizing narrative in a logical, coherent
    manner. All the critical components may be there,
    but not in the right order. Often times these
    student include a lot of irrelevant information.

12
Purpose for Determining Error Pattern Type
  • Helps determine what to teach and how to teach
    it.
  • Helps determine what type of monitoring system
    (TWS, C-unit, average length of C-unit, story
    elements) is most appropriate for that student
  • Helps determine which service delivery option
    best meets student needs

13
Narrative Comprehension
  • What to teach essential story elements and
    critical vocabulary in stories
  • How to teach explicit instruction of story
    elements, multiple opportunities to hear stories
    that model story structure in a concrete manner,
    cues and prompts to provide assistance in
    retelling

14
Narrative Comprehension
  • Monitoring Total words spoken (if low verbal
    output), C-units and average length of c-unit

15
Narrative Structure
  • What to teach Identify missing story components
    and teach those elements
  • How to teach Use of scaffolding, highlighting
    missing components during read alouds, use of
    verbal or visual organizers
  • Monitoring Story retelling evaluation guide
    (monitoring for inclusion of essential story
    components)

16
Narrative Organization
  • What to teach Sequential order of story
    structure, relevant versus irrelevant information
  • How to teach Modeling, verbal and/or visual
    organizers
  • Monitoring story retell evaluation guide with
    focus on sequence if needed

17
GOOAAALL!
Comprehension
is always the
18
Teaching Comprehensionis.
19
.a BEAST!
Marvel Comics
20
Comprehension
  • What Students Need to Learn
  • How to read both narrative and expository texts
  • How to understand and remember what they read
  • How to use strategies to improve their
    comprehension
  • How to relate their knowledge and experiences to
    text

Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and
Language Arts, 2005
21
Listening Comprehension
22
Comprehension
  • What Students Need to Learn
  • Listen to both narrative and expository texts
  • How to understand and remember what they have
    heard
  • How to use strategies to improve their listening
    comprehension
  • How to relate their knowledge and experiences to
    what they hear

Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and
Language Arts, 2005
23
Non-Negotiable? Travels? Routine?
24
Do Strategies and Routines Travel?school-wide,
class-wide, intensifiedclass-wide, small-group,
individuals
24
25
Lets Start At the Very Beginning
26
Ella - Kindergarten
  • Known information
  • Review and Interview
  • Teacher reports Ella has trouble answering
    questions about stories that are read aloud. Ella
    has trouble understanding specific words. She
    often asks what certain words mean.
  • Teacher reports that story retell is taught and
    practiced in the core reading curriculum.
  • Teacher reports Ella can use complete sentences,
    interacts verbally with peers and can relate
    personal experiences.
  • Parents report that Ella likes listening to
    stories but does not always understand them. She
    often asks," What does that mean?

27
Ella
  • Test
  • Screening level Ellas retell of kindergarten
    story
  • probes was not adequate for listener
    understanding.
  • Specific level procedures
  • She did not include major story components
  • (characters, setting, goal or problem,
    resolution).
  • She could not provide this information in
    response to
  • questions.
  • Median TWS for story probes 22 total words
    spoken in a
  • two minute retell.

28
Make a prediction
  • Knowing what you know about Ellas
  • listening comprehension skills and oral
  • language skills, which curriculum skills
  • might Ella have difficulty acquiring?

29
Ella
  • Goal Given 36 weeks and a grade level story
    probe Ella will retell a story
  • with at least 75 TWS in two minutes.
  • Focus of speech/language sessions Developing
    oral
  • narrative skills and vocabulary development
    through story
  • based interventions.
  • Speech/language group sessions 13
  • Two times a week 25 minutes
  • Teacher will provide instruction and practice in
    class in large and
  • small group opportunities.

30
Kindergarten Story-Based Interventions
  • Purpose To develop story understanding, oral
  • narrative skills and use of specific vocabulary
    to
  • retell stories.
  • Research base for design Biemiller, Beck and
  • McKeown, Simmons and Kameenui

31
What the Research Says about Vocabulary and
Comprehension
  • Vocabulary size in kindergarten is an effective
    predictor of reading comprehension in the middle
    elementary years (Scarborough, 1998)
  • Orally-tested vocabulary at the end of first
    grade is a significant predictor of reading
    comprehension ten years later
  • (Cunningham and Stanovich, 1997)

32
What the Research Says about Vocabulary and
Comprehension
  • Students with restricted vocabulary by beginning
    of grade 3 have declining comprehension scores in
    the later elementary grades.
  • Adequate reading comprehension depends on a
    person already knowing 90-95 of the words in a
    text.

