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Title: Overhead Slides


1
Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Overhead Slides

2
Questions I have about teaching students with
autism spectrum disorders
3
Focus Questions Part One
  • What are the general areas of delays and concerns
    that characterize individuals with autistic
    spectrum disorders?
  • How do the characteristics of autism spectrum
    disorders impact teaching and learning?

4
Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • are complex, neurological disorders that affect
    the functioning of the brain
  • can be present in a variety of combinations and
    may accompany other disabilities

5
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autistic Disorder
Aspergers Disorder
Retts Disorder
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise
Specified
  • Impairments in social behaviour
  • Communication difficulties
  • Stereotypic or unusual behaviours

6
Social Impairments
  • Multiple nonverbal behaviours
  • eye-to-eye gazes
  • facial expressions
  • body postures
  • gestures
  • Peer relationships
  • Spontaneous seeking of others
  • Social or emotional reciprocity

7
Communication Impairments
  • Delay in language development
  • Difficulty initiating or sustaining a
    conversation
  • Repetitive or idiosyncratic language
  • Lack of varied spontaneous imaginative play

8
Repetitive Patterns of Behaviour
  • Preoccupation with patterns of interest
  • Inflexible adherence to routines
  • Repetitive motor mannerisms
  • Preoccupation with parts of objects

9
Other Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Aspergers Disorder
  • social impairments and unusual behaviours
  • average or above cognitive abilities
  • communication and anxiety are issues
  • language development not significantly delayed
  • Retts Disorder
  • occurs only in females, very rare
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • regression in multiple areas after normal
    development
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise
    Specified
  • does not meet diagnostic criteria for autism

10
General Characteristics of ASD
  • Communication difficulties
  • Social interaction difficulties
  • Unusual behaviours
  • Unusual patterns of attention
  • Unusual sensory responses
  • Anxiety
  • Learning difficulties

11
Communication
  • Nonverbal communication difficulties
  • Expressive language delays
  • Oral language differences
  • Language use not for social purposes
  • Echolalia speech
  • Perseveration on a topic
  • Restricted vocabulary
  • Difficulty with conversations
  • Comprehension difficulties

12
Social Interaction
  • Establishing and maintaining relationships
  • playing with others
  • taking turns and sharing
  • Theory of mind
  • understanding other perspectives
  • making sense of social behaviour
  • making sense of feelings and emotions
  • making sense of communication

13
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Communication
  • Social interaction

14
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Communication
  • Instruction based on assessment results
  • Instruction should emphasize
  • paying attention
  • imitating
  • comprehending words and instruction
  • using language for social reasons
  • developing functional communication

15
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Social Interaction
  • Social Skill Development
  • Tolerating others in own space
  • Imitating the actions/vocalizations of others
  • Engaging in parallel activities
  • Taking turns
  • Using eye contact
  • Explicitly teach theory of mind concepts

16
Unusual Behaviours
  • Diagnostic criteria
  • preoccupation with patterns of interest
  • inflexible adherence to routines
  • repetitive motor mannerisms
  • preoccupation with parts of objects
  • Unusual response to sensory stimuli
  • Challenging aggressive destructive behaviours
  • Behaviours are the tip of the iceberg. It is
    essential to delve
  • below the surface to identify the message of the
    behaviour.

17
Unusual Patterns of Attention
  • Stimulus overselectivity
  • Impairment in joint attention
  • Difficulty disengaging and shifting attention
  • Short attention span

18
Sensory Characteristics
  • Often hypersensitive or hyposensitive to
  • tactile
  • auditory
  • visual and olfactory
  • olfactory
  • gustatory
  • vestibular and proprioceptive

19
Anxiety Characteristics
  • Difficulty regulating emotions
  • Inability to express oneself clearly
  • Sensory processing needs
  • High need for predictability
  • Difficulty understanding social situations

20
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Unusual behaviours
  • Attention
  • Sensory responses
  • Anxiety

