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Technology management


Technology management dr Oskar Szumski Actor-network theory ANT is a approach to social theory and research which originated in the field of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Technology management

Technology management
  • dr Oskar Szumski

Technology - definition
  • Technology is a concept that deals with an
    specialized usage of tools, utilities and
    knowledge. It is a consequence of science and
  • Technology refers to material objects of use by
    people, such as machines, hardware, software or
  • It can also be understood as systems, methods of
    organisation and techniques.
  • The practical use of applying science for
    industrial use

The four elements of technology
  • Technique machinery, tools, materials, and their
    application in the work process
  • Knowledge applied science, skills, intuition
  • Organization Structuring of the work process
    according to technological or socioeconomic goals
    or constraints
  • Product The output of the work process and the
    purpose of applying the technology

Drivers of technology
  • How is the innovation made? Who creates
  • Stakeholders participants of innovation system
  • Customers and technology changing environment
    driver of innovations
  • Sponsors of innovation
  • IT standards

Examples of technology categories
  • Black box technology A technology which is
    implemented partly, so that only its application
    (but not adoption, improvement or development) is
    mastered by the user, e.g. a word processing
  • Disembodied technology Technology which is
    transferred independent of specific capital
    equipment, e.g. by journals or training programs
  • Embodied technology Technology which is
    transferred together with specific capital
    equipment, e.g. application of a production
  • Generic technology Basic engineering knowledge
    that is not yet proprietary (public domain
    methodology, e.g. as developed by public research

Examples of technology categories
  • High-technology 'Sophisticated technology based
    on recent scientific advances'. The element of
    theoretical knowledge is pronounced, whereas the
    element of practical experience may be
    accordingly weak
  • Proprietary technology Technology directly
    related to processes and products and not freely
    available ('in-house technology'), e.g. a
    patented process, or simply a technology unknown
    or unavailable to outsiders. Proprietary
    technology can be traded (like a commodity)
  • Service technology Technology for production of
    services (rather than goods)

Management - definition
  • The art and science of extracting the most from
    specific assets for fulfilling desired goals.
  • Hence
  • Finance Management
  • Human Resources Management
  • Materials Management
  • Operations Management.
  • Maintenance Management
  • Technology Management

Technology management
  • integrated planning, design, optimization,
    operation and control of technological products,
    processes and services, a better definition would
    be the management of the use of technology for
    human advantage

Technology management why its important
  • It is the Age of technology and knowledge so it
    must be managed to live with it
  • Only societies and people who gain maturity in
    technology will have the right in the global
  • To get the best results , technology can be
    mastered only by managing it efficiently and

Parameters of Technology Management
  • Product Quality
  • Machine Productivity
  • Environment Management
  • Effective use of Raw Material
  • Machine Availability
  • Energy Consumption
  • Life cycle of components
  • Innovative aspects

Effective Technology Management
  • Strong Planning
  • Reduce Interruptions
  • Reduce Production Rejections
  • Strengthen the Information System
  • Provide Technology Leadership
  • Provide Good Administration
  • Preventive Maintenance

Benefits of Effective Technology Management
  • Work becomes EASIER
  • JOB SATISFACTION increases
  • PROFITS increase
  • Business Becomes COMPETITIVE

How technology affects life -)
  • A programmer works in a software-development
    company. One day he didn't come to work. The next
    day too. His co-workers called his phone, but
    nobody answers. They started to worry about him
    and decided to visit him. So, they found him in
    the bath, wet and blue because of cold,
    half-dead, holding an empty bottle from shampoo
    and reading the label of it.
  • It says "Apply a small amount to wet hair,
    massage it through, rinse out thoroughly. Repeat."

