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Tips to help with this exam


Tips to help with this exam Read the question! pick out the key words Try to relate the question to a workplace situation Break questions down e.g.. design, use ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tips to help with this exam

Tips to help with this exam
  • Read the question! pick out the key words
  • Try to relate the question to a workplace
  • Break questions down e.g.. design, use,
    maintenance where appropriate
  • Remember HS principles e.g.. RA, Controls, People

Regs 1 -3 1 Citation 2 Interpretation 3
persons with duties
  • Reg 4 Systems, work activities protective
  • Systems must be maintained to prevent danger
  • All work activities must be carried out in a
    manner not to give rise to danger
  • Equipment provided to protect people working on
    live equipment must be suitable and maintained
  • Reg 6 Adverse or hazardous environments
  • Must be suitable for the environment and
    conditions that are reasonable foreseeable
  • Mechanical dame e.g.. vehicle, people
  • Weather, temp, pressure, natural hazards e.g..
    bird droppings
  • Wet, dusty, corrosive conditions, presence of
    flammable dusts
  • Flammable or explosive atmospheres
  • Reg 16 Persons to be competent to prevent danger
    and injury
  • An understanding of the concepts of electricity
    and the risks involved in work associated with it
  • Knowledge of electrical work and qualification in
    electrical principles
  • Experience
  • Knowledge of systems of work ability to
    recognise risk hazards
  • Physical attributes to recognise elements of the
    system e.g.. not colour blind
  • Reg 5 Strength capability of electrical
  • Must be able to withstand effects of its load
  • Must be able to withstand effects of transient or
    pulse currents
  • Reg 7 Insulation protection placing of
  • Prevent danger from direct contact through
    insulation etc
  • Reg 8 Earthing or other suitable precautions
  • Purpose to prevent harm from indirect contact
    e.g.. casings

Electricity at work regs 1989
  • Reg 15 Working space, access lighting
  • Where there are dangerous live exposed conductors
    space should be adequate to
  • Allow persons to pull back from the hazard
  • Allow persons to pass each other
  • Lighting should be adequate preference e to
    natural then artificial
  • Reg 9 Integrity of referenced conductors
  • Ensure electrical continuity is never broken

Reg 10 Connections must have adequate
mechanical strength e.g.. plugs
  • Reg 14 Work on or near live conductors
  • Competent staff
  • Adequate information
  • Suitable tools insulated tools, protective
  • Barriers or screens
  • Instruments and test probe to identify what is
    live and what is dead
  • Accompaniment
  • Designated test areas
  • PTW
  • Reg 13 Precautions for work on equipment made
  • Identify the circuit, dont assume the labelling
    is correct
  • Disconnection isolation e.g.. isolation
    switches (lock off) removal of fuse/plug
  • Notices, signage and barriers
  • Prove system dead test the test device
  • Earthing
  • PTW

Reg 11 means of protecting from excess current
e.g.. fuse, RCD
Reg 12 Means of isolation
  • Groups at risk
  • Operators
  • Maintenance engineers
  • Teachers
  • Interlocked perimeter fencing
  • Positioned to prevent access to dangerous parts
  • Normally 2 meters high
  • Rigid panels
  • Securely fastened to floor
  • Infill suitable to protect from other hazards
    e.g.. ejected materials
  • Gates/access points to be interlocked
  • Hinged/sliding interlocks
  • Trapped key exchange
  • Solenoid lock
  • Layout (Envelope)
  • Planning during design
  • Minimise need to approach robot
  • Good viewing arrangements outside of enclosure
  • Adequate distance between robot enclosure
  • Prevent trap points
  • Adequate access to rescue injured person
  • Access only through interlocked gates or similar
  • Behavioural - People
  • Hazard aware
  • Trained in procedures e.g.. entry, emergency
  • Adequately supervised

Robot Safety
  • Preventative maintenance and inspections
  • Software checks to avoid aberrant behaviours
  • Stop devices
  • Guard checks
  • Integrity of parts for wear damage e.g..
    hydraulic rams
  • Remotely where possible
  • Slow mode when live
  • Electro-sensitive safety systems
  • Used in conjunction with fencing
  • Photo cell device
  • Trip with use of light curtains arranged
  • Pressure mats around machinery
  • Trip wires etc robot comes into contact with a
    person should trip
  • All should require manual restart
  • Positive stops
  • Limits movement of robot
  • Defined limits to prevent trap points
  • Avoid creating additional trap points
  • Brakes
  • Prevent danger of fall under gravity
  • Should be applied automatically when machine stops
  • Entry Procedures
  • SSOW defined/RA carried out
  • Analysis of hazards in all possible modes of
  • Release of stored energy before entry/work
  • PTW
  • ISOLATION required
  • Emergency Stops provided at
  • Control stations
  • Teacher control pedestal
  • All workstations
  • Other positions as necessary

  • Reference Supply of machinery regs 1992
    schedule 3
  • Consider
  • Installation
  • Use
  • Maintenance
  • Decommissioning
  • General
  • Principles of safety integrations
  • Materials products used/created
  • Lighting arrangements
  • Handling Installation of machine
  • Controls
  • Safety Reliability
  • Control devices
  • Means of starting stopping device
  • Normal stopping
  • Emergency stopping
  • Mode of operation selection
  • Failure of power supply
  • Software design
  • Failure of control circuit
  • Indicators
  • Information devices
  • Warning devices e.g.. alarms/lights
  • Warning of residual risks
  • Markings
  • Instructions
  • Protection against mechanical hazards
  • Stability/anchorage e.g.. floor fixings
  • Risk of break up during operation
  • Falling objects/ejected parts
  • Surface risk e.g.. sharp/hot/cold
  • Variable speeds
  • Moving parts
  • Choice of protection arrangements