21
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Unusual or Challenging Behaviours
  • Teaching students new skills and interests
  • Understanding responses to sensory stimuli
  • Preparing the student for planned changes
  • Developing calming strategies
  • Assisting the student to monitor level of arousal
    or anxiety
  • Adapting the learning environment

22
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Patterns of Attention
  • Information and instructional activities should
    be provided in a format that
  • is clear and concise
  • is consistent with comprehension level
  • focuses their attention
  • emphasizes the most relevant information

23
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Sensory Responses
  • Assess sensory responses.
  • Be aware of different experiences of sensory
    stimulation.
  • Use alerting strategies to help enhance students
    when hyposensitive.
  • Implement strategies to calm students when
    hypersensitive.

24
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Anxiety
  • Provide warnings about transitions and changes.
  • Provide daily and weekly schedules.
  • Use social scripts to encourage calming and teach
    coping skills.
  • Provide facts about anxiety-arousing situations.
  • Establish a calming area.

25
Focus Questions Part Two
  • Who should be involved in the development of an
    individualized program plan (IPP)?
  • What are the roles and responsibilities of each
    participant?
  • How can the collaborative team best communicate,
    problem-solve and plan for transitions?

26
Individualized Program Plan Process
  • Gathering information
  • Setting the direction for the IPP
  • Developing the IPP
  • Implementing the IPP
  • Reviewing the IPP

27
Components of Effective IPPs
  • Personal and educational data
  • Strengths and needs
  • Long-term goals
  • Short-term objectives
  • Strategies and accommodations
  • Transition plans
  • Resources
  • How progress will be evaluated
  • Assignment of responsibility
  • Process for review and evaluation

28
Learning Characteristics
  • Uneven cognitive profile
  • Deficits in attending to relevant cues
  • Language impairments
  • Difficulties with abstract reasoning
  • Planning, organizing and problem solving
  • Strong rote memory and visual spatial skills

29
Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
  • Learning
  • Instruction should be based on assessment results
    and emphasize
  • organization skills
  • problem-solving skills
  • visual cues and reminders
  • concrete language

30
Collaboration
  • What are the elements that lead to successful
    home and school collaboration?

31
Collaborating with Parents
  • Gathering relevant background information
  • Maintaining communication
  • Planning problem-solving and decision-making
  • goals and objectives
  • placement
  • transition plans
  • Coordinating resources

32
Planning a Collaborative Meeting
  • What information needs to be gathered?
  • What planning, problem-solving and/or
    decision-making needs to take place at this time?
  • How will goals and objectives be addressed?
  • Is placement an issue at this time?
  • What transition plans are necessary?
  • Which resources and professionals should be
    involved?
  • Who should be invited to participate in the
    meeting?

33
Develop an Agenda
  • Introduction of participants
  • Purpose of the meeting
  • Sharing new information
  • Whats working
  • Concerns/issues
  • Brainstorming
  • Planning
  • Who
  • What
  • When
  • Review date

34
Conducting a Successful Collaboration Meeting
  • Set a positive tone, introductions, logistics.
  • Give each participant the opportunity to share.
  • Brainstorm possible options.
  • Summarize the discussion and review plans.
  • Establish plans and times for follow-up.

35
IPP Part One Group Activity
  • Group Number
  • Name of student
  • Strengths and needs
  • Long-term goals
  • Short-term objectives

36
Collaboration Meeting Role-play
  • What worked well?
  • What would you change for next time?

37
Transition Strategies Starting Off on the Right
Foot
  • Teacher preparation
  • Preparing the student
  • Preparing the classroom
  • Promoting understanding

38
Transition Strategies Preparing the Teacher and
Staff
  • Visit student in current setting to observe
  • behaviour
  • classroom routine and organization structure
  • successful adaptations and modifications
  • visual systems used to support the student
  • effective instructional strategies
  • students level of participation

