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Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

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Title: Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics


1
Chapter 1Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
  • Section A Computer Basics

Computer Concepts 7th EditionParsons/Oja
2
What is a computer?
  • Computer refers to a device that performs four
    functions
  • accepts input
  • processes data
  • stores data
  • produces output

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
3
What is a computer?
  • 1. INPUT
  • Input means to feed information into a computer
  • Input can be typed, submitted or transmitted to a
    computer system
  • Words and symbols in a document
  • Numbers for a calculation
  • Pictures
  • An input device gathers input and transforms it
    into a series of electronic signals for the
    computer to store and manipulate
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
4
Computer Basics
What is a computer?
  • 2. PROCESSING
  • Data refers to the symbols that represent facts,
    ideas and objects
  • Processing is the way that a computer manipulates
    data
  • performing calculations
  • sorting lists and numbers
  • drawing graphs
  • A computer program is software that sets up a
    computer to do a specific task
  • A computer processes data in a device called the
    central processing unit (CPU)

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
5
What is a computer?
  • 3. STORAGE
  • A computer stores data so that it will be
    available for processing
  • Memory is an area of a computer that temporarily
    holds data that is waiting to be processed
  • Storage is the area where data can be left on a
    permanent basis
  • Storage devices include hard drives, CD-ROMs,
    floppy disks, etc.

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
6
Computer Basics
What is a computer?
  • 4. OUTPUT
  • Computer output is the results produced by the
    computer
  • Reports
  • Documents
  • Music
  • Graphs
  • Pictures
  • An output device displays, prints or transmits
    the results of processing
  • Printer
  • Monitor

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
7
What is a computer?
Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
8
Computer Basics
What is a computer?
  • Computers use stored programs
  • A series of instructions for completing a task,
    for example
  • Calculating interest payments on a loan
  • Word processing
  • These instructions can be easily replaced by a
    different set of instructions when its time for
    a different task to be completed
  • For example, you can finish editing a report,
    then move onto sending an e-mail
  • This is the single most important characteristic
    that distinguishes a computer from other simpler
    devices, such as calculators

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
9
Computer Basics
Self Quiz Questions
  • A computer does four things
  • _____________________
  • _____________________
  • _____________________
  • _____________________
  • _________ is an area of a computer that
    temporarily holds data.
  • A keyboard is an example of a(n) _________
    device.
  • A computer processes data in the _________
    processing unit.
  • The idea of a(n) ________ program means that a
    series of instructions for a computing task can
    be loaded into a computers memory.

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
10
Computer Basics
Self Quiz Answers
  • A computer does four things
  • Accepts input
  • Processes data
  • Stores data
  • Produces output
  • Memory is an area of a computer that
    temporarily holds data.
  • A keyboard is an example of a(n) input device.
  • A computer processes data in the central
    processing unit.
  • The idea of a(n) stored program means that a
    series of instructions for a computing task can
    be loaded into a computers memory.

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
11
Computer Categories
  • Before
  • Computers are categorized into three main
    categories from least powerful to most powerful
  • microcomputers
  • minicomputers
  • mainframe computers
  • Today
  • A computer is categorized based on its
    technology, function, size, performance, and cost

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
12
Computer Categories
  • Old Computer Categories
  • Mainframe computers were the first type of
    computer that were very large, and were usually
    housed in a closet-sized metal frame
  • This term also applies to a category of large,
    expensive computers that were sold to big
    corporations and government agencies
  • Minicomputers (1968) were smaller, less
    expensive, and less powerful than mainframes, and
    were used by small businesses
  • Microcomputers (1971) were a newer type of
    computer whose CPU had a single chip, called a
    microprocessor
  • Today, just about any computer, no matter how
    large or small, uses one or more microprocessors
    as its CPU so these terms are no longer valid

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
13
Computer Categories
  • Todays Computer Categories
  • Personal computers
  • Handheld computers
  • Workstations
  • Videogame Consoles
  • Mainframes
  • Supercomputers
  • Servers