Machinery Essential health and safety
requirements that should be addressed
  • Protection against other hazards
  • Electricity e.g.. insulation
  • Other stored energy e.g.. hydraulic pressure
  • Errors of fitting
  • Fire/explosion
  • Noise
  • Dust/gases e.g.. extraction
  • Vibration
  • Radiation
  • Maintenance
  • Machinery maintenance
  • Access to operating and servicing position
  • Isolation of energy sources
  • Operator intervention
  • Cleaning of internal parts
  • Lubrication etc
  • Required Characteristics of guards
  • Fixed
  • Movable guards
  • Adjustable guards
  • Special requirements for protective devices

  • Key Factors
  • Crane
  • Lift
  • Forensic evidence
  • Lift
  • Load
  • Weight
  • Gravity lifting point?
  • Slinging method appropriate for load?
  • Type of lift
  • Static
  • Slewing
  • Lift Travel
  • Drag
  • Site conditions e.g.. wet, windy, foggy,
  • Lifting plan, witness statements visual
  • Training records
  • Crane driver, slingers, rigger, banksman
  • Crane
  • Type suitable for lift?
  • SWL of crane
  • Alarm system working?
  • SWL indicator/radius indicator
  • Exceeded?
  • Operational criteria e.g.. adequate strength
  • Design characteristics
  • Counter balance
  • Out riggers
  • Configuration for task e.g.. level ground,
    positioning to load, distance required to travel
  • Maintenance certification records
  • Lifting history
  • Forensic evidence
  • Type of failure
  • Buckling
  • Brittle
  • Ductile
  • Integrity of Jib look for evidence of
    alterations, repair, corrosion, missing bolts
  • Settings functionality of controls, switches

Range of issues evidence to examine during
investigation of lift op failure (crane)
  • Live Loads
  • People
  • Furniture
  • Equipment
  • Constantly moving and changing every day
  • Key Factors
  • Dead load
  • Live load
  • Dynamic load
  • Solar radiation
  • Vibration/sudden shocks
  • Weather
  • Atmospheric contaminants
  • Timber decay
  • Corrosion
  • Subsidence

Dynamic loads Dead loads Live loads change
slowly and are called static loads Other loads
can change suddenly such as wind gust, these
loads are dynamic
  • Dead loads
  • Material which buildings is constructed from
    e.g.. columns, beams, floors
  • Solar Radiation
  • Absorbed when it strikes a material
  • Materials expand when warm
  • Contract when cooling
  • Solar radiation causes surfaces to heat up
  • Rain falling onto hot surfaces can causes severe
    shock and result in tension cracking e.g.. roof
  • Subsidence
  • Signs of defects include
  • Semi random cracks in walls
  • Sagging in arches/beams
  • Fractures of pipe joints
  • Builds over mine tunnels or large holes can cause
    serious deformation

Factors Effecting Structural Safety
  • Vibration Sudden Shocks
  • Traffic/machinery
  • Can effect foundations of buildings
  • Buildings can be struck by vehicles/plant
  • Corrosion
  • Metal combines with oxygen in the air to form rust
  • Rain/snow/hail
  • Moisture greatest cause of deterioration
  • Rising damp causes flaking and cracking
  • Frozen water causes stresses cracks
  • Moisture promotes rust in metals
  • Moisture creates environment for fungal growth
  • Build of snow/ice on roofs increases structural
  • Timber Decay
  • Deterioration of timbers can severely cases lead
    to building collapse
  • Due to wet rot/dry rot/fungal attack insect
  • Atmospheric contaminants
  • Combine with moisture to form acid rains which
    attack materials
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Oxygen
  • Ozone
  • Wind
  • Physical damage
  • Dampness by driving rain moisture into buildings
  • Can lift roof covering

Effects Fire on materials
  • Steel
  • Will expand with heat
  • Loss of strength normally _at_600 Celsius
  • Deform Buckle
  • When cooled will regain strength but properties
    may have changed
  • Acts as conductor transferring heat thus
    spreading fire
  • Concrete
  • Limited expansion
  • Cracks and spalls made worse by expanding
    reinforcement steel e.g.. rebar
  • Poor conductor of heat
  • Will have lost structural strength when cool
  • Wood
  • Thin sections will burn promoting fire spread
  • The charred surface of thick timber will act as
    insulation to inner timber
  • Dependant on species
  • Generates smoke allows surface propagation of
  • Strength after burning depends on original
    thickness and proportion loss to fire

Precautions to prevent failure of materials
  • Steel
  • Concrete cladding
  • Compartmentalise to reduce conduction
  • Automatic cooling with sprinkler system etc.
  • Concrete
  • Selection of type and mix to improve fire
  • Increase thickness of concrete from exposed
    surface to steel reinforcement (rebar)
  • Wood
  • Selection of thick timbers
  • Selection of timber e.g.. hardwood burns slower
    than soft wood
  • Treat with fire retardant substance
  • General precautions
  • Sprinkle system
  • Fire resistance cladding
  • Early fire detection
  • Control of ignition sources reduction of fuel
    type materials fire risk assessment and
    adequate controls implemented

  • Key Factors/Regs
  • Confined space regs
  • Reg 4(1) Avoid
  • Reg 4(2) If must SSOW to be defined
  • Reg 5 Define Emergency rescue plan
  • Specified occurrence
  • Fire or explosion
  • Loss of consciousness/asphyxiation from gas,
    fumes or lack of oxygen
  • Drowning
  • Asphyxiation arising from free flowing solid
    e.g.. mud slide
  • Loss of consciousness arising from high
  • Reg 4(2) SSOW
  • Risk assessment to consider
  • People conducting work e.g.. age, experience,
  • Likelihood of flammable/explosive atmosphere from
    previous contents
  • Access/egress
  • Contaminated air from previous contents
  • Build up of heat
  • Duration of activity
  • Lack of oxygen
  • Working at height within CFP
  • Ingress of solids/liquids
  • Impact of other plant
  • Outside environment Weather, other activities
  • Isolations required
  • Emergency situation
  • Reg 4(1) Avoid if possible
  • Consider other options
  • Cameras
  • Cleaning lances
  • Robotic inspection