33
Four Types of Vocabulary
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • Writing

34
Speaking vocabularys Critical Role in Learning
to Read
  • For beginning readers, reading vocabulary
    encountered in texts is mapped onto the oral
    vocabulary the learner brings to the task.
  • When a word is not in the students oral
    vocabulary, it will not be understood when it
    occurs in print.

35
Great need for instruction in primary grades that
  • That adds the meaning of new words to childrens
    word stores
  • Focuses on listening and speaking vocabulary
  • Impacts listening and reading comprehension

36
The Myth of Age or Grade Level Vocabulary
  • Students do not learn vocabulary words
  • based on their age or grade.
  • They learn words based on their experiences.

37
Children learn words meanings indirectly in three
ways
  • Daily conversations and oral experiences with
    adults and other children.
  • Listening to adults read to them.
  • Reading extensively on their own.

38
Sources of Words for Vocabulary Development in
the Primary Grades
  • For the most part NOT words from the texts that
    young children read
  • Words from books that are read to children
  • Teachers language

39
Way in which students learn words in upper grades
  • Specific word instruction
  • Word learning strategies
  • Wide reading
  • Amounts of reading

40
Vocabulary - What students need to learn
  • The meanings of most of the words in a text so
    they can understand what they read
  • To apply a variety of strategies for learning
    word meanings
  • To make connections between words and concepts
  • To use new words accurately in oral and written
    communication

41
How many words per year do students need to learn?
  • In kindergarten, first and second grade children
    need to learn 800 new words per year, about two
    words per day.
  • From third grade on, children need to learn
    2000-3000 new words per year, about 6-8 words per
    day.
  • Research shows the typical child needs 4-12
    meaningful encounters with a word before they
    know it well enough to improve comprehension.

42
Two kinds of vocabulary interactions during read
aloud routines
  • During reading
  • On the spot bumper sticker explanations to
    prevent comprehension problems and bring word
    consciousness to read aloud routine
  • After reading (robust vocabulary instruction)
  • Direct, lively discussion of 3-6 story words
  • Direct means explaining meaning
  • Rich means processing
  • Lively means not boring

43
Robust Vocabulary Instructional Routine
  • Step 1. Read the story.
  • Step 2. Contextualize the word.
  • Step 3. Have children say the word.
  • Step 4. Provide student friendly definition
  • (explanation)

44
Robust Vocabulary Instructional Routine
  • Step 5. Give examples of the words
  • in other contexts.
  • Step 6. Engage students in interacting
  • with the meanings of the words.
  • Step 7. Have students repeat the word
  • again.
  • Step 8. Review and use the new words.

45
Robust Vocabulary Instructional Routine
  • Step 1. Read the story (The Wolfs Chicken Stew)
  • Step 2. Contextualize the word.
  • In the story, the wolf had a craving for chicken
  • stew. That means the wolf had a feeling inside
  • that told him he wanted to eat chicken stew
  • more than anything else.
  • Step 3. Have children say the word.
  • Say the word craving with me.

46
Robust VocabularyInstructional Routine
  • Step 4. Provide student friendly definition
  • (explanation).
  • Craving means someone really wants to
  • eat something and nothing else will make
  • them happy.

47
Robust VocabularyInstructional Routine
  • Step 5. Give examples of the word in
  • different contexts.
  • My sisters gets a craving for apple pie
  • when she sees apples.
  • The little boy always craves milk when
  • he eats warm chocolate chip cookies.
  • I smelled something great when I walked
  • by the bakery and I got a craving for
  • doughnuts.

