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Using Differentiated Instruction

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Title: Using Differentiated Instruction


1
Using Differentiated Instruction to Implement
Connecticut Standards (CCSS)
Day 2
2
One Agenda
  • Introductions
  • What is the philosophy that supports the
    differentiated classroom?
  • How can we come to know our students in a short
    period of time?
  • How do we know if we have rigorous curriculum?
  • How can I preassess my students?
  • Once I figure out the critical learning
    difference I will address, how can I best use
    flexible small groups in my room?
  • What are some sample strategiesrelated to choice
    and tieringthat I can use in my classroom to
    address critical student learning differences?

3
Day 1
830- 1030
Intro, Definitions, Knowing Students, Video clip
100- 230
Gallery walk KUDs, Preassessment, video clip
Getting Started with preassessments
Planning for DI, KUDs
1045- 1200
230- 315
Assignment Gather data on a preasessment
4
Day 2
DifferentiationStrategies Tiering Video clip,
Examples and Guided Practice
830- 1030
Gallery Walk Preassessment Data
100- 215
1045- 1200
Debriefing, Next Steps and Closure
230- 315
Differentiation Strategies Choice Video
clip-flexible small groups, Examples and Guided
Practice
5
The Common Sense of Differentiation
  • Crafting an environment that actively supports
    each student in the hard work of learning
  • Having absolute clarity about the learning
    destination
  • Persistently knowing where students are in
    relation to the destination all along the way
  • Adjusting teaching and learning to make sure each
    student arrives at the destination (and, when
    possible, moves beyond it.

6
THE DI DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
  • CONTENT
  • INTRODUCTION
  • INITIAL INSTRUCTION
  • PREASSESSMENT
  • DIAGNOSIS

What are the CRITICAL DIFFERENCES in my students?
How can I MODIFY one or more of the 10 curriculum
components to address difference?
CHOICE or ALTERNATIVES Adjusting the Breadth
TIERING Adjusting the Depth
MANAGEMENT OF FLEXIBLE, SMALL GROUPS
POST ASSESSMENT Impact of DI
7
THE DI DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
What are some possible CRITICAL DIFFERENCES in my
students?
  • Interests
  • Learning styles
  • Expression styles
  • Questions
  • Culture
  • Gender
  • Language
  • Sexual orientation

8
THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
How can I MODIFY one or more of the 10 curriculum
components to address the ONE targeted learning
difference?
ASSESSMENTS of Students and Their Content
Knowledge
LEARNING ACTs
INRODUCTION
TEACHNG Ss
EXTENSIONS
GROUPING
RESOURCES
CONTENT
PRODUCTS
TIME
Environment
9
Curriculum Components Advance Organizer
  • Learning Activities
  • Resources
  • Extensions
  • Time
  • Products
  • Content
  • Assessment
  • Grouping
  • Introduction
  • Teaching Methods

10
Grouping Strategies


Definition The varied approaches to arranging
students for effective learning in the
classroom Purpose To enhance the depth or
breadth of student learning to promote
reflection, to address student differences to
provide teachers with opportunities to observe
students in varied settings to provide
students with opportunities to work in varied
settings that nurture their unique abilities
and talents to minimize heterogeneity, to make
learning more efficient Characteristics
Aligned with the content goals, teaching
methods and students learning needs
varied










11
PROCESS
  • HOW STUDENTS COME TO UNDERSTAND AND OWN THE
    KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND SKILLS

12
Which of these grouping formats is used for
90-95 of all teaching and learning activities?
What should the percentage be? Why?
13
The Classroom Observation Study
  • Across five subject areas and 92 observation
    days, observed students experienced no
    instructional or curriculum differentiation in
    84 of their instructional activities.
  • NRC G/T Westberg, 1993, 2003

14
Comparing Small Group Options
15
(No Transcript)
16
Grouping Options
  • Homogeneous
  • Heterogeneous
  • Cross-Grade Grouping
  • Cluster
  • Interest-based
  • Across Class

17
Flexible, Small Groups An Operational Definition
  • Within class groupings in which
  • Membership varies according to purpose, learning
    goals, topics, learning activities, resources, or
    products
  • Group longevity varies
  • Group size varies (2-10)

18
Flexible, Small Groups
  • What grouping options does Rick use in his
    classroom?
  • Identify one critically important tenet of
    grouping in the differentiated classroom.
  • Can practitioners make a mistake when flexibly
    grouping students in the classroom?

19
Within-Class Grouping A Meta-Analysis
  • To be maximally effective, within-class grouping
    practices require the adaptation of instruction
    methods and materials for small-group learning.

Lou, Y, Abrami, P, Spence, J. C., Poulsen, C.,
Chambers, B., dApollonia, S. (1996).
Within-class grouping A meta-anal.ysis. Review
of Educational Research, 66 (4) 423-458
20
How Can We Use Grouping Formats to Support
Differentiation?
  • GROUPING
  • Avoid the one-size-fits-all model of curriculum
    and instruction
  • Teach to small groups to address learners
    academic and cognitive differences
  • Use a variety of factors to group students
  • Locate contracts and centers to deliver and
    manage small group learning
  • Develop in-class extensions around the interests
    of individuals and small groups of students
  • Provide opportunities for students to work in
    small groups or individually to pursue their own
    questions
  • Provide opportunities for students to present
    their work to small groups of peers
  • Offer after-school clubs and Power Hour
    programs to address students interests and
    learning needs
  • DIFFERENCES AMONG STUDENTS
  • Academic Differences
  • Developmental readiness
  • Prior knowledge/Opportunity to learn
  • Reading level
  • Concept and skill attainment
  • Cognitive Differences
  • Schemas
  • Thinking skills
  • Learning rate
  • Cognitive Differences
  • Interests
  • Learning styles
  • Motivation

21
Which ONE Difference Will I Address With Choice?
  • Prior Knowledge?
  • Learning Styles?
  • Interests?
  • Reading Ability?