Confined space entry
  • Reg 4(2) SSOW cont.
  • Control measures
  • Trained and experienced workers to conduct
  • Entry procedures, use of equipment e.g.. BA
  • Purge of space with inert gas e.g.. nitrogen
  • Forced air ventilation
  • Atmospheric testing e.g.. gas/oxygen level
  • Suitable electrical equipment e.g.. intrinsically
  • Earthing arrangements
  • Job rotation e.g.. control of heat fatigue
  • Appropriate access and egress e.g.. scaffold,
  • WAH provision, e.g.. scaffold internal of space
  • Barriers to prevent unauthorised access
  • Appropriate isolations as necessary
  • Appropriate PPE e.g.. anti static clothing, BA,
    gloves etc.
  • Reg 5 Emergency planning/Procedure
  • Communication with workers in vessel/space
  • Raising the alarm
  • Emergency rescue e.g.. tripod winch
  • Provision of stand by man/first aider
  • Means of fire fighting
  • Provision of emergency escape sets
  • Communication with emergency services

Last paper
  • Controlling pump rate
  • Speed slow not to propagate static build up

Complete containment of flammable liquid, not
leaks, seals joints etc
Avoid splash/spray filling
Worker involved trained and competent in
operation e.g.. aware of hazards and precautions
Earthing of all conductive surfaces e.g..
tankers, pipe work, containers e.g.. IBCs Keep at
zero potential, Earthing should be interlocked to
pump system
Key factors to protect against ignition from
static of a flammable vapour during transfer of
containment of liquids
Over fill protection system e.g.. high level
indicator, interlocked shut down
Provision of anti static clothing including
Use of inert gas blanketing above the liquid
Implementation of a vapour return system
Last paper
  • Key points
  • Controlled waste
  • Duty of care categories of persons
  • Duty of care
  • Controlled waste
  • Household
  • Commercial
  • Industrial
  • Exceptions
  • Agricultural
  • Mines/Quarries
  • Radioactive waste
  • Duty of care Categories of persons
  • Persons who
  • Produces CW
  • Imports CW
  • Carries CW
  • Stores CW
  • Treats CW
  • Disposes of CW
  • Exceptions of house holders

EPA section 34 Concepts of duty of care
  • Duty of care
  • Reasonable steps to prevent-
  • Deposits of CW without waste management license
  • Treatment, storage, disposal in manner likely to
    cause pollution
  • Treatment, storage disposal with out waste
    handling license
  • Prevent escape
  • Transfer to unlicensed holding
  • Transfer without written description

Automatic Fire Detection
  • Heat Detectors
  • Fixed temperature type
  • Thermocouple detects when a set temperature is
  • Rate of rise type
  • Detects abnormal temp rises (sudden)
  • Electronic resistors
  • Usually incorporate fixed temp element as well
  • Unsuitable for
  • Rapid heat rise workplace e.g.. laundrettes,
    steel manufactures
  • Smoke Detectors
  • Ionisation type
  • Small radioactive source to ionise a chamber into
    which smoke enters during a fire. Detector reacts
    to change in current caused by neutralisation of
    ions by smoke particles
  • Optical type
  • Responds to the obstruction of a focused light
    ray or the scattering of light from an optical
    ray by smoke
  • Unsuitable for
  • Dusty workplace due to false alarms e.g.. flour
  • Workplace which generate smoke e.g.. kitchen,
    welding workshops

Heat (fixed or rate of rise) where there are
fumes, steam or other particles may be present
that would be detectable by a smoke detector and
cause false alarms.Smoke (optical or ionization)
everywhere else within reason
Last paper
  • Raising the alarm
  • Consider any disabilities and make provision for
    e.g.. visual alarm for deaf people
  • Contacting the emergency service e.g..
    interlocked alarm system or manual call
  • Publishing and training of procedure
  • Regular drills
  • Documented
  • Fire log book
  • Numbers of people to evacuate physical ability
  • Escape routes
  • Distance of travel required
  • Alternatives routes

Accounting for people
  • Emergency light and signs
  • Exits
  • Escape routes
  • Liaison with emergency services
  • Numbers of people involved
  • Specific hazards in building

Issues to address when planning a fire evacuation
Refuges and safe havens (muster points)
Prevention of re-entry
  • Training of fire wardens
  • Zoning
  • Areas of responsibility
  • Equipment and security
  • Equipment may need shutting down safely
  • Security could be an issue after evacuation
  • Roles and responsibilities
  • Managers
  • Staff

  • Key principles
  • Dust control
  • Ignition source control
  • Mitigation of explosion effects
  • DSEAR regs
  • Zoning
  • Ignition control
  • No smoking policy
  • No mobile phones
  • Provision and use of anti static clothing and
  • Earth bonding of equipment
  • Assessment in compliance with DSEAR regs
  • Appropriate zone identification of areas i.e..
    20, 21 or 22
  • Use of spark protected equipment intrinsically
    safe to appropriate zone
  • Abnormal activities generating sparks under hot
    work PTE
  • Mitigating effects of explosion
  • Equipment able to withstand explosion
  • Venting and explosion panels
  • Bursting disc on vessels
  • Suppression inerting
  • Compartmentalisation minimise effected
  • Dust control
  • Damping down
  • Extraction of dust at point of transfer (LEV)
  • Interlock device to prevent overfilling of
  • High standard of house keeping
  • Ensuring that systems are sealed where possible

Reducing risk of dust cloud explosion and
mitigating explosion effects
Segregate pedestrians from vehicles with the use
of fixed barriers
Consider automated system (robotic to almost
eliminate pedestrians requiring access
Separate access egress points for
Where possible re-route pedestrians away from
vehicle movement area e.g.. elevated corridors
Create safe passing places
Design features to reduce risk of
vehicle/pedestrian collision
Introduce safe crossing points e.g.. zebra
Ensure lighting is adequate and suitable for
tasks carried out
Avoid creation of blind bends if unavoidable
install wall mounts mirror (convex) to improve
Allow sufficient space for vehicles to operate
Where possible design routes such to
eliminate/reduce the need for reversing
Direction of vehicle movement control e.g.. force
one way traffic
  • Mechanical hazards
  • Vehicle impact
  • Plant equipment nearby
  • Abrasion from operate equipment
  • Weather conditions
  • Rain moisture entering
  • Freezing leading to crack through expansion
  • Heat
  • Humidity