48
Robust VocabularyInstructional Routine
  • Step 6. Engage students in interacting
  • with the meaning of the word.
  • Generating examples
  • Tell me a special food that you crave.
  • Finish this sentence When I go to the
  • grocery store, I crave . Start the
  • sentence with I crave

49
Robust VocabularyInstructional Routine
  • Step 6. Engage students in interacting
  • with the meaning of the word.
  • Answering questions/giving reasons
  • If all you could think about eating was a
    chocolate cupcake, what could you say about that?
  • Which one would you be more likely to crave -
    candy or bugs? Why?
  • If you like apples a little more than oranges,
    would it be a craving?

50
Robust VocabularyInstructional Routine
  • Step 6. Engage students in interacting
  • with the meaning of the word.
  • Identifying examples and non examples.
  • Which one is a craving?
  • All Steve could think about was having a juicy
  • cheeseburger.
  • Mary was a little bit hungry for a hot dog.
  • Would you have a craving if you
  • wanted pizza and nothing else would make you
    happy?
  • did not care if you had soup or
    sandwich?

51
Robust VocabularyInstructional Routine
  • Step 7. Have the students say the word again.
  • What is word that means someone wants to eat
    something and nothing else will make them happy?
  • Step 8. Review and use the new words.
  • Post book cover and selected words.
  • Catch students using words or noticing them being
    used
  • Visual recognition like a chart.
  • Verbal recognition like, What a word wizard! You
    really
  • have your word antenna on today.

52
Lets see it in a classroom!
53
Nurture A Love and Appreciation of Words and
Their Use -Read Aloud Research
  • It is important to choose stories that attract
    and hold childrens attention.
  • Model word awareness and show students that
    words are important, interesting and fun.
  • Provide students with rich oral language
    experiences.

54
Which words should we teach?
  • Words that are unfamiliar yet understandable.
  • Words that are important to the story.
  • Words easily used in different contexts.
  • Words likely to be used in the future.

55
Putting Words into Tiers
56
What are Tier 2 words?
  • Also labeled Tier 2 words
  • New words not common to young childrens oral
    language
  • High frequency words for mature language users
  • Mature or more precise labels for concepts young
    children have under control

57
Tests to find Tier 2 Words
  • Importance and usefulness
  • Appear frequently across a variety of domains.
  • Characteristic of mature language users.
  • Instructional potential
  • Can be worked with in a variety of ways to build
    richness (depth).
  • Can be connected to other words and concepts.
  • Conceptual understanding
  • More precise and specific words for concepts
    students already understand

58
Your Turn Selecting Tier 2 Words
  • herd lease mortgage
  • rotate debt steel
  • Preserve forestry mathematics
  • reluctantly tinker boutique
  • realty elevate hire
  • Ambitious surplus allergic

59
Your Turn Select three Tier 2 words from this
passage
  • Bats are mammals. They are the only
  • flying animals that nurse. This means that
  • the mothers bodies make milk to feed
  • their babies. Bat pups hang together in
  • large groups called nurseries. Each
  • mother returns to feed her pup at least
  • twice a night. The pups need their
  • mothers milk to survive. If you disturb a
  • nursery cave, the frightened mothers may
  • leave, and the pups will starve.

60
Remember the Criteria
  • Unfamiliar yet understandable and easy to explain
  • Important to the story
  • Used in different context/domains
  • Likely to be needed in future (high utility)

61
Bat Passage
  • As a group, select three Tier 2 words from the
    Bat Passage.
  • Discuss your reasoning behind the words you
    select.
  • Create student-friendly explanations

62
Model Selection of Words for The Wolfs Chicken
Stew
  • finished
  • terrible
  • craving
  • spotted
  • delicious
  • joyfully
  • screeched
  • scrumptious
  • devious (not in story in print)
  • scheme (not in story in print)

63
Your Turn Selecting Tier 2 words from Read Aloud
selection
  • As a group, select a read aloud book from your
    curriculum.
  • Select 7-10 Tier 2 words.
  • Narrow the list to 3-4 Tier 2 words.
  • Talk about the rationale for word selection.
  • Share out Tier 2 words.

64
Contextualize the Tier 2 words.
  • The Wolfs Chicken Stew
  • Tier 2 words craving, scrumptious,
  • joyfully, screeched,
  • Contextualizing the words In the story,
  • The wolf makes scrumptious pancakes,
  • doughnuts, and cakes. The pancakes,
  • doughnuts and cakes tasted so good that all
  • someone would want to do is eat more and
  • more.