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
14
What is a Personal Computer?
  • A personal computer is a type of microcomputer
    designed to meet the computing needs of an
    individual
  • Desktop computers
  • Notebook (or laptop) computers
  • Cost starts at 500, but most spend 1000 to 1200

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
15
What is a handheld?
  • A handheld computer is one that is designed to
    fit into a pocket, run on batteries, and be used
    while you are holding it
  • Also called a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)
  • Send and receive e-mail
  • Use maps and global positioning
  • Maintain expense account, contacts, to-do lists,
    memos, etc.
  • Make voice calls using cellular service
  • Designed to be a computing accessory, not your
    main computer

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
16
What types of computers can be classified as
workstations?
  • The term workstation has two meanings
  • Powerful desktop models designed for specialized
    tasks, such as 3D graphics
  • Ordinary personal computers connected to a local
    area network
  • A computer network is two or more computers or
    other devices that are connected for the purpose
    of sharing data and programs

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
17
Is a PlayStation a computer?
  • A videogame system (i.e. Sonys Playstation) is a
    computer, but typically it has not been
    considered a computer category because of its
    history as a dedicated game device that connects
    to a TV set and provides only a pair of joysticks
    for input
  • Todays videogame systems contain microprocessors
    that are equivalent to those found in a fast
    personal computer, as they are equipped to
    produce graphics that rival those on
    sophisticated workstations

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
18
What is so special about a mainframe computer?
  • A mainframe computer is a large and expensive
    computer that is capable of passing data
    simultaneously to many users
  • Can cost over 1 million
  • Used by governments and large corporations to
    provide centralized storage

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
19
How powerful is a supercomputer?
  • A supercomputer is one of the fastest computers
    in the world, at the time of construction
  • Breaking codes
  • Modeling weather systems
  • Simulating nuclear explosions
  • Research simulations
  • A 100 million supercomputer scheduled for
    completion in 2005 is designed to use 1 million
    microprocessors, and will process over 1
    quadrillion operations per second

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
20
What makes a computer a server?
  • A server serves the computers on a network by
    supplying them with data or resources (Internet,
    network files, printing, e-mail, etc.)
  • A client receives data or uses resources from a
    server
  • Any computer can be a server or a client
  • High performance servers are needed when there is
    a need for lots of users and rapid response

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
21
Whats a personal computer system?
  • A personal computer system consists of the
    following
  • System unit case that holds the main circuit
    boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage
    devices
  • Display device Monitor or LCD screen
  • Keyboard Primary input device
  • Mouse Secondary input device
  • Floppy disk drive Storage for small amounts of
    data
  • Hard disk drive Storage for large amounts of
    data
  • CD and DVD drives Storage or audio
  • Sound card and speakers Plays audio
  • Modem Connects to the Internet
  • Peripheral devices Printers, scanners, etc.

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
22
What is a personal computer system?
Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
23
Personal Computer Systems
Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
24
What is a peripheral device?
  • A peripheral device designates equipment that
    might be added to a computer system to enhance
    its functionality
  • Printer
  • Digital camera
  • Scanner
  • Joystick
  • Graphics tablet

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
25
Computer Basics
Self Quiz Questions
  • The three old categories of computers were
  • __________________
  • __________________
  • __________________
  • Desktop computers and laptops are examples of
    __________ computers.
  • Microsofts Xbox gaming system is considered to
    be a computer. True or false?
  • A personal computer or workstation that requests
    data from a server is known as a(n) __________.
  • The ___________ is the case that holds the main
    circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and
    storage devices for a personal computer system.

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
26
Computer Basics
Self Quiz Answers
  • The three old categories of computers were
  • Mainframe
  • Minicomputer
  • Microcomputer
  • Desktop computers and laptops are examples of
    personal computers.
  • Microsofts XBox gaming system is considered to
    be a computer. True
  • A personal computer or workstation that requests
    data from a server is known as a(n) client .
  • The system unit is the case that holds the main
    circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and
    storage devices for a personal computer system.

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail
Basics
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