39
Transition Strategies Preparing the Teacher and
Staff
  • Meet with sending staff to exchange information
    about
  • effective ways to motivate student
  • students likes and dislikes
  • sensory-related issues
  • effective behaviour management strategies and/or
    Behaviour Support Plan
  • relevant health issues
  • Meet with parents

40
Understanding Your Student
  • Student
  • Date of birth/age
  • Family situation (e.g., parents, siblings,
    involvement of extended family, how does the
    child relate to his family, etc.)
  • Diagnosis (how did the diagnosis come about, who
    diagnosed the child, concerns about the
    diagnosis)
  • Parent concerns and expectations
  • Interventions (e.g., Early Intervention
    Programming, therapies, etc.)
  • What types of supports and therapies are
    currently in place?
  • What type of involvement does the child have in
    the community (e.g., sports, religious school,
    other outside activities)?
  • What works at home and in other settings?
  • What worked at previous school setting?
  • Specific concerns or issues to be aware of.

41
Transition Strategies Preparing the Student
  • Use videotapes or pictures of new teacher and
    classroom.
  • Prepare scrapbook or social story.
  • Plan visit or visits to future classroom with
    familiar person.
  • Plan preferred activities for student in new
    setting.
  • Prepare a calendar for student.

42
Transition Strategies Preparing the Student for
Junior and Senior High
  • Identify key people for student.
  • Assign an adult mentor.
  • Provide training in how to use lock and lockers.
  • Enlist the assistance of peers.
  • Develop a plan/script for handling teasing.
  • Create a homework plan.
  • Teach specific skills necessary for new setting.

43
Transition Strategies Classroom Accommodations
  • Consider desk positioning
  • to facilitate attention
  • to ensure that teacher assistant is unobtrusive.
  • Consider sensory issues.
  • Consider possible distractions.
  • Define specific spaces for specific purposes such
    as
  • calming area
  • individual learning area.

44
Transition Strategies Junior and Senior High
Accommodations
  • Provide an in-school mentor
  • Organizational support
  • Modified academic demands
  • Allow more time for cognitive processing
  • Homework support and modification
  • Accommodate for sensory needs
  • Identify safe, calming area for student

45
Transition Strategies Preparing Classmates
  • Remember that students mirror the teachers
    attitude.
  • Address concerns, questions and misconceptions.
  • Invite guest speakers.
  • Use activities to foster awareness and
    understanding.
  • Coach peers to be effective partners.

46
Transition to Adult Life
  • Collaborate with parents, community agencies,
    support services and student.
  • Develop transition goals.
  • Teach specific skills necessary for new setting.

47
Instructional Approaches and Accommodations
  • Visual support
  • Structuring the environment

48
Visual Supports
  • Schedules (no surprises)
  • Visual rules (what are the rules today)
  • Visual tools to organize (materials)
  • Social experiences (solving problems)
  • Independence (theme boards and cues)
  • Visual bridges (communicating about life)
  • Behaviour tools (anxiety and relaxation)

49
Visual Schedules
Example of a group schedule
Example of a weekly schedule
Example of a simple visual schedule to support
arrival routine
Example of a daily schedule
Example of a visual chore chart
50
Visual Schedules Desk Strip
51
Visual Schedules Written Reminders
52
Visual Rules
Walking in the hall
Hands to yourself
Walk Dont run
53
Visual Rules
 
Asking for help
  • When I dont know what to do.
  • I can raise my hand.
  • I get help, then I practice.
  • I can do it. I feel good!