High/Low temperatures
Aspects of a working environment which increase
electrical risk
Corrosive atmospheres leading to corrosion of
Flammable/explosive atmosphere
  • Flame proof
  • Heavy duty of substantial build and enclosed.
    When flammable atmosphere enters the equipment
    can withstand and enclose an explosion and
    prevent the ignition of any flammable atmospheres
    surrounding equipment
  • May not be suitable for use in areas with
    combustible powders of dust. May require special
    measure to prevent ingress of water
  • Intrinsically safe
  • Restriction of electrical energy in equipment,
    insufficient to create heat/sparks
  • Faults may increase energy levels above safe limit

Inform of any significant/unusual residual risks
Duties apply at all times e.g.. appointing of CDM
co-ordinator if notifiable
Ensure that client is aware of their duties
Provide info with the design to assist clients,
contractors, designers e.g.. notes for drawings,
rational behind design decisions
Ensure that they (designers) are competent for
the work they do
Duties of designers under CDM2007
Take into account Workplace (HSW) regs when
designing workplace structures
Co-operate with others as is necessary to manage
risks e.g.. contractors
Conduct risk analysis of major design e.g..
  • Avoid foreseeable risks (construction and use)
    SFAIRP during design by
  • Eliminating hazards where poss.
  • Reduce remaining risk
  • Give collective risk reduction measures priority
    over individual measures

Co-operate with CDM co-ordinator other
Provide information for h S file
Safe operation and adjustment of top guard
Regular maintenance and safety inspection e.g..
guard check
Effective guarding of blade under bench
Adequate lighting and saw suitably fixed to floor
Use of push stick to feed materials being cut
Safe operation of bench mounted circular saw
Provision of emergency stops and means of
Ensure that the riving knife is correctly
positions through risk assessment
Sufficient space around equipment kept clear of
Ensure that operators are suitable trained and
experience to use the saw, also ensure
appropriate level of supervision
Use of appropriate PPE e.g.. hearing
protection/goggle, dust mask
Provision of LEV to remove dust
  • Corrosive Failure
  • Chemical/electro-chemical attack by atmosphere
  • Only affects metals
  • Materials lose strength can thin
  • Occurs when oxygen levels of carbon dioxide
    levels are high when PH levels are low or high
  • Excessive Stress
  • Ductility amount of stretch before a material
  • Usually result of single stress over load
  • Materials can balloon due to excessive pressure
  • Abnormal external loading
  • Struck by something e.g.. vehicle
  • FLT/Fuel tankers
  • Explosion
  • Over pressure
  • Catastrophic results e.g.. vessel rupture
  • Failure of relief valves can cause
  • Normally systems tested to 3 times normal
    operating pressure
  • Hydrogen attack
  • Hydrogen seeps into gaps in molecular frame work
  • Causes stresses within framework
  • Examples are cathode reaction, electroplating

Pressure systems causes of failure
  • Creep
  • Under constant load
  • Deforms over time (plastic)
  • Temperature is important, materials determine
    working temperatures that can be used
  • Overheating
  • Can occur if alarms/controls fail
  • Causes rise in pressure
  • Mechanical fatigue Shock
  • Pressure causes tensile stress in all directions
  • If stresses are greater than material can cope
    with it will lead to ductile or brittle failure
  • Fatigue stress is usually progressive
  • Fatigue failure often triggered by surface
    interruption e.g.. grinding marks, weld defects,
    notches etc
  • Pressure focuses at root of defect
  • Brittle fracture
  • Fracture without deformation
  • Brittle materials are strong but not resistant to
  • Impact loading causes e.g.. rapid temp changes,
    pressure differences
  • High tensile residual stresses promote
  • Thermal fatigue Shock
  • Shock is sudden change in temp of water
  • Causes rapid expansion/contraction of system
  • Leads to fatigue and material stress ultimately
    failure of system e.g.. leaking pipes, fracture
    of vessels

  • Key points
  • Design
  • Operation
  • Inspection/Maintenance
  • Design
  • Take account of current safe practise
  • Fit for purpose/CE marked
  • Material constructed from suitable for materials
    in process
  • Expected life
  • Maintenance/testing accesses
  • Operating pressures and provision of safety
    devices e.g..
  • Safety valve (PRV)
  • Gauges
  • Level Controls
  • Blow down valves
  • Pressure gauges
  • Operation
  • Use within performance envelope
  • Operators trained and experience to identify
    errors and prevent faults through error arising
  • Aware of safe operating limits
  • Scheme of examination
  • Equipment marked with operating
    pressures/temperatures max/min
  • Quality control
  • Filtering/treating of water (boilers)

Technical procedural measures to minimise
likelihood of pressure system failure
  • Inspection
  • Written scheme of examination statutory
  • Pressure vessels
  • Pipe work and valves
  • Protective devices
  • Pumps and compressors
  • Prepared by competent person
  • NDT/examination

  • Properties of LPG
  • Flammable at standard temp pressure
  • Denser than air
  • Liquid form floats on water
  • LEL is reached in small concentrations
  • Can cause suffocation in high concentrations
  • Control of ignition sources
  • No smoking
  • Storage of cylinders away from potential ignition
    sources e.g.. fabrication shop
  • Control of mobile phones
  • Storage area regarded as zone 2 so only zone 2 IS
    rated electrical equipment to be used
  • Signage stating highly flammable
  • Dry powder fire extinguisher located close to
    storage area

Concrete level floor, surrounding area kept free
of vegetation (not with use of oxidising week
killer e.g.. sodium chlorate
Stored away from excavations, drains, pond,
rivers, cellars at least 3 m
Any store room must be non-combustible or fire
resistant and ventilated with and explosimeter
LPG in cylinders precautions (storage)
Protected from elements were possible
If more than 400Kg stored must have 2m high mesh
fence and cylinders at least 1.5m away from fence
with 2 exits
Empty cylinders stored separately from full
cylinders, caps fitted to valves. Well ventilated