22
Choice Variations
23
Grade 1 Presidents Day Grade 1, Standard 1
Significant events and themes in U.S. History
GLE Explain the significance of historical
figures and/or history-related holidays
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • To celebrate Presidents Day, Janet Henry decided
    to link the holiday to a discussion about
    leaders. She collected some picture books about
    presidents, coins of all types, and paper
    currency in small denominations.
  • She began by giving each child a penny, and asked
    her students to tell her about the face on the
    coin. Then, she asked them a series of
    questions Whose face is on the coin? Do other
    coins have different people on them? What might
    you have to do to get your face on a coin?
  • Some students wanted to find out more about
    famous American presidents. She had a separate
    conversation with these students about Lincoln
    and birthday celebrations. She made a mental
    note to watch the kiddos who wanted to learn more
    for other opportunities to facilitate their
    learning in this area.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • To celebrate Presidents Day, Grade 1 teacher,
    Emily Rosen, planned a special day for her
    students. She showed students pictures of George
    Washington and President Lincoln. Then, she had
    her students paste lengths of black yarn onto a
    picture of Lincoln to show his beard. They put
    elastics around their pictures to make masks and
    wore them in a parade around the school to
    celebrate this special day.

24
Grade 5 Explorers
  • STRAND 1.1 Significant events and themes in
    United States history.
  • 1. Explain how specific individuals and their
    ideas and beliefs influenced U.S. history (e.g.
    John Smith, Anne Hutchison, Uncas, Benjamin
    Franklin).
  • STRAND 2.1 Access and gather information from a
    variety of primary and secondary sources
    including electronic media, recordings and text.
  • 1. Locate and gather information from primary and
    secondary sources.
  • 2. Answer questions about content gathered from
    print and non-print sources.
  • 3. Summarize information about primary and
    secondary sources.
  • STRAND 3.1 Use evidence to identify, analyze and
    evaluate historical interpretations
  • 1. Make and support judgments about the quality
    of information in text material.
  • The Class
  • Very diverse interests, levels of motivation,
    ability to engage in abstract thinking

25
Example 1 Grade 5 Explorers
  • Ms. Johnson thoroughly enjoyed the social studies
    unit on explorers that she covered at the
    beginning of school in grade 5. She always began
    with a story about explorers to the new world
    because students always enjoyed hearing the life
    stories of famous explorers like Columbus. She
    even used some primary source documents like
    excepts from Columbuss ship log
  • Subsequently, she covered other significant
    explorers including Jacques Cartier (French),
    Henry Hudson (Dutch), and John Cabot and Francis
    Drake (English).
  • For the final project, she had each student
    create a log of a sea voyage. They had to include
    the following key terms in sentences that
    demonstrated they understood the meaning of the
    terms colony, contagious disease, expedition,
    navigate, Northwest Passage, and technology.

26
Example 2 Grade 5 Explorers
  • "Were going to make our own definition of
    explorer at the end of this unit. Before we are
    able to make our definition, I want you to
    consider the names of American people on this
    list. When you have done some initial research
    about two or three, you are to choose one
    explorer and answer the following questions about
    him
  • 1. Who was this explorer to the Americas?
  • 2. What adjectives describe him most accurately?
  • 3. Describe the historical time period in which
    he lived.
  • 4. Which group(s) of people value his
    contribution?
  • 5. Why is the contribution valued?
  • 6. In your opinion, what impact or legacy does
    the exploration have on
  • American history?
  • 7. Should students study explorers? Defend your
    answer.
  • You will use at least five resources, one of
    which must be electronic and one must be a
    primary source document. You will be making a
    presentationalone, with a partner or in a group
    of three--to the class on your explorer in any
    format you wish. When everyone has made his or
    her presentation, we will work as a class to
    define the word explorer, what role explorers
    played/play in the course of American history,
    and discuss the value of studying explorers."

27
Curriculum Components Advance Organizer
  • Learning Activities
  • Resources
  • Extensions
  • Time
  • Products
  • Content
  • Assessment
  • Grouping
  • Introduction
  • Teaching Methods

28
PEELING BACK Purposeful Choice
  • CHOICE of ALIGNED CONTENT (interest)
  • CHOICE of RESOURCES (reading level)
  • CHOICE of LEARNING ACTIVITIES, LEARNING PARTNERS
    (learning style preferences)
  • CHOICE of PRODUCTS (expression style preferences)

29
A RAFT is
  • an engaging, high level strategy that
    encourages writing across the curriculum
  • a way to encourage students to
  • assume a role
  • consider their audience
  • write in a particular format
  • examine a topic from a relevant perspective
  • All of the above can serve as motivators by
    giving students choice, appealing to their
    interests and learning profiles, and adapting to
    student readiness levels.
  • Carol Tomlinson

30
The RAFT strategy
  • Forces students to process information, rather
    than just writing out answers to questions.
  • Students are more motivated to undertake the
    writing assignment because it involves them
    personally and allows for more creative responses
    to learning the materials

31
RAFTs can
  • Be differentiated in a variety of ways readiness
    level, learning profile, and/or student interest
  • Be created by the students or Incorporate a blank
    row for that option
  • Be used as introductory hooks into a unit of
    study
  • Keep one column consistent while varying the
    other columns in the RAFT grid

Carol Tomlinson
32
Map Reading, Grade 3
  • Know
  • Parts of a map, map symbols, different types of
    maps
  • Understand
  • That there are many more types of maps that we
    imagine
  • Depending upon ones occupation, one is
    more likely to use some types of maps more
    than other types
  • That we use maps for different purposes
  • Do
  • Strand 2.1 Access and gather information from a
    variety of primary and secondary sources.
  • GLE Answer questions about content gathered from
    print and non-print sources.
  • Strand 2.2 Interpret information from a variety
    of primary and secondary sources
  • GLE Compare and summarize information from
    political and physical maps by using map symbols.
  • Compare and summarize information from charts
    and graphs.