54
Visuals to Organize Independent Work
55
Visuals to Organize Class Discussions
56
Visuals to Organize Reading
RAP Strategy
Read a paragraph. Ask yourself questions What
did I just read? Paraphrase Put it in your own
words.
57
Visuals to Organize Writing Linear Outline
From Alberta Learning, Make School Work for You
A Resource for Junior and Senior High Students
Who Want to be More Successful Learners
(Edmonton, AB Alberta Learning, 2001), p. 94.
58
Visuals to Aid Social Experiences
When someone says Hi to me, I say Hi back.
59
Visuals to Aid Socialization
When I Want to Tell a Joke
I look at the other person. I ask, Do you want
to hear a joke? If they say, Yes, I
start. If its a riddle, I ask the question. I
wait for the other person to find an
answer. When the other person says, I dont
know, or doesnt answer, I tell them the answer.
60
Visuals to Support Independence
Getting Ready for Math You Need Pencils Math
notebook Ruler Math book
61
Independence
  • What to do Before Class is Over
  • Check agenda.
  • Write down new assignments.
  • Get materials for homework.
  • Ask for help if you dont understand or cant
    find the materials.

62
Visual Bridges
63
Visual Bridges School/Home
64
Visual Bridges Home/School
65
Behaviour Tools
When Its Too Noisy Its too noisy! I can
put on headphones. Im happy! Its quiet now.
66
Visual Tool
When Im Stressed
Im stressed !!
I take 5 deep breaths.
67
Behaviour Tool
When I am Upset
I need to relax!
Relax
Take deep breaths
Dont kick
Dont hit
Dont yell
68
Structuring the Environment
  • Structure the classroom
  • Attend to sensory issues
  • Organize materials
  • Provide routines
  • Use schedules
  • Use First/Then cards
  • Introduce changes gradually

69
Structure for Carpet Time
70
Structuring a Work Station
71
IPP Part Two
  • Group Number
  • Name of Student
  • Transition Plan
  • Accommodations

72
Discussion Questions
73
Focus Questions Part Three
  • What general instructional approaches are
    recommended for students with ASD?
  • What types of environmental supports and routines
    promote independence?
  • How can communication and social functioning be
    enhanced for students with ASD?

74
Instructional Approaches
  • Visual support
  • Structuring the environment
  • Encouraging independence
  • Task analysis
  • Addressing sensory issues
  • Applied behaviour analysis

75
Encouraging Independence A Goal For Every Student
  • Fading prompts
  • Fading physical presence

76
Encouraging Independence Hierarchy of Prompts
  • I Independent
  • G Gestural prompt
  • IV Indirect verbal prompt
  • V Direct verbal prompt
  • M Model
  • MP Minimal physical prompt
  • PP Partial physical prompt
  • F Full physical prompt

77
Task Analysis
  • Breaking a large task into smaller subskills
  • Teaching and reinforcing subskills
  • Forward chaining
  • teaching each subskill in sequence
  • Backward chaining
  • last step in subskill taught first

78
Task Analysis Prompt Hierarchy
Sample Task Analysis Data Sheet
79
Focus Question
  • How can direct instruction enhance learning and
    decrease problematic behaviours?

80
Direct Instruction
  • Test-teach-test
  • Scripted lessons with clearly defined tasks
  • Sequenced tasks from simple to complex
  • Well-defined response expectations
  • Consistent instructional language
  • Carefully planned reinforcement
  • Rapid-paced lessons
  • Independent work after mastery

81
Discrete Trial Training
  • Stimulus
  • Prompt
  • Response
  • Consequence
  • Inter-trial interval

82
Shaping Procedures
  • Shaping behaviours reinforce approximations to
    the desired behaviour.
  • Example
  • John will be reinforced when he plays for two
    minutes.
  • John will be reinforced when he plays for four
    minutes.
  • John will be reinforced when he plays for six
    minutes.

83
Planning a Routine
  • What is the routine
  • Purpose of the routine
  • Task analysis of the routine
  • How will the routine be taught
  • visuals
  • written directions
  • backwards or forward chaining
  • Write or sketch the routine

84
Visual Guide to Planning a Routine
85
Assessing Sensory Issues
  • Auditory
  • Visual
  • Tactile
  • Gustatory and olfactory
  • Vestibular and proprioceptive
  • Is the child extremely sensitive to sounds?
  • Are visual stimuli distracting the child?
  • Are certain textures aversive?
  • Are there strong preferences in tastes and
    smells?
  • What is the childs need to move and experience
    different types of pressure?