Stored away from any oxygen cylinders. oxidising
Storage compound designed to prevent vehicle
Cylinders stored in upright position
  • Key points
  • Instability
  • Training
  • Refresher training circumstances
  • Causes of instability Lateral (side instability)
  • Insecure load
  • Drive laterally on slope (angle of slope,
    elevation of load
  • Hitting obstruction e.g.. curb
  • Uneven ground
  • Cornering (fast, sharp)
  • Poor tyre condition/uneven pressures
  • Refresher training appropriate
  • Operator not used truck for some time
  • Been involved in accident/near miss
  • Developed unsafe practices
  • Change in working practice
  • Best practice every 3 years or as per company
  • Causes on instability Longitudinally (Front to
    back instability)
  • Overloaded vehicle
  • Incorrect positioning of load on forks
  • Load slipping forward (inappropriate tilt of mast
  • Driving with load elevated
  • Changing tilt
  • Driving forwards down slops
  • Driving backwards up slopes
  • Sudden braking
  • Striking overhead obstruction

FLT safety
  • Training
  • Basic training (CITB/RTITB)
  • Operating truck
  • Maintenance checks
  • Specific job training
  • Specific truck type operation
  • Use of truck in various conditions
  • Work to be undertaken SSOW
  • Familiarisation training under supervision
  • Site layout
  • Types of storage/load e.g.. racking
  • Local emergency procedures

  • Key points
  • Fuses
  • Miniature circuit breakers
  • Residual current devices
  • Reduced low voltage systems
  • Precautions to be taken
  • Fuse
  • Protects systems not people normally
  • Prevents overloads of electrical system and
    overheating of electrical wiring
  • Limits shock under severe fault condition
  • Limits over currents
  • Does this by the heating effect of electric
    current which melts the metal link if current
    exceeds the design value
  • Remains broken until replace
  • Miniature circuit breaker
  • Close tolerances for design current flow and
    speed of operation
  • Provide visual detection following operation
    (e.g.. switch to off position
  • Need to be reset after fault detection
  • Are reliable
  • Design to protect system
  • Precaution to be taken when maintaining or
    repairing electrical systems
  • Identify equipment to be worked on
  • Obtain system drawings information
  • Consider whether work can be done dead SSOW for
  • Isolation/lock off
  • PTW
  • Proved dead
  • Test test equipment
  • If work required is live SSOW
  • Screening of conductors near work
  • Testing live conductors through holes with probes
  • Use of suitable test equipment
  • Have testing arrangements in place for testing
  • Consideration of accompaniment
  • Consideration of insulated tools
  • Adequate space
  • Adequate lighting

Methods and devices designed to improve
electrical safety precautions to be taken when
maintaining or repairing systems
  • Residual current devices or earth leakage circuit
  • Shock limiting device not system protection
  • Shock is still received but time reduced
  • Monitors balance of current in line and neutral
  • Operates on earth leakage fault
  • Live and neutral disconnect from local power
  • Reduced voltage system e.g.. 110V
  • Transformer
  • Supply centre tap to earth consist of
  • Earthed systems
  • Class 1 equipment
  • Double insulated class 2 equipment
  • Required procedural measures to be followed

  • Operation
  • SSOW
  • Operation of equipment
  • Emergency procedures e.g.. spill response
  • Training
  • Tanker drivers
  • Operators
  • Provision of PPE e.g.. chemically resistant
    suits, gloves, full face visor
  • Maintenance
  • Arrangements for examination and inspections
  • PTW system
  • Isolation procedures
  • Cleaning prior to work e.g.. purge
  • Regular cleaning of bunds
  • Provision of training to maintenance staff both
    maintenance and emergency
  • Design
  • Material to be used for vessels and pipework
  • Suitable to withstand corrosive nature of
  • Layout of facility
  • Segregation between acid/alkalis e.g..
  • Design and position of inlets
  • Prevent cross connection
  • Bunding of tanks
  • Separate bunds
  • Capacity 110 of largest container min
  • Bunded sealed with appropriate material (with
    stand corrosive)
  • Safety devices
  • High level indicators
  • Isolations
  • PLC control
  • Interlocked system
  • Adequate lighting
  • Adequate access and egress

Safety provisions required for receiving and
storing acids and alkalis
Temperature Increase speeds up reaction Le
Chateliers principle
  • Chemical changes involve heat
  • Exothermic - Evolutes
  • Endothermic - Absorbs

If the heat released from reaction is not
controlled/removed reaction will speed up
  • Can result in
  • auto ignition explosion
  • Catastrophic over pressure resulting in loss of
    containment e.g.. vessel rupture and toxic
  • Violent boiling
  • Secondary competing reaction
  • Operational features to prevent
  • High calibre of operator experienced and
    appropriate level of qualification to operate
  • Ensure that maintenance activities/raw material
    handling dont introduce potential catalysis into

Runaway reactions
  • Causes
  • Failure of temp control (reaction cooling)
  • Strong exothermic reaction
  • Presence of containment catalysis (speeds up
  • Design features to prevent
  • Conduct HAZOP study
  • Appropriate temperature control system e.g..
    matrix cooler
  • High integrity temperature detection linked to
    cooling/reaction addition protection
  • Pressure rise detection linked to
    cooling/venting/auto shut down
  • Vessel protected by correctly sized bursting disc
    linked to safe haven e.g.. secondary vessel to
    dump reaction to
  • PRVs, weighted lids to realise pressure
  • Agitation of liquids to promote even temp

Cylinder/container containing flammable gas under
pressure e.g.. butane pressure turns gas into
liquid state
Valve opened reduces pressure turning liquid into
gaseous state
  • Examples of incidents
  • San Carlos
  • Crashed over loaded road tanker
  • Explosion
  • 216 Dead
  • Mexico city

Cylinder exposed to heat source e.g.. caught in a
fire liquids absorbs heat
Liquids starts to vapour and is vented off
  • Sudden release of contents resulting in
  • Blast wave (low)
  • Radiation (thermal) high
  • Missiles travelling long distances
  • Substantial thermal heat sever burns e.g.. LPG
    cylinder BLEVE has serve burn range of 35m