33
Map Reading Skills
34
Simple Machines, Grade 7
  • Know
  • Key Concept Words force, friction, gravity,
    weight, newton, joule, lever, fulcrum, pulley,
    inclined plane, energy, etc.
  • Understand (Examples of Grade-Level Concepts)
  • Work is a scientific concept that expresses the
    mathematical relationship between the amount of
    force needed to move an object and how far it
    moves.
  • Simple machines can be used to do work. People
    do input work on a simple machine which, in
    turn, does output work in moving an object
  • Simple machines work on the principle that a
    small force applied over a long distance is
    equivalent work to a large force applied over a
    short distance.
  • Do
  • Explain in writing how the six simple machines
    make work easier but do not
    alter the amount of
    work done on an object.

PK-8 Science Curriculum Standards and Assessment
Expectations (2010 edition) http//www.sde.ct.gov/
sde/cwp/view.asp?a2618q320890
35
Simple Machines
36
American Revolution (AR) Whats Worth Fighting
For? Grade 8
  • Know
  • Terms used in the American Revolution
  • Understand
  • That the American Revolution was the result of a
    series of events linked together through cause
    and effect
  • That the leaders of the AR played important roles
    in the outcome of the war
  • That there are different perspectives about the
    AR, depending upon the side you were on
  • Do
  • Analyze the events leading up to the AR
    determine the causes and effects
  • Explain the role of leaders in the AR
  • Work independently
  • Work collaboratively
  • Draw conclusions

37
Whats Worth Fighting For?
38
Imagist Poems
  • Know
  • Poets names, personification, verse,
    onomatopoeia, simile, metaphor, haiku, imagist
    poems
  • Understand
  • How do we make meaning out of poetry?
  • What makes a poets voice intense, meaningful,
    memorable?
  • What are significant poetic forms and structures?
    How do they make meaning?
  • Do
  • Read, discuss, and appreciate a variety of poems
  • Analyze poems, poetic forms and devices
  • Research the cultural and historical context of
    poems and poets

CCSS CC.RL.11-12.4-Determine the meaning of
words and phrases in a text, including
figurative and connotative meanings, analyze the
impact of specific word choices on meaning 9
Demonstrate knowledge of 18th, 19th and early
20th century foundational works of American
literature
39
The Red Wheelbarrow
  • so much depends
  • upon
  • A red wheel
  • barrow
  • glazed with rain
  • water
  • beside the white
  • chickens

40
Crayfish
The Red Wheelbarrow (RW)
41
Guided Practice
Creating a RAFT on a content area and topic of
choice
42
Completing Your RAFT
  • Target the lesson
  • Identify the KUDs
  • Select the important info and ideas
  • Complete one column at a time
  • Brainstorm critical roles
  • With whom might each converse?
  • What is a likely format?
  • What are some likely topics

43
KNOW
SUBJECT
UNDERSTAND
DO
TOPIC
44
STRONG ROLES AUDIENCES
  • Branches of the Government
  • Presidents
  • Military figures
  • Husbands/wives
  • Famous cooks
  • Political activists
  • Freedom fighters
  • Authors
  • Heroes
  • Villains
  • Frontiersmen
  • Ad agencies
  • Athletes
  • Cartoonist
  • Editors
  • Pen Pals
  • Animals
  • Historical figures
  • TV Characters
  • Doctors
  • Lawyers
  • Politicians
  • Poets
  • Plants
  • Parents
  • Historical events
  • Literary characters
  • Body parts
  • Binoculars
  • Rear-view mirrors
  • Musicians
  • Artists

45
POSSIBLE FORMATS
  • Motto
  • News article
  • Picture
  • Post card
  • Poster
  • Puzzle
  • Screen play
  • Ships log
  • Skit
  • Song
  • Speech
  • Telegram
  • Wanted poster
  • Advertisement
  • Anecdote
  • Application
  • Blurb
  • Board game
  • Brochure
  • Critigue
  • Dear Abby letter
  • Debate
  • Dialogue
  • Directins
  • Editorial
  • E-mail
  • Epitaph
  • Free verse poem
  • Graffiti
  • Greeting card
  • Instructions
  • Interview
  • Journal entry
  • Lecture
  • Letter
  • List
  • Map
  • Math problem

46
Which ONE Difference Will I Address With Tiering?
  • Prior Knowledge?
  • Learning Styles?
  • Interests?
  • Readiness to Learn?

47
Ways to Address Readiness
  • Books, materials/resources at different reading
    levels
  • Highlighted texts
  • Materials in a students first language
  • Small group instruction
  • Peer teaching
  • Varied homework assignments
  • Provide more/less background information
  • More/Fewer examples
  • Pacing adjustments
  • Books on tape
  • Models of quality at the students level
  • Skill-based learning centers
  • Tiering
  • Different vocabulary lists
  • Increase/Decrease the abstractness
  • Increase/Decrease the familiarity

48
Highlighted Texts
  • About 15 of a chapter, such as introduction,
    conclusion, bolded text, key passages
  • Great for ELL, ADHD, and weak readers

49
Front-Loaded Vocabulary
  • WHAT?
  • Teach the few vocab words on which the topic
    pivots
  • Teach them before the unit to students who need
    extra time
  • Post them refer to them review with them
  • Teach root words as possible
  • WHO?
  • ELL learners
  • Students who struggle with vocabulary
  • Students with learning challenges
  • Students with weak background knowledge
  • Students who didnt know the words on the
    preassessment

50
Which Components Were Modified?
  • Learning Activities
  • Resources
  • Extensions
  • Time
  • Products
  • Content
  • Assessment
  • Grouping
  • Introduction
  • Teaching Methods

51
Shades of Meaning
Large
Linda Eiler
52
What is TIERING?
  • Tiering is a strategy teachers use to increase
    the match between students various levels of
    learning readiness to the content and instruction
    of particular lessons
  • It is NOT TEARING!!