Development (definition)
  • As compared with a change - a process leading
    from one state of affairs towards a different
    state of affairs - a development is an intended
    process leading from an original state towards a
    desired state - towards a development goal

Actor-network theory
  • ANT is a approach to social theory and research
    which originated in the field of science studies.
    ANT maps relations that are simultaneously
    material (between things) and 'semiotic' (between
    concepts). It assumes that many relations are
    both material and 'semiotic' (e.g. the
    interactions in a bank involve both people and
    their ideas, and technologies. Together these
    form a single network).
  • ANT assumes that all the elements in a network,
    human and non-human, can and should be described
    in the same terms. This is called the principle
    of generalized symmetry. The rationale for this
    is that differences between them are generated in
    the network of relations, and should not be

Concept of translation
  • Process, in which innovators attempt to create a
    forum, a central network in which all the actors
    agree that the network is worth building and
  • Four moments of translation
  • Problematisation
  • Interessement
  • Enrolment
  • Mobilisation of allies

Concept of translation
  • 1. Problematisation
  • What is the problem that needs to be solved? Who
    are the relevant actors? Delegates need to be
    identified that will represent groups of actors.
    So, a union head represents workers or a Member
    of Parliament represents his constituency. During
    problematisation, the primary actor tries to
    establish itself as an obligatory passage point
    (OPP) between the other actors and the network,
    so that it becomes indispensable.
  • 2. Interessement
  • Getting the actors interested and negotiating the
    terms of their involvement. The primary actor
    works to convince the other actors that the roles
    it has defined them are acceptable.

Concept of translation
  • 3. Enrolment
  • Actors accept the roles that have been defined
    for them during interessement
  • 4. Mobilisation of allies
  • Do the delegate actors in the network adequately
    represent the masses? If so, enrolment becomes
    active support.

Elements in a network
  • Actants
  • Actants are human and non-human actors, and they
    do by virtue of their relations with one another.
    ANT assumes that nothing lies outside the network
    of relations, and there is no difference in the
    ability of technology, humans, animals, or other
    non-humans to act (and that there are only
    enacted alliances.) As soon as an actor engages
    with an actor-network it is caught up in the web
    of relations.

Elements in a network
  • Punctualisation
  • If taken to its logical conclusion, nearly any
    actor can be considered merely a sum of other,
    smaller actors. An automobile is an example of a
    complex system. It contains many electronic and
    mechanical components, all of which are
    essentially hidden from view to the driver, who
    simply deals with the car as a single object.
    This effect is known as punctualisation, and is
    similar to the idea of abstraction in
    object-oriented programming. When an actor
    network breaks down, the punctualisation effect
    tends to cease as well. In the automobile example
    above, a non-working engine would cause the
    driver to become aware of the car as a collection
    of parts rather than just a vehicle capable of
    transporting him or her from place to place. This
    can also occur when elements of a network act
    contrarily to the network as a whole.

Elements in a network
  • Tokens/quasi-objects
  • In the above examples, 'social order' and
    'functioning car' come into being through the
    successful interactions of their respective
    actor-networks, and actor-network theory refers
    to these creations as tokens or quasi-objects
    which are passed between actors within the
    network.As the token is increasingly transmitted
    or passed through the network, it becomes
    increasingly punctualized and also increasingly
    reified. When the token is decreasingly
    transmitted, or when an actor fails to transmit
    the token (e.g., the oil pump breaks),
    punctualization and reification are decreased as

How technology changes human behaviour?
  • Restricts some behaviours (e.g. DRM copy
  • It is hard to find out who is good person and
    who is bad person, because technology makes a
    decision instead of single person
  • -gt Technology makes people immoral

  • The functional source of innovation depends
    upon the functional relationship between
    innovator and innovation
  • An INNOVATION is anything new that is actually
    used (enters the marketplace) whether major
    or minor.
  • An innovation is a USER innovation when the
    developer expects to benefit by USING it
  • An innovation is a MANUFACTURER innovation when
    the developer expects to benefit by SELLING it.

  • Models of innovation
  • Sources of innovation
  • Strategy for innovation
  • Implementation of innovation

Innovation lifecycle - Adoption of technology
Technology maturity
Business Strategy to the Technology Strategy
  • Definitions of Business strategy
  • Definitions of Technology Strategy
  • Influence of business on technology
  • Influence of technology on business petterns

New technologies and competition
  • Aspects of technology development
  • Specialisation,
  • Niche
  • Core competencies
  • Other

Historical Perspective
  • Development of e-business
  • Brief history of the Internet
  • Current situation on the web (in terms of
    technology, worldwide usage, problems etc)
  • Ways of doing business

  • E-business is an innovation that modern day
    organisations cannot do without.
  • It is based on technology, evolves with
    technological developments, digitises and
    automates business processes, is global and leads
    to improved competitiveness, efficiencies,
    increased market share, and business expansion.
  • E-business innovations are digital transformation
    of business processes which results in a profound
    effect upon existing business practices

E-business models
  • E-businesses models include
  • business-to-business,
  • business-to-consumer,
  • government-to-government,
  • government-to-business,
  • government-to-consumer
  • and others that evolve with new developments.

