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IT-465 Introduction to Lean Introduction Outcomes Discuss the origins of Lean Learn why Lean is important in manufacturing and service industries Lean Operating ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IT-465

  • Introduction to
  • Lean

  • Outcomes
  • Discuss the origins of Lean
  • Learn why Lean is important in manufacturing and
    service industries

Lean Operating Concepts
  • Developed and refined by the Japanese
  • The Toyota Production System (TPS) and later in
    the USA as Lean
  • Based on the works of Taiichi Ohno, Taguchi,
    Shigeo Shingo, Deming, Juran, and others.
  • The fathers of TQM, Lean, and Six Sigma have many
    common sources with modern Lean approaches

History of Lean Production System
Another Definition of Lean
Another Definition of Lean
  • Lean Tool Box
  • Introduction to Lean
  • Prominent figures of Lean
  • Lean is not just for manufacturing
  • Value add and waste
  • Waste walks
  • Spaghetti charts
  • Hoshin planning
  • Value Stream Mapping
  • 5S
  • Poka-yoke, error proofing
  • Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
  • Kaizen
  • Quick change-over/SMED
  • Pull systems/supermarket
  • Standardized work
  • Cellular manufacturing
  • Theory of constraints
  • Barriers to implementation
  • Quick response mfg

History of Lean Production Systems
  • A Lean Focus Continuous elimination of waste
    driven by customer satisfaction
  • Customer Satisfaction
  • Meeting (or exceeding) customer expectations for
    the cost, quality, delivery, and suitability of
    products and services provided
  • Delighting the customer means providing the
    (benchmarked) best quality, service, and delivery
    at a fair market price.

Customer Satisfaction
  • Conventional wisdom Satisfying customers costs
  • Wastes and Opportunities
  • Wastes are any form of wasted resources or effort
    beyond the minimum required to satisfy customer
    perceived value-added activities in products and
    services provided
  • Opportunities are revenue/value-generating
    activities that are being over-looked or not
    optimized in the current business system

Adding Value
  • Value
  • Anything the customer is willing to pay for
  • Must satisfy all three of the following
  • It changes the shape or form of the process or
  • The customer cares about it
  • Its done right the first time
  • The Paradox
  • Waste elimination increases customer satisfaction
    while at the same time reduces costs to produce
    goods and services

  • Lean has been around a long time
  • Lean is based on the collective learning of many
    gurus and many thousands of companies over the
    last 100 years.
  • Any kind of business can benefit by applying the
  • Lean focus reducing time and wastes in
    processes, focus on the customer.

Prominent Figures of Lean
  • Outcome
  • Become familiar with the important figures in the
    history of Lean Six Sigma

The Origins of Lean
  • Henry Ford
  • The Father of Lean
  • Considered human waste to be the worst form
  • Used time and motion studies to develop assembly
  • Moving assembly line reduces operator motion and
    reduces lead time

The Origins of Lean
  • Sakichi Toyoda
  • Noticed that if there was a problem in
    production, it was produced over and over,
    creating a lot of waste
  • Developed the concept of Poka-yoke mistake

The Origins of Lean
  • Kiriichi Toyoda (Sakichis son)
  • Wanted to create a car company
  • Studied Ford Noticed that too much material
    created delays
  • Created concept of Just-In-Time Producing the
    right part in the right place at the right time

The Origins of Lean Six Sigma
  • Taiichi Ohno
  • V.P. of Engineering at Toyota
  • Founder of Toyota Production System (TPS)
  • Believed in creating a profound image for people
    to grasp
  • Challenged employees by telling them what to do,
    but not how to do it.

The Spread of Lean Six Sigma
  • Shigeo Shingo
  • Worked at Toyota with Taiichi Ohno
  • Perfected the art of Single Minute Exchange of
    Dies (SMED)
  • Promoted TPS principles and setup reduction
  • Helped to create material replenishment based on
    US supermarket concepts kanban feed me next
  • Sprea Lean principles around the world

The Spread of Lean Six Sigma
  • Dr. William Edwards Deming
  • Was sent to Japan after WWII to assist with
    quality issues
  • Developed Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) approach to
    defect reduction
  • Change agent for Japans economy

  • It is not only for manufacturing
  • Principles apply to service and process
    industries also
  • Based on the Toyota Production System
  • Make sure that everything flows
  • Look for waste at every step of the process,
    eliminate it, and make sure it never comes back

  • Lean Service
  • Focus on reducing service time
  • Every process has waste, regardless of industry
  • Lean Process
  • Create product just-in-time
  • Deliver what the customer needs, in the quantity
    needed, when the customer needs it.
  • Continue to focus on improvement

Value Add and Waste
  • Outcomes
  • Understand the concept of value add
  • Understand the types of waste
  • What is Lean Manufacturing
  • The fundamental principal of Lean Manufacturing
    is to eliminate waste
  • Create flow, eliminate waste