52
53
Tiering DI vs Tiering SRBI
54
Movie Time Corey Bergs high school class
  • What is this teachers mindset?
  • How does she differentiate for her students?
  • What techniques does she use to manage the
    classroom?
  • What implications does this video clip have for
    our practice?

55
Two Minute Pause
  • Talk in groups of 2-3
  • Compare what you are currently doing with the
    examples of tiering that we have been discussing.
  • Discuss the implications of your
    conclusions?

56
Another Metaphor for Tiering
  • Tricycle
  • Two-wheeler with training wheels
  • Two wheeled bicycle

56
57
TIERING?
57
58
Tiering for Struggling Learners DECREASING the
Cognitive Load
  • What is the representative topic?
  • How can I break it down into smaller parts?
  • Can I change it into something more familiar?
  • Can I provide more examples to help ensure
    understanding?
  • Can I gather reading materials that are at
    students instructional reading level?

Instructional reading level Students recognize
between 90-95 of the words Independent reading
level Students recognize more than 95 of the
words
58
59
Tiering for Advanced Learners INCREASING the
Cognitive Load
  • What is the representative topic?
  • Make the RT less familiar
  • Make the RT more abstract
  • Use the big idea in the RT to require students
    bridge across time periods, cultures,
    disciplines
  • Require comparison/contrast among two examples of
    the RT
  • Require increasingly more difficult thinking
    skills (e.g., inference-making, synthesis
    (Learning activity)
  • Use more challenging reading materials
    (Resources)

59
60
CT SS Grade 7 World Regional Studies
  • Standard 1 Content Knowledge 1.3 (Significant
    events and themes in world history/international
    studies
  • (5) Explain how a civilizations/nations arts,
    architecture, music and literature reflect its
    culture and history
  • Standard 1 Content Knowledge 1.4 (Geographical
    space and place)
  • (9) Identify selected countries and determine the
    advantages and challenges created by their
    geography
  • (10) Examine historical events and factors that
    help explain historical events and contemporary
    issues.
  • Standard 1 Content Knowledge 1.10 (How limited
    resources influence economic decisions)
  • (21) Analyze how resources or lack of resources
    influenced a nation/regions development

60
61
Designing a Tiered Lesson Plan Grade 7
62
Peeling Back the Tiered Lesson Plan
63
CT SS Grade 1-2 Local Studies
  • GRADE 1
  • Standard 1 Content Knowledge 1.1 (Significant
    events and themes U.S. history)
  • (1) Apply terms related to time (e.g., past,
    present, future, hours days weeks, months, years)
  • GRADE 2
  • Standard 1 Content Knowledge 1.1 (Significant
    events and themes U.S. history)
  • (1) Apply terms related to time (e.g., decades,
    centuries and generations)

63
64
Designing a Tiered Lesson Plan SS, Gr. 1-2
65
Peeling Back the Tiered Lesson Plan
66
Developmental Readiness in Mathematics
67
Gr. 1 Addition Subtraction CC.1.OA.6 Add and
subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for
addition and subtraction within 10.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Katie Martin prepared to teach her 1st grade
    students about the sums of two one-digit numbers.
    She gathered together gummed stars in two colors
    and construction paper. She gave pairs of
    students construction paper on which she had
    written an addition fact. Each child was asked
    to display an addend with different colored stars
    and then the pair was asked to add all the stars
    by counting on from the greater number of stars.
    The students displayed all their work to make a
    sky full of addition facts.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Ms. Brennan knew from her preassessment that her
    grade one students were at very different
    developmental levels with respect to their
    understanding of addition. Of two one-digit
    numbers. One group of students needed
    manipulates to visualize the addition and
    subtraction facts. They used manipulatives, like
    dominos, and counters to count on. Another
    group was working on accuracy and speed with
    their facts. They worked in pairs to check each
    others work. A final group, ready for more
    abstract thinking, was invited to use a 100s
    chart to note patterns among the columns and rows
    (e.g., 10s, 9s) and present their findings to the
    class.

68
Which Components Were Modified?
  • Learning Activities
  • Resources
  • Extensions
  • Time
  • Products
  • Content
  • Assessment
  • Grouping
  • Introduction
  • Teaching Methods

69
New World Explorers Grade 8
  • Know
  • Names of New World Explorers
  • Key Events of contribution
  • Principle / Generalization
  • Understand
  • Exploration involves risk
  • Exploration involves costs and benefits
  • Exploration involves success and failure
  • Do
  • Group A
  • Using a teacher provided list of resources
    primary and secondaryand a list of product
    options, show how two key explorers took chances,
    experienced success and failure, and brought
    about both positive and negative change to North
    America. Provide proof/evidence.
  • Group B
  • Using reliable and defensible research, as
    well as primary and secondary sources, develop a
    way to show how the New World explorers were
    paradoxes. Include and go beyond the units
    principles.

69
70
New World Explorers Grade 8 CCSS Standards
  • STRAND 1.1 Significant events and themes in
    United States history.
  • 1. Analyze how specific individuals and their
    ideas and beliefs influenced U.S. history.
  • STRAND 2.1 Access and gather information from a
    variety of primary and secondary sources
    including electronic media, recordings and text.
  • 1. Gather information from multiple print and
    digital sources.
  • 2. Cite specific textual evidence to support
    analysis of primary and secondary sources.
  • 3. Determine the central ideas or information of
    a primary or secondary source and provide an
    accurate summary.
  • 5. Analyze how a text makes connections among,
    and distinctions between, individuals, ideas, or
    events.
  • 6. Conduct short and sustained research projects
    based on focused questions, demonstrating
    understanding of the subject under investigation.