E-business the new issue of business
  • Technological developments applied to e-business
    results in new issues in the organisation, in
    dealing with business partners and customers,
    requires new laws and regulations and automated
    business processes.
  • Conducting business electronically is a change
    from traditional ways of doing things, leading to
    large scale transformation of existing business.
  • To attain business efficiencies from e-business,
    it is imperative that organisations effectively
    manage the e-business environment, and all
    associated changes to digitize and maintain the

Strategic opportunitiesof E-Business Innovation
  • E-business in organisations is linked with the
    Internet and the growth in the use and
    application of computers
  • speed at which change may occur in e-business is
    indicated by the speed at which new access
    technologies are adopted
  • E-business processes allow for increased
    accuracy, flexibility and uniformity, making a
    firm's operations more competitive by increasing
    productivity, decreasing costs and leading to
    increased market share
  • It enables a company to respond quickly to
    customer demand and evaluate e-business benefits
    as strategic opportunities

Traditional business strategy vs e-business
  • The difference between traditional business
    strategy and e-business strategy is
  • a short planning horizon for e-business
  • an iterative strategic planning cycle to
    incorporate the pace of technological change,
  • an informational power base for access, control
    and manipulation of critical information instead
    of a positional power base
  • core focus on customers rather than the factory
    and production of goods

Justification of E-Business - pros
  • E-business allows a company to reach out to
    customers at greater geographic distances,
    acquire a new channel of business and integrated
    business processes - increased revenue from new
    customers acquired on-line
  • E-business promotes a better company image,
    requires less floor space, leads to increased
    accuracy of data and brings with it opportunities
    for more challenging responsibilities and
    training - acquisition of new business partners

Justification of E-Business - cons
  • Changing traditional business to e-business
    usually requires large expenditure and involves
    the whole organisation
  • Costs of technology, software, networking
    requirements, fees paid to consultants and
    experts hired to run the project and training
    expenses for the existing employees
  • Benefits are realised in the long term

  • Physical infrastructure roads, communication
    systems, pipelines, airports...
  • Economic infrastructure capital market, credit
    institutions, financial regulation ...
  • Social infrastructure health sector, education
    sector, labour market ...
  • Technological infrastructure institutions
    generating and dispersing technology, scientific

E-Business Infrastructure Requirements
  • It is important to define an adequate e-business
    infrastructure for the organisation.
  • E-business infrastructure refers to the
    combination of hardware such as servers and
    client PCs in an organisation, the network used
    to link this hardware and software applications
    to deliver services to customers, business
    partners and employees.

E-Business Infrastructure Requirements
  • E-business, although hosted on the Internet,
    requires and includes CRM technologies, ERP
    systems, JAVA platforms, intranets and extranets.
  • Technology specifications can be attained from
    vendors, the Internet, management consultants,
    and user and professional organisations.
  • Compatibility of hardware, software and
    integration with existing and incremental
    technologies requires careful analysis.

E-Business Infrastructure Requirements
  • The most obvious thing to look at in selecting
    the e-business infrastructure is whether the
    technologies will support and enhance business
  • The level of utilisation, flexibility in setups,
    the capacity of technology, its capability and
    potential for integration with existing and
    incremental technologies, should be assessed.
  • Re-engineering of business processes

E-Business Infrastructure Requirements
  • The degree of effort required to implement
    e-business applications should be a good
    indication of the personnel and training needs of
    the company for the technology to be viable.
  • The costs of any modifications required to
    existing technology before e-business is adopted
    should also be assessed.
  • Feasibility of technology is an important issue
    to consider in avoiding cost overruns.
  • Technology vendors, Internet service providers,
    and legal contracts for ongoing support are
    essential considerations

Organisation Structure
  • organisational form is fluid, flexible and
  • equipment, highly skilled employees and a dynamic
    external environment propel the organisation
    design toward an adaptable structure that
    facilitates innovation and rapid change, and
    encourages input from employees who are familiar
    with the problems
  • For e-business innovation each department within
    the organisation needs to assess its operations
    to exploit its strategic potential

Sociotechnical Issues of e-business
  • Training - Education and training act as the
    catalyst for changes that accompany new
    technologies and innovations. It also constitutes
    an essential basis for employee empowerment.
    Trained employees are significantly better
    problem solvers and problem presenters
  • Health and Safety - E-business implementation
    will require planning for proper ergonomics so
    that risks associated with computer-based
    technologies are avoided
  • Staffing, Reward System and New Job Designs - The
    reward system will need to be carefully designed
    because they elicit strong feelings with respect
    to fairness and equity.