65
Contextualize the Tier 2 words.
  • The Wolfs Chicken Stew
  • Contextualizing the word When the chicken
  • saw Mr. Wolf at the door, she screeched, so,
  • it was you. The chicken yelled in a high voice,
  • It was you.
  • In the story, the wolf had a scheme to fatten up
    the
  • chicken. The wolf had a plan to get the chicken
    fat
  • so there would be more chicken stew for him.

66
Your Turn Contextualize the Tier 2 words you
have selected from your read aloud
  • As a group go back to the story and locate the
    sentences the Tier 2 words are in. Reread them to
    get an understanding of the context.
  • Create sentences that will provide a context for
    the students.
  • Record them on your sheet.

67
Developing student friendly explanations.
  • Look at the Tier 2 words you selected.
  • Look up the definitions in the Longman/CO-Build
    dictionary.
  • Think about the definition from a young learners
    point of view.
  • What difficulty might the definition pose?
  • How might you characterize the words so the
    meaning is specific?
  • What everyday language might you use for the
    explanations?

68
Developing student-friendly explanations
  • Read the sentence from the book that the word is
    in.
  • Create student-friendly explanations for the
    words you selected. It is helpful to include the
    words something, someone or describe in your
    explanation.
  • When reading the text to the students, after you
    read the sentence that contains the target words,
    stop and share the student-friendly explanation
    to the students. This should be a brief
    interaction and then continue to read the story.

69
Modeling developing student- friendly explanations
  • Tier 2 word scrumptious
  • Dictionary definition scrumptious very
  • pleasing to taste or smell delicious
  • Sentence in book He made a hundred
  • scrumptious pancakes. He made a hundred
  • scrumptious doughnuts.
  • Student-friendly explanation (complete sentence)
  • Scrumptious is something that smells or tastes
  • great.

70
Modeling developing student- friendly explanations
  • Tier 2 word devious
  • Dictionary definition devious not straight
  • Forward shifty or crooked
  • Sentence in book Not in the book. A
  • concept that is represented by the wolfs
    behavior
  • in the story.
  • Student-friendly explanation (complete sentence)
  • Devious is trying to trick someone in a dishonest
  • way.

71
Your Turn Developing student friendly
explanations for Tier 2 words for read aloud
  • As a group review your Tier 2 words. Look at the
    sentences you developed to contextualize the
    words.
  • Using this information, the Longman or COBUILD
    dictionary, and the sentence from the story
    develop student friendly explanations for the
    Tier 2 words you have selected.
  • Record them on your sheet.

72
Criteria for student friendly explanations to be
most effective
  • Use of a complete sentence.
  • Use of everyday language.
  • Precision of the words to match to the essence of
    the word.
  • Use of the words someone, something or describes
    etc.

73
Engaging Students in Dealing with Word Meanings
for Tier 2 Words
  • Word Associations
  • Students are asked to associate of their
  • new vocabulary words with a word or
  • phrase and to explain why they decided on
    that connection. Most students will be able to
    answer questions correctly, the most important
    part is the requirement to explain why.

74
Engaging Students in Dealing with Word Meanings
for Tier 2 Words
  • Associating a known word with a newly
  • learned word reinforces even further the
  • meaning of the word. Associations are not
  • synonyms.

75
Modeling Word Associations
  • Tier 2 words devious, joyful, scrumptious,
  • Which word goes with smelling chocolate
  • chip cookies in the oven? Why?
  • Which word goes with pretending to be busy so you
    do not have to play with someone you do not want
    to? Why?
  • Which word goes with the feeling when
  • you get a new puppy as a pet as a surprise? Why?

76
Your Turn Developing Word Associations
Activities for Tier 2 Words
  • Develop word association activities for the Tier
    2 words you selected.
  • Explain why the words would go with the
    sentences.
  • Record them on your sheet.

77
Engaging Students in Dealing with Word Meanings
  • Have you ever
  • This activity helps students associate new
    learned words with contexts and activities from
    their own experience.
  • It helps students understand that they have a
    place for the word in their vocabularies.

78
Modeling Have You Ever
  • Tier 2 words screeched, scheme, craving
  • Tell me about a time when you screeched at your
    brother, sisters or cousins. Start the sentence
    I screeched when
  • Tell me about a time when you were craving some
    type of dessert. Start the sentence I was
    craving
  • Show me how your face might look if you are
    trying to think of a scheme to get some extra
    money from your mom and dad.