86
Sensory Diet
  • Alerting/energizing
  • Gross motor activities
  • Fresh air
  • Cold Water
  • Play activities with toys and bright lights
  • Loud energetic music
  • Sudden fast movement
  • Relaxing/calming
  • Quiet music
  • Deep pressure
  • Sucking activities
  • Deep breathing
  • Repetitive behaviour
  • Weighted vests or blankets
  • Tensing and relaxing

87
Sensory Diet for Older Children
  • To Alert
  • Use bright lights
  • Use a slant board
  • Listen to loud music
  • Hold fidget item
  • Wear cooler clothing
  • Erase the board or do classroom task
  • Chew gum
  • Drink something cold
  • To Calm
  • Use a study carrel
  • Use a room divider
  • Listen to calm music
  • Hold fidget item
  • Wear warm clothing
  • Sit on an inflated cushion
  • Chew gum
  • Suck on straw, candy

88
Adding a Sensory Break
89
Incorporating Movement in the Class
90
Hopscotch Can Be a Sensory Break
91
Using Bean Bag Chairs for Deep Pressure
92
Carrying a Heavy Load Can Be a Sensory Break
93
Sensory Accommodations Autism Modification Toys
  • Mouthing, sucking, teething
  • Hand-flapping or finger- flicking
  • Yelling, making loud noises
  • Visual stimulation, fingers in front of eyes
  • Deep tactile, masturbation
  • Cup with straw, plastic tubing, chewing items
  • Koosh toy, silicon gel ball, squishy ball, slinky
    toy
  • Walkman, stories, clickers
  • Kaleidoscope, pinwheel ribbon
  • Deep pressure, weighted vest, headband, cap,
    wristband

The Source of Autism, Linguisystems, 1997.
94
Substituting More Appropriate Sensory Activities
  • Inappropriate sensation seeking
  • Playing with saliva
  • Smelling hair or feet
  • Placing inedible objects in mouth
  • Aimless running or spinning
  • Eating shirt sleeves
  • Putting hands in pants

95
Substituting More Appropriate Sensory Activities
Inappropriate sensory More appropriate activities
sensory activities
  • Playing with saliva
  • Smelling hair or feet
  • Placing inedible objects in mouth
  • Aimless running or spinning
  • Eating shirt sleeves
  • Putting hands in pants
  • Putting lotion on hands
  • Scratch and sniff stickers
  • Sucking on water bottle
  • Playing tag or swinging on swings
  • Providing chewing toys/ gum/straws, etc.
  • Using Koosh balls, squeeze toys, etc.

96
Communication Goals
  • To enhance use of forms of communication
  • To increase use of different communicative
    functions
  • To expand receptive and expressive skills
  • To acquire pivotal social language skills
  • To maintain two-way communication

97
Assessing Forms of Communication
  • Speech/vocalization
  • Sign language
  • Body language
  • Pictures
  • Written language
  • Behaviour

98
Assessing Functions of Communication
  • Requesting
  • Obtaining attention
  • Protesting/refusing
  • Expressing feelings, commenting and gaining
    information
  • Greetings

99
Receptive Language Comprehension Difficulties
  • Expressive language may be more developed
  • May only hear last word or most familiar word
  • Difficulty with multi-step directions
  • Difficulty with abstract language
  • Limited vocabulary
  • Literal interpretation
  • Difficulty understanding social cues

100
Ways to Index the Environment
  • Point out social information.
  • Look, Tommys waving at you. Can you wave
    back?
  • Point out emotional information.
  • Mary got hurt. Look, shes crying.
  • Point out anticipatory information.
  • Look, Joeys going to throw the ball. Put your
    hands up.
  • Structure the commenting function.
  • Look at the bird eating the seed. He must be
    very hungry.
  • Code feelings and reactions.
  • You are very angry that Joey took your ball.
    Say, Joey, give me that ball!