E-business innovation
  • The new aproaches of e-business
  • M-business
  • E-banking
  • Other

M- business
  • Mobile commerce is defined as "content delivery
    (notification and reporting) and transactions
    (purchasing and data entry) on mobile devices"
  • Mobile users can compute, engage in commerce and
    access information from anywhere, any time with
    mobile technologies
  • Mobile technology supported information exchange
    and transactions should take place in a
    convenient environment and setting

  • Mobile business involves different stakeholders
    in the mobile industry such as mobile hardware
    manufacturers, mobile applications and portals
    developers, middleware developers and
    integrators, wireless network providers and
    carriers, intermediaries, and finally, services
    and content providers

Cetegories of mobile commerce functionality
  • Interactive or two-way pagers, which exchange
    short SMS messages.
  • Mobile phones that provide access to the web
    through the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP's
    WML Vs. DoCoMo's i-mode) or to SMS services.
  • Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) with wireless
    modem (e.g., Palm).
  • Wireless Internet access on laptop computers
    using IEEE 802.11a,b 1 radio frequencies
    (CSMA/CA not CD) standards.
  • Wireless network devices such as wireless barcode
    reader/transmitters, infrared and radio
    frequencies and other wireless technologies
    including satellite, cellular and microwave

Mobile business - limitations
  • Bit rate speed so far is the major barrier for
    the wide success of MoB and this relates directly
    to the existing operator/carrier (O/C)
    telecommunication infrastructure that exists in
    the different countries.
  • Subscribers' interests and needs despite the
    push from O/C for contents over MoB, statistics
    indicate that
  • 82 of mobile consumers have shown no interest in
    mobile data services,
  • Small processing power and small mobile browsing
    screens are very hard to navigate, which makes
    the mobile browsing experience un-enjoyable to
  • Cost ridiculous-costing schemes enforced by O/C
    to charge high profit

Wireless Technology Generations
Wireless Technology Generations
Strategies for MoB
  • Basic differentiation strategies
  • horizontal (diversification),
  • vertical (niche),
  • cross market differentiation by tying

Mobile commerce application infrastructure (GSM
WAP protocol)
Social and Environmental Impacts
  • People could work or execute large parts of their
    work from their offices, home, and even while
    driving from/to office during the rush hours in
    the morning and afternoon
  • The lack of convergence in the mobile devices
    represented here by displaying ads on mobile
    phones will prevent the user from using the
    mobile phone effectively
  • Issues like privacy and security, represented
    here by the ability to know the exact location of
    the mobile user anytime, anywhere, will put great
    strain on our personal lives

Social and Environmental Impacts
  • mobile services provider or carrier knows our
    profiles and personal details as subscribers,
    this will open up a large venue for customer
    profiling and direct personalised marketing
  • Intercepting the wireless communication spectrum
    by hackers is much easier than tapping into the
    wired medium.
  • Stealing the mobile device with its valuable
    contents is another challenge.
  • Viruses are starting to surface on the mobile
    arena and need to be resolved

Social and Environmental Impacts
  • confidentiality and integrity of transactions,
    authenticity of mobile users, and hedge against
    fraudulent activities among sellers and buyers
  • proliferation of different mobile technologies in
    the market and advancement in mobile technology,
    more business processes could be integrated very
    easily, enabling workers to squeeze more jobs
    within the one day
  • health hazards to the human brain as a result of
    the radio spectrum and waves used by the
    different mobile operators and how receiving a
    mobile call by a user will increase the amount of
    waves around the mobile phone reception end,
    which is located near the user's head

Impact of E-business on Society
  • Issues related to new life patterns
  • Globalisation of economy
  • Privacy and security issues
  • Information and knowledge
  • Continuous learning

Technology as a way to gain anourmous amount of
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