Liquid level falls heat continues
Area of cylinder just above liquid level starts
to weaken/thin with heat
Area unable to hold internal over pressure and
Identify recycling opportunities at all stages of
Substitute process materials for ones that give
rise to non hazardous waste
Explore becoming licensed to save cost e.g.. EA
Improve production efficiency to produce less
Reducing cost and environmental impact of
hazardous waste (sludge)
Explore other disposal means (incineration,
liquefied waste to sewer)
Treat waste on-site to reduce quantity
Exchange waste streams to other companies which
could use waste as raw material e.g.. waste
solvents to paint producers
Treat waste to reduce hazardous properties e.g..
ph balancing
Selection of waste contractors that can process
the waste
Last paper
Purpose Check for faults (e.g.. cracks) in
components before they develop into total failure
without affecting integrity of the component
  • Dye testing
  • Put dye on
  • Dye penetrates making cracks visible
  • Cheap simple (pro)
  • Doesnt detect sub surface faults (con)
  • Not totally reliable (con)
  • Can be enhanced by using fluorescent penetrate
    and UV source
  • Penetrate may be toxic (con)
  • Need good eyesight
  • Impact (tap testing)
  • Strike surface
  • Changes in pitch of reverberant sound
  • Cheap (pro)
  • No indication of where fault is located (con)
  • Relies on individual skill (con)
  • Other techniques
  • Pneumatic testing
  • Hydro testing
  • Ultrasonic Technique
  • Short pulses of high frequency ultrasound are
  • Reflected waves detected and shown on digital
    display or oscilloscope
  • Surface and sub-surface defects
  • Only requires one side of joint
  • Quick to perform
  • Suitable for most environments
  • High level of expertise required
  • Coupling equipment onto rough surfaces can be
  • Magnetic particle
  • Coat surface with magnetic power or liquid
  • Simple Quick
  • Very sensitive to surface cracks
  • Interpretation of results can be difficult
    particularly on inside of vessel

  • Eddy current testing
  • Surface and near surface crack detection
  • Electromagnetic method/instrumentation
  • Can be used to verify materials heat treat
  • Can be automated (pro)
  • Can suffer from spurious defect indications
  • Doesnt work on non-conductive materials
  • Relatively expensive and requires skilled operator
  • Radiography
  • X-rays/Gamma rays penetrate item and leave an
    image on film
  • Defects are shown up by differences in the
    intensity of the radiation striking the film
  • Detects internal defects and a permanent record
    is created
  • Expensive
  • Bulky equipment
  • Present radiation hazard and tight controls are
  • Skilled radiographers are needed

Consideration of flammable atmospheres etc EX
Availability of natural light
Maintenance, cleaning and testing considerations
Psychological effects
Compliant with workplace (health, safety
welfare) regs
Illumination ratio
Level of luminance
H S Issues to identify during a lighting audit
of a factory
Requirements for pedestrians/vehicles
Emergency lighting
Close working tasks
Lighting fort non-daytime external areas
Equipment lighting to comply with PUWER
Task specific lighting
DSE work station lighting
Avoidance of stroboscopic effects with regard to
rotating machinery
Avoidance of glare
  • Access Egress
  • Maintenance workers
  • Pedestrians
  • Building workers
  • Vehicles
  • Emergency arrangements
  • Alarm
  • Muster points
  • Escape routes
  • Traffic management
  • Deliveries
  • Plant
  • MEWPS etc
  • Public safety
  • Falling objects
  • Screening
  • Segregations/barriers
  • Security
  • Fencing
  • Dust damping
  • Noise levels

Safety aspects to consider before starting
external maintenance/construction works on build
with public facing front (footpath) work includes
  • Storage of materials
  • Hazardous
  • Flammable
  • Housekeeping
  • Lay down areas
  • Building workers safety
  • Safe systems of work
  • Provision of PPE
  • Fall protection
  • Scaffolding
  • Edge protection
  • Signage
  • Hazardous materials present e.g. asbestos
  • Welfare facilities
  • Washing
  • Toilets
  • Rest/eating etc
  • Plant and equipment requirements
  • Suitability
  • Availability

  • Benefits of regular drills
  • Compliance with legal requirements FFRO
  • Efficient evacuation in future
  • Highlights deficiencies in alarm, procedure and
  • Allow practise of scenarios such as abnormal
    normal route use etc
  • Refresh staff training and awareness of procedure
  • Fire Alarm Design/maintenance
  • Quiet
  • Does not extend into all parts of building
  • Poorly maintained sounders
  • Faults within infrastructure leading to partial
    failure in some areas
  • Deficiencies in procedure
  • Difficult to understand
  • Poorly communicated
  • Not exercised
  • Poorly planned escape routes
  • Untrained staff

Factors that could contribute to a delay in
evacuation benefits of regular drills
  • Execution of procedure
  • Delayed response to alarm
  • Staff not reacting quickly
  • Finishing of phone calls
  • Switching off equipment
  • Fire Marshalls not following procedure
  • Blocked escape routes
  • Staff not trained
  • Poor response perhaps many false alarms have
    occurred in past
  • Human factors
  • Hearing disabilities
  • Belief that false alarm
  • Belief that above evacuating
  • Waiting for direct notification e.g.. phone call
  • Routine violations

Introduction of Automated Guided Vehicle to
  • Risks Reduced
  • Manual handling
  • Pedestrian/vehicle collision
  • Racking Collisions
  • Falling objects less likely to contact person
  • WAH access to racking
  • Reduction of noise
  • FLT collisions
  • Incorrect order picking
  • Risks Increased
  • Programming dangers (teachers)
  • Interference in signal
  • Proximity sensors to prevent pedestrian contact
  • AGV collision
  • Guarding of order picking machinery
  • Dropped loads to be dealt with in automated area
  • Maintenance activities for equipment
  • Software failure