101
Expressive Language Difficulties
  • Echolalia
  • May have a large vocabulary in a very limited
    subject area
  • Two-way conversation may be difficult

102
Pivotal Social Language Skills
Tolerating other people Attending to
others Taking turns Waiting Initiating,
responding and sustaining conversations
103
Strategies to Facilitate Communication
  • Ensure that a communication system is in place.
  • Focus on developing interaction.
  • Use clear, concise language.
  • Allow time to process information.
  • Teach listening skills and check comprehension.
  • Use visual supports.
  • Provide social scripts for spoken language.
  • Teach subtleties of tone and intonation.

104
Comprehension Tone and Intonation of Language
  • I didnt say she stole my money (but someone said
    it).
  • I didnt say she stole my money ( I definitely
    didnt say it).
  • I didnt say she stole my money (but I implied
    it).
  • I didnt say she stole my money (but someone
    stole it).
  • I didnt say she stole my money (but she did
    something).
  • I didnt say she stole my money (but she stole
    someone elses).
  • I didnt say she stole my money ( but she took
    something else).

105
Social Interaction Goals
  • To develop friendship skills
  • To increase understanding of rules of social
    interaction
  • To increase number and quality of positive social
    interactions

106
Social Skills Strategies
  • Direct teaching
  • Puppets/role-playing
  • Cartooning
  • Peer support
  • Social scripts
  • Social stories

107
Direct Teaching
  • Decide what social skill needs to be taught.
  • Complete a task analysis.
  • Identify which steps child can do.
  • Observe levels of prompting.
  • Choose a direct teaching strategy such as
    discrete trial training.

108
Using Puppets, Role-playing and Videotapes to
Teach Social Skills
109
Cartooning Social Situations
Fullerton, Stratton, Coyne Gray, (1996)
110
Peer Support
  • Provide peers with skills
  • be persistent
  • give cues not answers
  • teach communication skills
  • Provide cooperative learning activities
  • Provide support to the student
  • recess buddy
  • Encourage friendships

111
Social Scripts
112
Creating Social Stories
  • Introduce changes and new routines.
  • Explain reasons for others behaviour.
  • Teach situation-specific social skills.
  • Assist in teaching new academic skills.

113
Social Story Process
  • Assess and identify student needs.
  • Observe the specific situation.
  • Take the perspective of the child.
  • Write the social story.
  • Read the story with the child frequently.
  • Enhance the social story through modelling and
    role-playing.

114
Writing Social Stories
  • Descriptive sentences
  • Directive sentences
  • Perspective sentence
  • Formula for writing social stories
  • 25 descriptive or perspective statements 1
    directive statement

115
Social Story When I Change My Mind
  • Sometimes a person says, Ive changed my mind.
    (Descriptive)
  • That means he had one idea, but now he has a new
    idea. (Descriptive)
  • I will work on staying calm when someone changes
    their mind. (Directive)
  • I can think of someone writing something down,
    scratching it out and writing something new.
    (Directive)

116
Social Story Eating Lunch at School
  • Sometimes I eat lunch at school. (Descriptive)
  • People feel comfortable when I eat my food
    nicely. (Perspective)
  • Other kids will think Im friendly when I wait
    for them to sit down and get their lunch before I
    start eating. (Perspective)
  • I will try to chew my food slowly with my mouth
    closed. (Directive)
  • When I eat slowly with my mouth closed, people
    will be happy to sit at the same table with me.
    (Perspective)

117
Write a Social Story
  • What skill/task does your student need that can
    be taught through a social story?
  • With a partner, do a task analysis on the social
    skill.
  • Write the social story.

