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Year 10 Child Development

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Loses in pregnancy Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy before 24 weeks Up to 80% of miscarriages happen in the first 12 weeks After 24 weeks the baby is viable ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Year 10 Child Development


1
Topic 2 PREGNANCY
Year 10 Child Development
Lesson 9 Pregnancy
2
Lesson Objectives
  • During this lesson you will understand what the
    signs and symptoms of pregnancy are.
  • During this lesson you will know what the
    benefits are of a healthy diet, exercise and
    rest.
  • During this lesson you will learn about the range
    of ante-natal care available, including
    ante-natal clinics and classes
  • During this lesson you will learn what the common
    problems are in pregnancy
  • During this lesson you will understand what
    routine checks, screening and diagnostic testing
    are done during pregnancy
  • During this lesson you will know the role of the
    midwife, GP and obstetrician during pregnancy.

3
Confirming pregnancy
  • Possible signs of pregnancy are
  • A missed period
  • More frequent urination
  • Feeling exhausted, dizzy or faint
  • Enlarged, tender breasts
  • Nipples and areola changing colour
  • A metallic taste in mouth
  • A sudden dislike to certain smells and tastes
  • Sickness or nausea (may be in the morning, but
    can be all day)

4
Pregnancy testing
  • Pregnancy tests may be carried out at
  • home or done by a GP or at a pharmacy.
  • They can be used from the day a period is due, or
    earlier.
  • To take a pregnancy test, place an absorbent
    sampler in a mid stream urine sample, to detect
    the presence of the hormone human chorionic
    gonadotrophin (HCG).
  • The result is shown is a window on the test stick
  • Tests are accurate, but instructions must be
    followed carefully to avoid a false, negative
    result

5
Estimated delivery date
  • The average length of a pregnancy is 37- 40
    weeks.
  • Only 5 of babies arrive on the due date.
  • To calculate the estimated delivery date (EDD),
    to the last day of the period you need to add 9
    months 7 days or count 280 days.
  • An early dating scan will give you a reliable
    indication of the EDD.

6
Copy and complete the table
7
(No Transcript)
8
Loses in pregnancy
  • Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy before 24
    weeks
  • Up to 80 of miscarriages happen in the first 12
    weeks
  • After 24 weeks the baby is viable (able to
    survive)

9
Abortion and stillborn
  • An abortion is the medical process of ending a
    pregnancy before 24 weeks so it doesnt result in
    the birth of the baby
  • A baby born dead after 24 weeks is a still born
    baby

10
Ectopic pregnancy
  • An ectopic pregnancy happens if a fertilised egg
    implants itself somewhere other than the uterus
  • For example in the fallopian tube
  • It can be dangerous for the mother

11
A healthy comfortable pregnancy
  • To have a healthy comfortable pregnancy a mother
    to be should eat healthily, including foods high
    in NSP (non-starch polysaccharide Fibre) this
    helps to avoid constipation which can be a
    problem in pregnancy, plenty of exercise should
    be undertaken, rest and relax, choose machine
    washable clothing that isnt tight fit around the
    bump and allows room for growth and stretching,
    choose supportive adjustable wide strapped bras,
    avoid high heeled shoes, have regular dental
    check ups (gums bleed more in pregnancy)

12
Task
  • Investigate the A-Z of staying healthy during
    pregnancy. Design a leaflet or booklet that will
    advise a mother to be about staying healthy
    during pregnancy.
  • Use Judi Sunderland (pages 19 21) this will
    help you complete this task.

13
Health care for mum and baby
  • A midwife has specialist training in the care of
    women before, during and after pregnancy
  • MIDWIVES
  • Conduct the booking in visit
  • Carry out routine testing
  • Arrange specialist tests and scans
  • Run ante-natal classes
  • May administer some drugs
  • Deliver babies in straight forward births
  • Advise on caring for the newborn baby.

14
Different types of midwives
  • Community midwives work as party of a team. They
    provide ante-natal clinic care in normal
    pregnancies and carry out post natal visits in
    the woman's home. They also attend home births
  • Hospital midwives work on the labour ward and
    help woman in labour and during birth. They also
    work in ante-natal and post-natal wards.
  • Independent midwives dont work for the NHS, are
    paid for by the woman and attend home births.