79
Your Turn Developing Have you ever activities
  • Using your Tier 2 words think of times that
    students could have experienced the Tier 2 words.
    If you have the students respond orally, remember
    to model and expect complete sentences.
  • Record your activities on the sheet.

80
Engaging Students in Dealing with Word Meanings
for Tier 2 Words
  • Applause, Applause! This activity focuses
  • on students indicating whether the words
  • have a positive or negative connotation.
  • They can use clapping to indicate the
  • level (not at all, a little, a lot) and then have
  • students explain why they think that way.

81
Modeling Applause, Applause!
  • Have the students clap based on how much
  • they might crave the following items
  • ice cream cone
  • liver
  • broccoli
  • cupcakes
  • Have them tell you why or why not.

82
Modeling Applause, Applause!
  • Have the students clap based on whether
  • Would like to be described as
  • devious
  • schemer
  • joyful
  • Have them tell you why or why not.

83
Your Turn Developing Applause, Applause
activities
  • Develop Applause, Applause activities for the
    Tier 2 words you have selected. Think about
    positive or negative aspects of the word or
    desired nature.
  • Record your activities on the sheet.

84
Engaging Students in Dealing with Word Meanings
for Tier 2 Words
  • Idea completion This activity provides
  • students with sentence stems that requires
  • them to integrate a words meaning into
  • context in order to explain a situation.

85
Modeling Idea Completion
  • I could tell the kids thought the birthday
  • cake was scrumptious because
  • Mom screeched across the noisy room to
  • Dad because .
  • The winning school was joyful because

86
Your Turn Developing Idea Completion activities
  • Using your Tier 2 words think of sentence stems
    that would require your students to integrate the
    meaning of the word for the sentence to make
    sense.
  • Record your activities on the sheet.

87
Review and Use the Words
  • Example/Non-Example
  • Present one by one descriptions of
  • situations and ask students to respond to
  • each as to whether or not it illustrates the
  • target word. Students should always be
  • asked why they responded as they did.

88
Modeling Example/Non-Example
  • If I say something that you would think
  • would screech, say Screech. If not, do
  • say anything.
  • Brakes on an old car (screech)
  • A gentle rainfall (no response)
  • Wind blowing through trees (no response)
  • A woman who is surprised to see a mouse (screech)

89
Modeling Example/Non-Example
  • If I say something that you would think
  • would make you act joyful, say joyful. If
    not, do
  • say anything.
  • Your favorite cousin coming to visit (joyful)
  • Your best friend moving away (no response)
  • Your favorite toy breaking (no response)
  • Your friends coming to your birthday party(joyful)

90
Your Turn Review and Use Words
  • Develop example and non-example activities for
    the Tier 2 words.
  • Record them on the sheet.

91
Model and Review Use of the Words
  • Why Stems
  • I am going to ask you why questions
  • that will use our juicy words.
  • Why might a devious child get in trouble?
  • Why might someone screech if it is quiet and a
    balloon pops?
  • Why might a boy and his puppy play joyfully?

92
Your Turn Why Stems
  • Using your Tier 2 words, develop why stems.
  • Record your responses.

93
Word Winner
  • Children need to frequently use and notice new
    words in order for them to become part of their
    active vocabulary. The Word Winner chart is an
    interactive tool that tracks when children use
    and hear Tier 2 words. It continues to motivate
    children around the words while helping to build
    the classroom atmosphere of enthusiastic word
    learning.

94
Word Winner
  • After each book, write the words from the book on
    a chart. As soon as the words are on the chart,
    children become word detectives, listening for
    these new words around them. Whenever children
    tell you they have heard or used a word, put a
    tally mark next to the word. Add up the scores
    for words.

95
Assessment
  • It is important to remember that vocabulary
    assessment should match the goals for word
    learning.
  • Using the same formats for instruction and for
    assessment are best for vocabulary assessment.

96
Assessment
  • Suggested Assessment Tasks
  • Use response cards (yes/no) or thumbs up/thumbs
    down as an informal assessment.
  • Use Yes/No sheets or Smiley/Sad faces after
    reading sentences for a formal assessment.