118
Focus Questions Part Four
  • How is a behaviour intervention plan developed
    and implemented?
  • How can precision teaching enhance learning and
    decrease problematic behaviours?

119
Behaviour Goals
  • Develop self-control
  • Increase positive behaviours
  • Decrease negative behaviours
  • Reduce anxiety
  • Follow specific school routines

120
Playing Behaviour Detective
  • Determine which behaviour to target.
  • Determine the function of the behaviour.
  • Implement positive, proactive strategies.

121
Programming for Challenging Behaviour
  • Determine which behaviour to target.
  • Assess function and contributing factors.
  • Identify alternate or incompatible behaviours.
  • Develop strategies to increase positive
    behaviours.
  • Develop strategies to decrease negative
    behaviours.
  • Create a behaviour support plan.

122
Determining Which Behaviour to Target
  • Is it life threatening?
  • Does it pose a health risk?
  • Does it interfere with learning?
  • Is it likely to become more serious?
  • Has it been a problem for some time?
  • Does it interfere with acceptance?

123
Behaviour is Communication
124
Determine the Functions of the Behaviour
We need to understand WHY the behaviour is
occurring BEFORE we can properly respond to the
behaviour.
125
Activity 13 Brainstorm Possible Functions of
Behaviour
126
Common Functions of Behaviour
  • Attention
  • Escape/avoidance
  • Getting something
  • Sensory/self-regulation
  • Other

127
Functional Behaviour Assessment Data Collection
  • Behavioural observations
  • Interviews
  • Motivation Assessment Scale

128
ABC Observation
129
Motivation Assessment Scale
130
When the Behaviour is Motivated by Attention
  • Reduce attention to the behaviour.
  • Teach positive ways of getting attention.
  • Teach appropriate communication.

131
When the Behaviour is Motivated by Tangibles
  • Teach appropriate communication.
  • Reinforce communication.
  • Increase choices.

132
When the Behaviour is Motivated by Avoidance
  • Teach, I want a break.
  • Teach to communicate, no.
  • Increase choices.
  • Practice relaxation and anxiety reduction.
  • Modify demands.

133
When the Behavior is Motivated by a Sensory Need
  • Increase sensory supports.
  • Replace with alternative activities.
  • Teach student to make requests for sensory
    preferences.

134
Increase Positive Behaviours
  • Environmental adaptations
  • Positive/proactive approaches
  • Reinforcements

135
Types of Reinforcers
  • Material reinforcers
  • Primary/edible reinforcers
  • Activity reinforcers
  • Social reinforcers
  • Sensory reinforcers
  • Exchangeable reinforcers token economy

136
Reinforcements
137
Identify Reinforcers
138
Decrease Negative Behaviours
  • Try proactive strategies first.
  • Identify the least restrictive strategies.
  • Develop planned response within the team.

139
Three Reactive Strategies
  • Reducing attention to the behaviour
  • Redirection
  • Removal from reinforcements or timeout

140
Helping Develop Self-control
  • Identify the interfering behaviour.
  • Observe the antecedents to the behaviour.
  • Decide on appropriate reinforcers.
  • Provide the student with visuals of the
    antecedent, desired behaviour and reinforcer.
  • Rehearse the scene.
  • Support the student in the situation by using the
    visuals.

141
Developing Self-control in the Classroom
Antecedent Walking by other students in the
classroom.
Desired behaviour Going to desk and reading
quietly.
Reinforcement Personal music time.
142
Behaviour Support Plan
  • Key understandings
  • Antecedent events
  • Warning signs
  • Immediate measures
  • Positive behaviour supports
  • Assistance from peers
  • Reactive plan
  • Signatures

143
Activity 15 IPP Part Three
  • Communication objectives
  • Communication strategies
  • Social interaction objectives
  • Social interaction strategies
  • Behaviour objectives
  • Behaviour strategies

144
Questions
  • Thank you
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