15
Medical practitioners
  • A general practitioner (GP) may sometimes share
    care with the midwife for the mother during
    pregnancy and post-natally.
  • GPs conduct the post natal examination six weeks
    after the birth of the baby
  • An obstetrician is a specialist based in a
    hospital who cares for the woman with
    complications during pregnancy labour and birth.
  • Only women with a problem will see an
    obstetrician

16
Task
  • Design a poster advertising a job for a health
    care professional

17
Ante-natal classes
  • In the last 8 weeks of pregnancy, mothers to be
    can attend ante-natal classes at their local
    hospital or clinic
  • These provide useful advice on childbirth and
    child care and are run by midwives
  • They are an excellent way to meet other mums and
    mums to be and get valuable information
  • Most classes are also suitable for fathers to be.

18
The role of the father
  • The father to be has an important role to play
    and can help and support his partner
  • During pregnancy a father to be can.
  • Attend all scans and appointments
  • Read up on pregnancy and childbirth
  • Go to ante-natal classes
  • Provide emotional support
  • Other practical help e.g. housework
  • During labour he can.
  • Be present at the birth
  • Offer reassurance and practical help, e.g.
    rubbing back
  • Let the midwife know his partners wishes
  • The birth partner may not be the father, but
    someone chosen by the mother to provide support

19
Task
  • On an A5 piece of plain paper write a list of
    things the father can do to help his partner
    during pregnancy and birth.

20
Tests and checks
  • Routine tests during pregnancy detect any
    problems with the mother and baby
  • The abdomen is palpated to check for size,
    position and movement of the foetus
  • The legs are checked for swelling, which may
    indicate pre-eclampsia and also checked for
    varicose veins
  • Blood pressure is checked because high blood
    pressure may indicate pre-eclampsia
  • Urine is checked regularly

21
Urine tests
  • Urine is tested regularly
  • Chlamydia can also be detected using a urine test

22
Pre-eclampsia
  • Other symptoms of pre-eclampsia are blurred
    vision, headaches, upper abdominal pain and
    swollen fingers and ankles.
  • Pre-eclampsia is managed by hospitals admission,
    medication, close monitoring and possible early
    delivery, to avoid eclampsia.
  • Eclampsia is a serious condition which may lead
    to convulsions, multiple organ failure, and death
    of the mother and the baby

23
Other checks
  • The foetal heart beat is monitored for its
    presence and rate using a sonic aid or pinard
    stethoscope
  • Blood tests are taken to check for, the mothers
    blood group and the rhesus factor, rubella
    immunity, hepatitis B, anaemia, thalassaemia,
    HIV.

24
Scans
Page 25 Judi Sunderland, Page 22 Letts and
Lonsdale
25
Screening tests
  • The two main screening tests are.
  • Nuchal fold translucency
  • Triple/quadruple test (serum screening)
  • Task find out what each of these are ..

26
Nuchal fold test
  • In this test an ultrasound scan looks at the
    folds of the skin on the back of the babies neck,
    and the fluid found there is measured
  • Excess fluid could indicate downs syndrome

27
The triple/quadruple test
  • This is a blood test which measures the level of
    two hormones HCG and oestriol, and AFP
    (alpha-fetoprotein)
  • These measurements used with a woman's age
    estimate the possibility of genetic conditions.
    E.g.. Downs syndrome.
  • High levels of AFP indicate an increased risk of
    Spina bifida
  • If screening tests show an increased risk of
    abnormality, diagnostic tests can be done to
    confirm the findings.

28
Diagnostic tests
  • The two main diagnostic tests are amniocentesis
    and chorionic villus sampling
  • Task find out what these are and why they are
    done.

29
An amniocentesis
  • Normally done at 15-19 weeks
  • A sample of amniotic fluid is taken from the
    amniotic sac by using a large hollow needle and
    ultra sound scan. The needle is inserted into
    the uterus.
  • The fluid is examined to check for genetic
    conditions, spina bifida, the sex of the baby,
    viral infections, the babys lung development
  • It can be offered if there is a family history of
    chromosomal abnormality or if the mother has had
    previous downs syndrome pregnancy.

30
Chorionic villus sampling
  • A sample of placenta tissue is removed using a
    hollow needle and ultra sound scan.
  • It detects the same conditions as an
    amniocentesis but has a higher risk of causing
    miscarriage

31
Task
  • Complete the activity about key words for this
    topic.
  • Cut out each key word and stick down on a piece
    of paper with the correct meanings
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