97
Modeling Assessment Tasks
  • Students have a yes/no answer sheet.
  • I will read some sentences that make
  • sense and some that do not make sense.
  • If the sentence makes sense, circle the
  • word, Yes. If it does not make sense,
  • circle the word, No.

98
Assessment for The Wolfs Chicken Stew
  • Hungry people never have cravings.
  • Most children think their birthday cake is
    scrumptious.
  • A scheme is something you might come up with on
    April Fools Day.
  • All children joyfully do their chores at home.
  • The cars wheels screeched on the ice when Mom
    hit the brakes.
  • If you are devious, everyone trusts you.

99
How are we going to know?
  • How are you going to know if it makes a
    difference to the students?
  • What are some permanent products that might show
    a change?
  • What will it look like and sound like in the
    classroom?
  • What will it look like in a story retell or page
    description task?

100
Moving On
101
Moving On
102
Halley First Grade
  • Known information
  • Review and Interview
  • Teacher reports that Halley has trouble retelling
    stories that she reads and stories that are read
    out loud in class. Halley can answer questions
    regarding the main characters (who), the
    beginning of the story and what happens at the
    end. She has a lot of trouble with the setting,
    and identifying the goal or problem in the story.
  • Teacher reports that story retell is taught and
    practiced almost daily in the curriculum. Halley
    was in a small group working on this skills. She
    is the only one who did not make significant
    progress.

103
Halley
  • Parents report that they read to Halley daily and
    ask questions focusing on who, what happened and
    how the story ends. They had been provided with
    guidance by the classroom teacher. They reported
    Halley has had trouble providing explanations or
    explaining what happened when they are not
    around. She can provide more information when
    asked questions.

104
Halley
  • Test
  • Screening level Halleys retell of first grade
    story
  • probes was not adequate for listener
    understanding.
  • Specific Level Procedures
  • She did not include major story components
    (setting, goal or problem,
  • resolution).
  • She could not provide this information in
    response to questions.
  • Median TWS for story probes 67 total words
    spoken in a
  • two minute retell.

105
Halley
  • Goal Given 36 weeks and a grade level story
    probe, Halley will retell
  • Including major story components (characters,
    setting, problem/goal, major
  • episodes, resolution) in four our of five
    opportunities.
  • Focus of speech/language sessions Developing
    story understanding and
  • oral narrative skills through story-based
    interventions.
  • Speech/language group sessions 12
  • Two times a week 30 minutes
  • Teacher will provide instruction and practice in
    class in large and small
  • group opportunities. Small group opportunities
    will be coordinated with
  • speech/language pathologist.

106
Listening/Reading Comprehension Class-wide
Instructional Routine
  • Framework for Comprehension Instruction
  • Before (Preparation)
  • During (Understanding)
  • After (Retention or Integration)

107
Before Reading (Preparation)
  • Set comprehension objectives
  • Preteach difficult to read words
  • Preview text and prime background knowledge
  • Chunk text into manageable segments

108
First Grade Story Interventions
  • Before
  • Set purpose for learning
  • Introduced critical vocabulary
  • Making connections to childrens real life
    experiences
  • Gave short summary of story

109
During Reading
  • Stop periodically to ask students questions
  • Identifying the main idea
  • Map text structure elements
  • Visualizing
  • Model ongoing comprehension monitoring

110
First Grade Story Interventions
  • During
  • Paired questions with major story structure
    components
  • Asked students to make predictions
  • Used pictures to show concrete examples of
    vocabulary words and relationships in stories
    (visualizing)

111
After Reading (retention)
  • Strategic integration of comprehension
    instruction
  • Planned review
  • Assessment of students understanding

112
First Grade Storybook Interventions
  • After
  • Story retell
  • Story maps (aid memory)
  • Sentence cloze summary
  • Evaluative questions

113
Lets See It in A Classroom
114
Moving On
115
Moving On
116
Background about Comprehension of Informational
Text
  • Large proportions of American students have
    difficulty comprehending informational text.
  • Low income and minority students are particularly
    likely to struggle.
  • Some have attributed the fourth grade slump to
    difficulties comprehending informational text.
  • Nearly 44 million adults cannot extract
    information from text in many circumstances.