  • Planning Organising
  • Consider work to be carried out and devise RA
  • Nominate supervisor for task
  • All workers briefed on general specific risks
  • Suitable equipment for task e.g.. PPE, tools,
    access etc
  • Preparation of Silo
  • Emptied
  • Locked off to prevent filling movement of parts
  • Residue removed before hot works
  • Damped down
  • Signage erected of work in progress etc
  • Working area
  • Excluding non essential personnel
  • Erecting barriers
  • Sighting of warning signs

Precautions to be taken before during repair
work of a 15m high grain silo on farm (with
welding required)
  • Working at height
  • Use of platforms
  • Handrails
  • Toe boards
  • Harnesses if required
  • Protection of fragile sections of silo top
  • Confined space entry
  • PTW control
  • Ventilation
  • Trained staff
  • Emergency rescue plan defined and trained
  • Ensure suitable access and egress
  • Oxygen monitoring

  • Hazards
  • Falls from height of persons/materials
  • Instability of vehicle e.g.. uneven ground
  • Being struck by other vehicles
  • Trapping impact hazards
  • Mechanical failure
  • Contact with over head power lines
  • Exposure of workers to adverse weather conditions
  • Requirements for safe use
  • Selection of trained competent operators
  • Persons may be connected to MEWP with fall
  • Toe boards installed/use of tool wrist straps
  • Barriers installed to protect area MEWP used in
  • Correct positioning e.g.. level firm ground, not
    close to over head services, use of outriggers
    where installed
  • Prevent of use in adverse weather conditions
  • Not exceeding SWL
  • Regular inspections maintenance
  • Ensure trap points are guarded
  • Ensure used in locked position
  • Prohibit transfer of people/materials whilst in
    raised position

To supply machine under SMSR1992 process
  • Satisfy Essential health and safety requirements
    and be safe
  • Safe and reliable control devices including
    normal operation and emergency controls
  • Stable
  • Protection against mechanical hazards e.g..
    moving parts guarded
  • Protection from other hazards e.g.. vibration,
    electricity noise
  • Maintenance activities
  • Adequate indicators e.g.. alarms and warning
    light etc

Satisfy requirements of EHSR
Responsible person to prepare technical file
  • Preparation of technical file
  • Detailed drawings
  • Calculations, test reports
  • Description of methods used to eliminate hazards
  • Machinery RA
  • Instruction draw up in accordance with provision
    of information

Responsible person to ensure machine meets
requirements of other EC directives
Issue a Declaration of conformance
Fix the CE mark in a visible, legible and obvious
Last paper
  • Determine appropriate frequency of inspection for
    each item based on factors affecting level of
    risk e.g..
  • Type of appliance
  • Protective systems used
  • Use
  • Frequency of movements
  • Earth boning
  • Age
  • Environment which appliance used in
  • Experience and competence of user
  • Historical information and manufacturers
  • Criteria for each type of examination defined
    including issues such as
  • Competence of the tester
  • Calibration and maintenance of test equipment
  • Format of records to be kept
  • Results of tests and examinations
  • Systems to identify and remove from use equipment
    that is found to be faulty

Inventory of all equipment requiring examination
and test to be made and unique means of
identification e.g.. number system
Factors to consider when devising scheme for PAT
Electricity at work regs and HSE published
Sources of Ignition from diesel powered vehicles
and possible protection to minimise risk of
explosion in flammable atmosphere
  • Sources
  • Flames/sparks from exhaust/inlet systems
  • Sparks from vehicle electrical system
  • Static build up from over speeding/loading the
  • Hot parts e.g.. exhaust
  • Protection
  • Fit spark/flame arrestors preventing flashback to
    atmosphere if drawn into inlet system plus
    prevent any sparks from escaping system
  • Engine and exhaust system design to ensure
    surface temps are below ignition temp of
  • Use of water jacket around hot parts
  • Electrical equipment on vehicle suitable for
    zones 1 or 2 where possible
  • Speed limiters to prevent speed at which static
    could build up
  • Use of electrically conductive materials for
    parts e.g.. tyres to reduce static build up.

Bunding to contain spills
Security features such as locks, alarms, and
Facility to collect dispose of spillages e.g..
spill kit
Emergency lighting/appropriate EX rated
electrical equipment e.g.. zone 2 rated lights
Key safety features of building used to store
highly flammables
Building constructed of fire resistant materials
Sprinkler systems/fire extinguishers
Roof lightweight and/or blast panels
Adequate access and egress e.g.. 2 points of
entry/exit including ramp to facilitate drum
Mean of segregation of materials e.g.. low
walls/dividers, cabinets
High and low level ventilation
Adequate distance from other buildings
Impermeable floor
Capacity of water required and adequacy of
existing supply
Design of pump system e.g.. diesel back up if
electrical pump installed
Provision required for testing and maintenance
Means of activating system (fragile bulbs or
detector activated
Provision of water run off
Design factors to consider when providing a
sprinkler system
Provision of fire stopping water curtains to
prevent fire spread, compartmentalisation
Linkage of system to alarms
Spray pattern required
Height of any storage racking and distance from
sprinkler heads, possible protection from vehicle
movements e.g.. FLT tines
Area to be covered
Presence of substances which react violently with
Possible mechanisms of structural failure of
building during storm
  • Adverse weather conditions exceeding designed
    wind loading capacity of structure
  • Excess weight on roof caused by rain water or
  • Weakening of steel structure by corrosion through
    roof leaks
  • Inoperation of rainwater drains
  • Alterations to structural members which have
    invalidated original design calculations
  • Subsidence or nearby tunnels/excavation leading
    to foundation instability
  • Vibration caused by traffic etc leading to
    structural fatigue
  • Inadequate design and/or construction of structure