70
71
Which Components Were Modified?
  • Learning Activities
  • Resources
  • Extensions
  • Time
  • Products
  • Content
  • Assessment
  • Grouping
  • Introduction
  • Teaching Methods

72
6th Grade Vocabulary
73
6th Grade Vocabulary
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Mr. Jenkins pretests his students on the required
    lists of vocabulary words at two week intervals.
    When students demonstrate at least 80 mastery
    on the list, they do not have to write out the
    words, a definition, and an accompanying
    sentence. He does require all students to take
    the posttest at the end of the two week period
    because he want to make sure everyone really
    knows the words.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Mr. Forrester pretests his students on the
    required lists of vocabulary words at two week
    intervals. Students have a vocabulary notebook
    in which they write the next ten words. Each
    writes the word, a definition, and a sentence.
    Students work in pairs, correcting each others
    work, which is then reviewed by the Mr.
    Forrester. Peers administer the quizzes. Words
    missed are recycled into next weeks list.
    Repetitions help students internalize key
    spelling patterns. Students who demonstrate
    mastery are provided with other words that
    emphasize roots and/or students own personal
    list of vocabulary words.

74
(No Transcript)
75
Algebra, Grade 8 CCSS Mathematics Standard 8-
(Gr. 6-8) Students will understand and apply
basic and advanced properties of functions and
algebra
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Ms. Stanwood introduced this beginning lesson on
    slope by explaining what students would learn
    Today we will learn about slope, which is an
    important concept in algebra. We will spend
    about three weeks on this unit and by the time we
    are finished with the unit, you will see how
    civil engineers, builders, surveyors, and
    landscapers use this concept in their work.
  • She invited students to arrange themselves in
    groups of four because they were about to begin a
    scavenger hunt about slope (www.quia.com). Small
    groups were a way of differentiating because they
    were responsive to students individual
    questions. As groups, they were going to use the
    web to find the answers to the following
    questions
  • What is slope?
  • What letter of the Greek alphabet is used to
    represent slope?
  • If a line rises from let to right is the slope
    positive or negative?
  • What is the slope of a vertical line? Horizontal
    line?
  • While students were working, she rotated among
    the groups, responded to questions, and listened
    to students questions. Later in the period, Ms.
    Stanwood assigned them some homework, which she
    knew would help students internalize the concept
    of slope and answer that arose in their small
    group work.

76
Algebra, Grade 8 CCSS Mathematics Standard 8-
(Gr. 6-8) Students will understand and apply
basic and advanced properties of functions and
algebra
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Mr. Grenke prepared to begin a 3 week algebra
    unit on slope with his 8th graders. From past
    experiences, he anticipated that there would be
    critical differences among his students with
    respect to conceptual understanding and abstract
    thinking, so he gathered a variety of resources
    as he planned his teaching strategies. He would
    begin with a motivating problem, that could
    double as a hook How Steep Can a Ramp Be?
    (www.figurethis.org) He would listen carefully
    to students mathematical discourse about the
    problem to diagnose students foundational
    understanding and misconceptions. Based upon his
    diagnosis, he would initially divide the students
    into two groups those who had incomplete or
    missing foundational concepts and those who
    already had some knowledge of the concepts and
    skills.
  • For the first group, he would scaffold
    mini-lessons around the concepts students didnt
    know. He might use a geoboard applet
    (www.enc.org) that allows students to use virtual
    elastics and pegs to draw conclusions about rise
    and run. He would use demonstration, the concept
    attainment model, Socratic questioning and
    feedback to support the first groups learning.
  • He went on the web and located another
    real-world problem related to slope that would
    extend the second groups understanding of slope
    and rate of change The Lost House Keys.
    (http//mathcentral.uregina.ca) Working in a
    small group, he would invite students to discuss
    and answer a series of open-ended questions What
    is this problem about? What are some of the
    factors that are important when you set up the
    ladder? What is causing the steepness if the
    ladder to change? What is the relationship
    between the amount of vertical distance covered
    with respect to that covered by the horizontal
    distance? How is this problem similar/different
    to the one done by the whole class? Can rise and
    run be expressed mathematically? What new
    questions do I/we have? He planned to use
    Socratic questioning and feedback to support the
    second groups learning.
  • Based upon student learning at the outset of
    this lesson, he would reevaluate group membership
    before proceeding with the next phase of the
    lesson, determine their learning needs and the
    best teaching strategy to support their learning.

77
Core Science Curriculum Framework
  • ENRICHMENT CONTENT STANDARDS for HIGH SCHOOL
    SCIENCE High School Chemistry
  • Reaction Rates Chemical reaction rates depend
    upon factors that influence the frequency of
    collision of reactant molecules
  • The rate of reaction is the decrease in
    concentration of reactants or the increase in
    concentration of products with time.
  • Reaction rates depend upon factors such as
    concentration, temperature and pressure.
  • Equilibrium is established when forward and
    reverse reaction rates are equal.
  • Catalysts play a role in increasing the reaction
    rate by changing the activation energy in a
    chemical reaction.

77
78
Reactions and Interactions
Enrichment Content Standards for High School
Science (Appendix) from Core Science Curriculum
Framework. .
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Mr. Luther knew at the outset of his chemistry
    unit on reaction rates that he had students who
    not only had different levels of prior knowledge
    about aspects of chemistry, but also learned more
    quickly than others in the class. He decided to
    provide most of his students with a hands-on lab
    that helped students understand that there is a
    direct relationship between the concentration of
    an acid and the reaction rate.
  • He provided the remaining students with the same
    metal and solutions as the other group, but
    invited them to find the ideal conditions for the
    fastest reaction time.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Ms. Barnes prepared for the lab on simple
    reactions between metals and acids. At the
    conclusion of the experiment, she wanted students
    to understand that there is a direct relationship
    between the concentration of an acid and the
    reaction rate. To help them understand this
    important direct relationship, she set up
    different test stations for students to observe.
    Each station had the same mass of a given metal.
    Each of the containers held increasing
    concentrations of HCl. Students had to combine
    the reactants and analyze the data for trends in
    the reaction rates.