What is Lean manufacturing
Five Steps of Lean Implementation
  • Specify value identify what is value and what
    is not
  • Anything the customer is willing to pay for
  • The process object has to be physically changed
  • Must be done right the first time
  • Map the value stream
  • Create flow
  • Pull
  • Pursue perfection
  • Waste is not value added

Eight Types of Waste
  • Downtime
  • Defects
  • Overproduction
  • Waiting
  • Non-utilized talent
  • Transportation
  • Inventory
  • Motion
  • Extra processing
  • The 8 types of waste take up 95-98 of all lead

  • Definition
  • Any part not made, or service rendered, to the
    customers specifications the first time
  • Money and time wasted
  • Causes
  • Lack of process controls
  • Poor quality of incoming materials
  • Inadequate operator training
  • Poor work instructions

  • Faster than needed
  • Sooner than needed
  • More than needed

  • Time lost when people, material or machines are
  • Causes
  • Unbalanced workload
  • Equipment breakdowns
  • Long set-up times
  • Poor material handling practices

Non-Utilized Talent
  • Wasted potential for improvement results when
    people doing the work are not consulted for ideas
    on improving the methods of work
  • Causes
  • Old guard thinking, politics, business culture
  • Low or no investment in training

  • Transportation of parts and materials around a
    facility creates waste
  • Causes
  • Poor plant layout
  • Large batch sizes
  • Large storage areas

  • Any material in excess of the one piece required
    for the next step in production
  • Three Types
  • Raw material
  • Work-in-progress
  • Finished goods
  • Causes
  • Inventory held just-in-case problems arise
  • Unreliable shipments by suppliers

  • Movement of people or machines that does not add
    value to product
  • Causes
  • Poor plant or workstation layout
  • Poor workplace organization and housekeeping
  • Sorting/looking for items

Extra Processing
  • Doing more than minimum required to transform
    material into an acceptable product
  • Causes
  • Accommodate perceived customer needs
  • Redundant approvals/inspections required
  • Unnecessary reports produced
  • Examples
  • Duplication
  • Rework
  • Engineering changes

Wrap Up
  • 8 types of waste
  • D.O.W.N.T.I.M.E.
  • 3 parts to Value Add
  • Customer willing to pay for it
  • Changes the process object
  • Done right the first time

Five Steps of Lean Implementation
  • Specify value
  • Map the value stream
  • Create flow address defects to create flow
  • Pull
  • Pursue perfection
  • Poka-yoke (mistake proofing)
  • The removal of all potential causes of error
    through design, process, or mistake-proofing
    devices, to ensure consistent process results
  • Poka-yoke helps build quality into processes to
    achieve zero defects

Zero Defects
  • The goal is to understand the concept and
    practice of zero defects and how to develop
    Poka-yoke to eliminate these defects
  • If 99.9 were acceptable, you would not mind if..
  • Connection post offices would lose 10,271 pieces
    of mail per day
  • OHare International Airport would have 1,264
    unsafe arrivals/departures per year
  • Doctors at New York hospitals would drop 288
    newborn babies per year.

Tracking Defects
  • Typically defect rates are tracked by
  • Quantity
  • Kind
  • Percent
  • With zero defects thinking they are tracked at
  • The point at which defect is discovered
  • The point at which defect occurred
  • Attitude
  • I do not ACCEPT defects
  • I do not MAKE defects
  • I do not PASS ON defects

Defects vs. Errors
  • Poka-yoke methods or devices to improve product
    quality and ensure consistent process results
  • These devices
  • Prompt feedback and action as soon as the defect
    or error occurs
  • Perform 100 auto-inspection
  • The first step to Source Inspection is to
    distinguish between errors and defects
  • Defects are the results
  • Errors are the causes of the results

  • The most common manufacturing errors
  • Processing errors or omissions
  • Assembly omissions or inclusion of the wrong part
  • Processing wrong work piece
  • Conventional Approach to Human Error
  • Make excuses
  • Place blame and/or expect defects
  • Catch at final or sampling inspection
  • Mistake-proofing Approach to Human Error
  • Eliminate the possibility of the mistake
  • Find the root cause and eliminate
  • Ask why the process failed
  • Apply mistake-proofing device for 100 inspection
  • No defects generated

Machine/Equipment Error
  • Recognize that machines make errors (drills
    break, tools become dull, fixtures wear, etc.)
  • A methodology for developing Poka-yoke
  • A reliable method
  • A standard a work method or procedure
  • A reliable method an effective standard
  • A reliable method includes only those elements
    which, when followed, cause a predictable/desirabl
    e result, and when not followed, result in a
    predictable defect.

  • Error Proofing
  • Poka-yoke Japanese for error proofing
  • To achieve zero defects
  • Make it impossible to produce defects
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