117
The importance of comprehension in informational
text
  • We live in the information age.
  • The majority of reading and writing adults do is
    non-fiction, much of it informational.
  • Informational text can build vocabulary and new
    knowledge. 80 of what students read beginning in
    fourth grade is informational text.
  • Some students actually prefer reading and writing
    informational text and thrive with it.
  • Informational text is an important tool for
    answering question and solving problems and for
    raising questions and posing problems.

118
Cale Third Grade
  • Known information
  • Review and Interview
  • Teacher reports Cale has trouble finding main
    idea
  • in informational text (social studies and
    science). He can usually name the topic and some
    details. He has trouble distinguishing the
    difference between a detail and a main idea.
  • Teacher reports Cale can retell fiction stories
    adequately.

119
Cale
  • Teacher reports finding main ideas and a
    summarization strategy (Getting the Gist) are
    directly taught in the curriculum. Cale can
    provide the topic but cannot summarize. In texts,
    he can recognize topic sentences. He can identify
    concrete main ideas.
  • Test
  • Screening
  • Cale cannot provide an adequate summary of
  • Information text for listener understanding

120
Cale
  • Specific level procedures
  • Cale can provide the who or what (topic) of a
    passage
  • Independently. Cale requires a model to provide
    what
  • is important about the who or what and telling
    that
  • information in a main idea sentence. Cale often
  • provides a lot of details but cannot come up with
    the
  • overarching main idea. This is true even when it
    is
  • a topic he has a lot of prior knowledge in.

121
Cale
  • Goal Given 36 weeks and grade level
    informational
  • passage, Cale will be able to use a three step
    main
  • strategy independently in four out of five
    opportunities.
  • Focus of speech/language sessions Use of a main
  • idea summarization strategy to improve
    understanding and oral
  • discourse skills for informational text.
  • Group speech/language sessions 13
  • 20 minutes four times per week, two are conducted
    by speech/
  • language pathologist, two times per week by
    classroom teacher.

122
Summarizing
  • Summarizing requires students to
  • determine what is important in what they
  • are reading and to put it into their own
  • words. Instruction in summarizing helps
  • students
  • Identify or generate main ideas
  • Connect the main or central ideas
  • Eliminate unnecessary information
  • Remember what they read

123
Skill-Strategy Continuum
  • Strategies are generally more complex than skills
    because they require the orchestration of several
    skills.
  • Effective instruction links comprehension skills
    to strategies to promote strategic reading.

124
Skill-Strategy Example
  • To summarize involves
  • Sequencing of events
  • Making judgments
  • Noting details
  • Determining main idea
  • Using story structure or text organization

125
Summarizing
  • Narrative text - strategy is focused on story
    grammar
  • Expository (informational) - strategy is focused
    on main ideas

126
Narrative (Fiction) Text Structure
  • Setting
  • Characters
  • Plot
  • Resolution

127
Name informational text structures
  • Teacher 1 turn to Teacher 2 and name as many
    informational text structures as you can.
  • Teacher 2 - name any informational text
    structures that Teacher 1 left out.

128
Informational Text Structures
  • Descriptive
  • Sequential
  • Enumerative
  • Cause-effect
  • Problem-solution
  • Compare-contrast

129
Class wide Routinefor Summarizing
  • Paragraph Shrinking
  • GIST
  • Get the Gist

130
Five Components of Explicit Teaching of
Comprehension Strategies
  • An explicit description of the strategy and when
    and how it should be used.
  • Teacher and/or student modeling of the strategy
    in action
  • Collaborative use of the strategy in action
  • Guided practice using the strategy with gradual
    release of responsibility
  • Independent use of the strategy

131
Paragraph Shrinking Informational Interventions
  • Short grade level science and social studies
    passages
  • Use explicit teaching including model, guided
    practice and independent practice.
  • Based on a comprehension strategy that is
    evidence-based for 2nd grade through high school.
  • Can carry-over to note-taking

132
What is the strategy?
  • Paragraph shrinking helps you figure out the
  • most important idea in what you just read.
  • First, you think about the who or what the
  • paragraph was mostly about and then you
  • figure out the most important ideas about the
  • who or what and say this in ten words or
  • less.