79
Making Lab Activities More Open-Ended
  • Who decides the question?
  • Who decides the procedure?
  • Who decides what to observe and data to collect?
  • Who decides the response?
  • Who decides the format for communicating the
    results?

http//www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/worksho
p/lab_activities.html
80
Phy. Fitness and Weight Training Analyze the
effects of regular participation in a
self-selected program of moderate to vigorous
physical activities
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Mary Trainer, a high school PE teacher and
    basketball coach, was a strong believer in
    health, fitness and wellness. She was familiar
    with her physical education standards and knew
    that each student needed a wellness plan to
    support life-long health.
  • To that end, she insisted that all of her
    students completed prescribed exercises in 4
    categories flexibility, muscular
    strength/endurance, upper body strength, and
    aerobic endurance. She provided different
    proficiency levels for her young men and women.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Jean Mee, a PE teacher and coach, was deeply
    committed to teaching to her PE standards.
    Equally important, she knew that her students
    varied widely on their physical abilities and
    interests. Some girls wanted to look better in
    jeans others wanted to quit eating junk foods.
    Many of her young men longing for a six-pack,
    wanted upper body, torso and abdominal training
    suggestions.
  • With her students help, she conducted pre and
    post assessments to not only ascertain each
    students beginning level of fitness, but also
    their end point and physical wellness growth.
    Collaboratively with individual and small groups
    of students, she developed wellness plans around
  • Aerobic Capacity (running, tread mill programs,
    stairs, cycling, elliptical training, walking)
  • Upper Body Muscle Strength and Endurance
    (Shoulder girdle exercises, bicep crunches,
    triceps extensions, chest presses, lat pulls)
  • Lower Body Muscle Strength and Endurance (ham
    string extensions, compliments of leg presses and
    extensions)
  • Flexibility (yoga and general stretching)
  • Back, Abdominal and Torso Strength and
    Flexibility

81
Grade 8 Biology, Mitosis
Content Standard Heredity and Evolution-What
processes are responsible for lifes unity and
diversity? .
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Mrs. Clark began her unit on cell reproduction
    by asking students to work in small groups. She
    asked them to write down what they already knew
    about mitosis. She reconvened the class and
    discovered than some students had more prior
    knowledge than others. She decided to form
    cooperative groups for the duration of the unit.
    She would place students with more background
    knowledge strategically in the cooperative groups
    to assist those who were less familiar with the
    process of mitosis.
  • She then proceeded to introduce key vocabulary
    (cell, cell division, chromosome, DNA,
    interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase,
    telophase). Later, she asked studentsin small
    groupsto visit www.sfscience.com/admin/pdf/6A2_1B
    LM.htm and complete a worksheet in preparation
    for a class discussion. After the class
    discussion, she had pairs of students visit The
    Cell Cycle website http//www.biology.arizona.edu/
    CELL_BIO/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells3.html that
    included an animated presentation about mitosis.
    She reconvened the whole class to review their
    learnings.

82
Grade 8 Biology, Mitosis
Content Standard Heredity and Evolution-What
processes are responsible for lifes unity and
diversity .
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Ms. Sims knew at the outset of her unit on cell
    division that her 28 students varied widely in
    prior knowledge. Furthermore, her ELL students
    would need extra support. She began the lesson
    with an engaging animation, Anatomy of a
    Splinter, to illustrate how cells multiply to
    help repair injuries. She knew this would make
    her students curious about the topic.
  • She grouped her grade-level learners together
    into three groups of seven students. She placed
    one of her ELL students in each of the
    grade-level groups. Each group was responsible
    for viewing the website, The Cell Cycle
    http//www.biology.arizona.edu/CELL_BIO/tutorials/
    cell_cycle/cells3.html and creating a poster
    illustrating and explaining two of the phases
    (controlled choice). Ms. Sims provided her ELL
    students a vocabulary table that included
    everyday terms to describe each of the phases.
    Poster materials included construction paper that
    was cut into the shapes of chromosomes and cells
    that could be used to graphically reproduce the
    process.
  • .

83
Grade 8 Biology, Mitosis
Content Standard Heredity and Evolution-What
processes are responsible for lifes unity and
diversity .
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Above-grade level students were asked to view a
    University of Arizona Biology site for on online
    onion root tip activity http//www.biology.arizona
    .edu/Cell_BIO/activities/cell_cycle/cell_cycle.htm
    l Students were invited to categorize 36
    pictures of onion root tip cells in various
    stages of the cell cycle, categorize them
    according to stage, determine the percentage of
    cells at each stage and generate an hypothesis
    about which stage takes the longest.

84
Mitosis Key Words
85
Sample Teacher Prompts for Stages in Second
Language Acquisition
Hill, J. D Bjork, C. L. (2008). Classroom
instruction that works with English Language
Learners. Alexandria, VA ASCD
86
Stage
Characteristics
Approx. Time
Teacher Prompts
87
Stage
Characteristics
Approx. Time
Teacher Prompts
88
Thermal Energy Transfer Grade 9
STRAND 1 Energy Transformations, 9.1 Energy
cannot be created or destroyed it can be
converted from one form to another. D2. Explain
how energy is transferred by conduction,
CONVECTION and radiation
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • To capture her students interest in the
    upcoming lesson, Ms. Winkler began her 4-day unit
    on con with a film about rogue waves. Then, she
    led them into a class discussion about the
    movement of the upper layer of the ocean, its
    currents and the Earths rotation. She prepared
    a lab that would simulate the Coriolus Effect
    (drawing a straight line on a rotating disc).
    She rotated to student groups, asked questions
    and checked their answers. Ms. Winkler concluded
    her first segment of the unit with a discussion
    about how their data matched real-life current
    deflection.
  • Over the next two days she led several student
    discussions about thermohaline currents, and she
    provided students with maps to illustrate the
    complexity of the oceans conveyor belt.