Notification of HSE under CDM 2007 regs
Identification of competent demolition contractors
Site traffic management if required
If building partially collapsed already devise
method for demolishing to avoid premature
collapse of the remainder
PPE required for workers e.g.. hard hats, ear
protections safety boots, protective clothing,
eye protection etc
H S issues to be considered when planning
demolition of building
Protection of nearby buildings/business/properties
Welfare facilities provision e.g.. toilets, wash
and rest facility plus maybe lay down area for
contaminated clothing
Protection of public e.g.. barriers, signs,
Precautions to prevent people or objects falling
e.g.. scaffolds, edge protection
Control of noise
Identification of hazardous materials, control of
dust and safe removal of waste from site use of
licensed carrier etc
Identification of buried and/or overhead services
e.g.. power cables, gas pipelines
Selection of and Inspection, maintenance of plant
and equipment to be used
Factors that cause instability of mobile cranes
and measures to be taken to reduce likelihood of
overturning during operation
  • Causes of instability
  • Incorrect selection of crane e.g.. SWL to low for
  • Incorrect sling of load
  • Unstable ground incapable of bearing weight of
    crane and load
  • Uneven/sloping ground
  • Obstructions being struck by crane of things
    striking crane e.g.. other plant of site
  • Exceeding SWL of crane of lift tackle
  • Inoperation of crane e.g.. incompetent,
    inexperienced operator, not using out riggers
  • Poor lift control by AP/banksman.
  • Unsuitable lifting plan
  • Mechanical failure
  • Adverse weather condition e.g.. wind
  • Lack of maintenance of crane e.g.. incorrect tyre
    pressures, rope not inspected etc.
  • Measure taken to avoid
  • Conduct full assessment of lift required and
    surrounding areas including establishing the load
    bearing capacity of the ground that the crane
    will operate on
  • Define and implement sufficient lifting plan use
    of competent appointed person
  • Selection of appropriate crane for lift
  • Ensure that maintenance and testing of crane is
  • Appoint competent person to supervise lift i.e..
    appointed person, competent banksman
  • Engineering controls e.g.. ensure that outriggers
    are used and fully extended where appropriate,
    ensure that capacity indicator and alarms are
  • Ensure that the motion and performance limit
    device are in working condition
  • Behavioural controls such as competence and
    training of driver, slinger and banksman

Last paper
Explore possibility of re-routing cables or
making dead
Consult with utilities supplier before taking any
protective measures
Warning signs and protection for public if
Identification of safe working distance i.e. 9 m
if wooden or steel poles 15m if pylons plus
length of jib or boom if cranes/excavators are to
be used
Precautions to be taken when working near an
overhead electrical supply
Supervision and hazard awareness training for
workers e.g.. toolbox talk on hazard associated
with cable and what measure need to be taken to
Use of barriers, marking tape and bunting
Safe systems of work to be defined and implemented
Use of goal posts and/or tunnels
Height restrictions on plant
Planning and assessment for development of
electrical supply by a competent person
Safe positioning of transformers e.g.. protection
from plant/vehicle impact, barriers to prevent
workers accessing area
Use of competent persons for installation work of
electrical supply
Precautions to ensure safe provision use of
electricity on construction site (feed taken from
overhead lines)
Routing, marking and protection for cables
Development of safe systems of work
Use of protective devices e.g.. reduced low
voltage systems (110), RCDs and double insulated
Arrangements for testing and maintenance of
portable equipment
Arrangements for inspection and maintenance of
the fixed supply to include earth bonding checks
  • Fatigue failure
  • Crack propagation from points of stress
    concentration (e.g.. groves, weak weld points),
    fluctuating stress final failure may be ductile
    or brittle
  • Factors contributing
  • Surface occlusions/damage
  • Choice of material
  • Residual stress imposed through manufacture
  • Corrosion, temperature
  • Measures to take to prevent
  • Design spec appropriate
  • Quality assurance on manufacture
  • Assembled according to spec
  • Correct use avoid misuse e.g.. over ,loading
  • Maintenance/testing NDT
  • Buckling (Compressive force)
  • Buckling yield of one side of structural member
    under axial compressive loading
  • Factors contributing
  • Excessive/non uniform loading
  • Weakening due to removal of cross members
  • Use of out of true members e.g.. scaffold tube at
    incorrect angle i.e.. not 90 under load
  • Excessive temperature
  • Measures to be taken to prevent
  • Design/material selection
  • Avoid overload work within spec
  • Temp control
  • Maintenance/testing NDT
  • Brittle failure
  • brittle fracture, no apparent plastic deformation
    takes place before fracture
  • Factors which promote brittle fracture
  • Low temperature
  • Inherently brittle material (cast iron)
  • Impact or snatch loading (does not give material
    time to react

Component failure
  • Ductile Failure (stretch)
  • Ductile failure in metals occur when the yield
    stress of the material has been exceeded by the
    material being placed in tension (stretched). The
    metal moves from its elastic region into its
    plastic region and loses its shape. There is a
    reduction in cross sectional area at failure
    point. The failure will appear as a cone / cup
    at 45 degrees to the load along the grain
  • Factors contributing
  • High temperature
  • Over loading
  • Design inappropriate
  • Measures to be taken to prevent
  • Temp control
  • Selection/design of materials
  • Maintenance/testing
  • Operate within spec limits of equipment
  • Creep
  • Gradual yielding of material under stress close
    to elastic limit (undergoes plastic deformation
  • Factors contributing
  • Continuous loading
  • High temp e.g.. hot pressurised pipes, turbine
  • Overloading
  • Design spec etc
  • Measures to be taken to prevent
  • Temp control
  • Selection/design of materials
  • Maintenance/testing
  • Operate within spec limits of equipment

Gamma radiography uses the transmission of gamma
rays from a sealed ionising radiation source
(isotope) through a test object onto a film
placed on the opposite side. The film records
the intensity of the radiation received and since
cracks and flaws are hollow, a greater intensity
of rays pass onto the film showing up defects as
darker regions
  • Advantages
  • Permanent record produced.
  • Can be used to test most materials
  • Internal defects can be identified
  • Coupling with the surface of the test piece is
    not required

Gamma Radiography
  • Disadvantages
  • Poses a radiation exposure hazard to operators
    requiring specific SSOW to be implemented
  • Can be time consuming due to application to HSE
    each time test is required
  • Equipment can be bulking and difficult to move
  • Specialist operators are required and staff to
    interpret results
  • Results may take a long time to receive
  • Can be an expensive process to run

Sources of