133
When do you use Paragraph Shrinking?
  • You use paragraph shrinking after reading
  • each paragraph or section of text.

134
Why is it important to use the strategy?
  • Paragraph shrinking is important because
  • it helps you check whether you
  • understand what you just finished
  • reading. It also helps you remember
  • what you just read.

135
How do you do it?
  • There are three steps to Paragraph Shrinking.
  • First, name the who or what that the paragraph is
    mostly about.
  • Second, tell the most important thing about the
    who or what.
  • Third, tell or write a sentence of ten words or
    less, leaving out details.

136
Paragraph Shrinking - Teacher Modeling
  • Read a paragraph out loud to the students
  • and model Paragraph Shrinking for them.
  • be sure to think out loud and tell how you do
  • each step.

137
Paragraph shrinking - Teacher modeling example
  • A seabird is any bird that spends most of its
  • time at sea and depends on the sea and its
  • islands for all its basic needs. The sea
  • provides food, and its remote islands and
  • rocky outcroppings provide safe nesting and
  • resting places. For 60 million years, these
  • highly specialized and diverse birds have
  • adapted to life on the worlds vast oceans.
  • (from Collaborative Strategic Reading, Vaughn and
    Klinger)

138
Model
  • I am going to show you how to paragraph
  • shrink for the paragraph I just read. First, I
  • figure out if the paragraph is about a who
  • (a person) or a what (a place or thing). Then
  • I will name the who or what the paragraph
  • was mostly about. We will call this the
  • topic.

139
  • Tell the students the who or what the
  • paragraph you just read was mostly
  • about. Explain how you determined that
  • answer and write the answer down
  • (optional).

Model your thinking!
140
Example for Seabirds
  • This paragraph was about a what. That what
  • was seabirds. I figured it out by reading the
  • beginning sentence. It was a topic sentence
  • telling what a seabird was. The rest of the
  • sentences gave information about seabirds.

141
Most important about who or what
  • Second I will tell the most important
  • information about the who or what. I
  • learned that seabirds live, get food, rest
  • and nest at the sea.

142
Main Idea Sentence
  • Third, I will say the main idea sentence in 10
  • words or less leaving out the details. There are
  • three important things I need to remember
  • about the main idea
  • 1)The main idea must be a
  • complete sentence.
  • 2) The main who or what
  • only counts as one word.
  • 3) A good main idea
  • sentence contains information that will help
  • you remember the important details in a
  • paragraph.

143
Main Idea Sentence
  • Seabirds get everything they need from
  • the sea.

144
Guided Practice
  • Ask the students if the paragraph is about a who
    or a what.
  • After you have established whether the passage is
    about a who or what, ask the students to identify
    who or what it is about (the topic)

145
Guided Practice
  • After students have determined the topic for
    the main idea, ask them to identify the most
    critical information about the who or what.
    Be sure to emphasize that the students are
    looking for the most essential information -- not
    details.

146
Guided Practice
  • Next, students need to think about the who or
    what, what is important about the who or what and
    generate a main idea sentence in 10 words or
    less.
  • Do a check whether the main idea sentence meets
    the criterion that a good main idea sentence
    contains information that will help students
    remember the important details in a paragraph.

147
Guided Practice
  • Repeat this process for the remaining paragraphs.

148
Paragraph Shrinking - Independent Phase
  • Read a paragraph (section of the text) aloud or
    have the students do this.
  • Ask the students to work in pairs.
  • Give the students a certain amount of time to
    Paragraph Shrink the paragraph just read.

Continue..
149
Paragraph Shrinking - Independent Phase
  • Help students if they are having trouble.
  • After the time is up, either have the students
    share out or continue on to the next paragraph.
  • Continue with this cycle until the passage is
    done.
  • Have students share out their main idea sentences
    and explain how they got them.

150
Helpful Tips
  • Do not assume students know how to identify
    paragraphs. You may have to teach them to
    identify the beginning and end of a paragraph.
  • Some students may need help to figure out if the
    paragraph is about a who or what. Teaching them
    that if it is a fiction text or story, it usually
    is a who and if it is informational text, it is
    usually a what.

151
Lets Try It
152
Final Thoughts
  • Questions and Answers
  • 3-2-1 Activity
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