89
Thermal Energy Transfer
STRAND 1 Energy Transformations, 9.1 Energy
cannot be created or destroyed it can be
converted from one form to another. D2. Explain
how energy is transferred by conduction,
CONVECTION and radiation
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Ms. Connors began her 7-day earth science unit
    with two activities. First, she and her students
    created a concept map to illustrate the
    relationships among the sun, ocean currents
    (convection), thermohaline circulation, climate
    and evaporation. Second, she had students
    complete the Nike Shoe Investigation (May 1990).
    It peaked students curiosity as well as required
    them to utilize critical map skills and draw
    scientific conclusions about surface ocean
    currents (gyres).
  • She downloaded three versions of Surface Ocean
    Currents to accommodate her 29 students diverse
    reading levels www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link/ear
    th/Water/ocean_currents.html She invited students
    to use the Test Rendering Protocol to deepen
    their understanding of the text. Finally, they
    discussed and made models to simulate the
    Coriolus Effect.
  • She invited students to speculate about water
    movement in the deeper part of the oceans. She
    showed a 10 minute Flash presentation about
    surface currents, thermohaline circulation, and
    upwelling.
  • Finally, she showed segments of The Day After
    Tomorrow, a movie that depicts a world ravaged
    by an instant ice age touched off when global
    warming disrupts warm currents in the Atlantic
    Ocean She asked students to prepare an analysis
    of the movies scientific accuracy.

90
Greenhouse Effect High School-Example 1
STRAND III Global Interdependence Science and
Technology in Society How do science and
technology affect the quality of our lives? 9.8
- The use of resources by human populations may
affect the quality of the environment. D23
Explain how the accumulation of carbon dioxide
(CO2) in the atmosphere increases Earths
greenhouse effect and may cause climate changes
  • Mrs. Moore began her week long unit on the
    Greenhouse Effect and global warming with two
    journal prompts What is your definition of
    global warming? and How does it affect our
    environment?
  • Students read, Early Signs of Spring and Global
    Warming (http//www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/scie
    nce_and_impacts/impacts/early-warning-signs-of-glo
    bal-10.html), and Mrs. Moore asked questions such
    as What is the urban heat-island effect and how
    does it contribute to our understanding of global
    warming? In addition, she reviewed the greenhouse
    effect as well as the enhanced greenhouse effect.
  • The concluding activity was a simulation and
    students could choose the membership for their
    groups. Each group became an organization
    concerned about global warming and was about to
    attend an international global warming summit.
    Each group had to name themselves and come up
    with a series of strategy statements to better
    control greenhouse gases. They were invited to
    use any resources and given the following
    questions
  • What are greenhouse gases?
  • What effects do the gases have on our
    environment?
  • What solutions are already in place to restrict
    the emission of greenhouse gases?
  • What other solutions would your team like to put
    into place?

91
Greenhouse Effect Example 2
  • Ms. Jason began her two week unit with clips from
    An Inconvenient Truth to hook her students into
    the content of the upcoming lessons and a
    preassessment to determine her students
    background knowledge about this critical
    contemporary topic.
  • She spent the next several days explainingwith
    the aid of her text and visual and audio internet
    resourcesthe greenhouse effect and the enhanced
    greenhouse effect. She used heterogeneous small
    groups and reciprocal teaching to ensure that
    students, understood these abstract processes.
    Above-grade level students were invited to find,
    summarize and post their findings on 3-5 of the
    most current articles on the impact of global
    warming. She rotated to the groups to determine
    misconceptions and ask critical, leading
    questions.

STRAND III Global Interdependence Science and
Technology in Society How do science and
technology affect the quality of our lives? 9.8
- The use of resources by human populations may
affect the quality of the environment. D23
Explain how the accumulation of carbon dioxide
(CO2) in the atmosphere increases Earths
greenhouse effect and may cause climate changes
92
Greenhouse Effect Example 2, cont
  • Ms. Jason left the last week for a culminating
    project in which students had to summarize the
    evidence for/against the role of human activity
    in global warming. Based on her observations, she
    assigned students to one of five groups based on
    their ability to handle abstract, complex
    material (1) coral bleaching (2) warming of the
    oceans (3) glacial melting (4) the
    relationship among the formation of ozone holes,
    global warming and the greenhouse effect and (5)
    the chemistry of the enhanced greenhouse effect
    and gas concentrations over time. Each group was
    responsible for a 5-8 minute presentation to
    share their evidence and conclusions about the
    extent of the role of human activity in global
    warming. Extension for interested students View
    An Inconvenient Truth in its entirety with the
    following question in mind Is there any evidence
    that Gores hypothesis may be hot air?
    http//www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/today/tomfeilden/2009/0
    9/an_inconvenient_truth_about_gl.html

STRAND III Global Interdependence Science and
Technology in Society How do science and
technology affect the quality of our lives? 9.8
- The use of resources by human populations may
affect the quality of the environment. D23
Explain how the accumulation of carbon dioxide
(CO2) in the atmosphere increases Earths
greenhouse effect and may cause climate changes
93
Fine Arts Beginning Instrumental Performing on
instruments, alone and with others, a varied
repertoire of music.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • John Vee, a long-time, high school music teacher,
    loved his instrumental music classes. He
    especially loved his ensemble group that often
    played at school and town functions.
  • He always auditioned his players to ascertain
    their skill level andas they progressed through
    their high school yearsmoved them through the
    chairs in the orchestra. His top students were
    able to carry the rest of the students, who often
    made it by simply playing along imitating the
    section leaders. Some of his top students
    continued to play after high school, including
    two students who now play with the Philadelphia
    Orchestra.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Scott Shuler, a long-time high school music
    teacher, always auditioned his instrumental
    students to determine their skill level.
    Although he assigned students to chairs as they
    progressed through their high school years, he
    also recognized his responsibility to cultivate
    achievement and talent in all of his students.
    Thus, he mixed his top students in different
    sections, asking all students to not only carry
    the melody, but also the harmony parts.
  • Furthermore, he often disaggregated his
    orchestra. For example. when he knew that the
    wind players were strong and reasonably
    comfortable with a piece of literature, he
    excused them from whole group practice. This
    strategy provided him with more time to work with
    the rest of the orchestra members who needed more
    intense practice and a smaller teacher-student
    ratio.
  • He used his chamber groups to further
    differentiate his curriculum and instruction.
    His chamber groups were often co-operative
    clusters of students, and this grouping strategy
    allowed him tailor the literature to the
    expertise of the students.
  • For his highest level students, Scott always
    found time to work with them on solos for school
    and community based programs.

94
Instrumental Music
  • Literature
  • Grouping (e.g., chamber ensembles, solos, jazz
    band)
  • Technical demand of the piece
  • Complexity of the music notation
  • Rhythmic demand
  • Range of the instruments requirements
  • Part Assignment
  • Techniques for approaching instruments in each
    family (e.g., percussion)
  • One critical student learning difference
  • Interest
  • Learning Profile
  • Readiness/Prior knowledge
  • Motivation

95
Guided Practice
Create a TIERED LESSON in a content area and
topic of choice
96
Your Turn
  • Identify a grade level and select a unit of your
    choice.
  • Check your standards to make sure you are on
    target.
  • Write down the essential understandings facts,
    concepts and principles (KUDs) related to your
    unit.
  • Anticipate ONE critical student difference that
    might emerge from preassessment data (e.g. prior
    knowledge, reading, learning rate).
  • Brainstorm 2-3 different ways to differentiate
    the unit to attend to the targeted student
    difference.
  • Vary the content, teaching strategies, learning
    activities, resources, and/or products to address
    students readiness levels
  • Explain in 3-4 sentence why you believe the
    differentiation will address your targeted
    student difference.

97
Creating a Tiered Lesson
  • Identify grade level and subject
  • Target the concepts/principles that may require
    tiering
  • Target the critical students difference to be
    addressed (e.g., learning rate, prior knowledge,
    readiness)
  • Visualize the differences in prior knowledge for
    above-grade level, on-grade level and below grade
    level students
  • Vary the content, teaching strategies, learning
    activities, resources, and/or products to address
    students readiness levels
  • Reflect

98
Reflecting On My Tiered Lesson
  • Did I stick to my concepts/principles?
  • Is each of the tiers respectful to learners?
  • Do I have rubrics to share with students?
  • What resources will I need?
  • How will my students be grouped?
  • What other management issues do I need to
    consider? (e.g. anchor activities, how completed
    work will be shared?)

99
Designing a Tiered Lesson Plan
100
Tiering Pluses/Minuses
Pluses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Minuses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
101
Planning Next Steps
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
102
Creative Tension
  • Any change comes from creative tension. Creative
    tension is the difference between the vision
    (where we want to be) and current reality (where
    we are). By harnessing creative tension, we can
    learn to use the energy it creates to move
    current reality toward the vision. Our role is to
    make sure that there is both an accurate picture
    of the current reality and a complete picture of
    the desired future.

Senge, P. (1990). The Fifth Discipline The Art
and Practice of The Learning Organization. New
York Doubleday
103
The Differentiated Instruction Design Team
  • Megan Alubicki, Consultant, SDELynmarie Thompson,
    Consultant LEARN
  • Shauna Brown, Assistant Principal, Middletown
    Public Schools
  • Francine Carbone, Language Arts Curriculum
    Specialist, Bridgeport Public Schools
  • Rosanne Daigneault, Leader in Residence, SDE
  • Harriet Feldlaufer, Chief, Bureau of Teaching and
    Learning
  • Dr. Tony Gasper, Assistant Superintendent,
    Ansonia Public Schools
  • Marie Salazar Glowski, ELL/Bilingual Consultant,
    SDE
  • Alice Henley, Assistant Executive Director, SERC
  • Dr. William Howe, Consultant, SDE
  • Lynmarie Thompson, Consultant LEARN
  • Dr. Jeanne Vautour, Consultant, EASTCONN
  • Iris White, Consultant, SDE

104
The following educators for their participation
in the vetting sessions
  • Amy Radikas, Consultant, SDE
  • Barbara Senges, Assistant Superintendent,
    Middletown Public Schools
  • Casi Skahan, Teacher, Bridgeport Public Schools
  • Denise Carr, Teacher, Meriden Public Schools
  • Dr. Maureen Ruby, Adjunct Professor, Eastern CT
    State University
  • Harry Gagliardi, Executive Coach, CAS
  • Kim Goodison, Math Interventionist, Region 16
  • Kim Traverso, Consultant, SDE
  • Laurelle Texidor, Principal, Jennings School, New
    London
  • Maura Graham Vecellio, Teacher, Meriden Public
    Schools
  • Michelle Eckler, English Department Head, East
    Hartford
  • Michelle LeBrun Griffin, Consultant, SERC
  • Michelle Levy, Consultant, SDE
  • Nancy Boyles, Professor, Southern CT State
    University
  • Oona Mulligan, History Teacher, Newtown High
    School
  • Patricia Foley, Consultant, SDE
  • Peggy Neal, Education Specialist, CREC
  • Peter Madonia, Chair, Educational Leadership,
    Southern CT State University
  • Sharen Lom, Alternate Route to Certification
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