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Domestic Concerns (1950-1980)


Domestic Concerns (1950-1980) APUSH Ms. Weston 4/5/06 Roots of the Civil Rights Movement WWII Frustrations of blacks during war Double Victory campaign and increased ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Domestic Concerns (1950-1980)

Domestic Concerns (1950-1980)
  • Ms. Weston
  • 4/5/06

Roots of the Civil Rights Movement
  • WWII
  • Frustrations of blacks during war
  • Double Victory campaign and increased activism
    (Ex. A. Philip Randolph Washington March)
  • Some post-war victories for blacks in North
  • End of public segregation
  • Jackie Robinson in Major leagues
  • Gunner Myrdal An American Dilemma increased
    awareness of problem of racism
  • --Truman ends segregation in federal civil
    service and military

Key Victories of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren and Supreme Court ruled
    that segregation in schools was unequal and
    therefore unconstitutional
  • Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Massive Resistance in Deep South (Ex. Little
    Rocks Central High SchoolEisenhower sends
    National Guard)
  • 1957 Congress passed first Civil Rights Act since

Eisenhowers Domestic Policy
  • Main goal To make government small, combat
    socialism here in US (Ex. considered free vaccine
    socialized medicine)
  • Operation Wetback Eisenhower forced many
    undocumented Mexicans out of USsupposedly to
    save bracero program
  • Attacked Indian New Deal
  • Did increase government spending with Interstate
    Highway Act

Intellectual Developments
  • Fiction Hemmingway, more surrealist works from
    Joseph Heller and Kurt Vonnegut
  • Poetry Critical of American lifeSylvia Plath
    and Anne Sexton
  • Playwrights Dealt with social issuesTennessee
    Williams and Arthur Miller
  • Black writers Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison,
    James Baldwin
  • Beat Movement (1950s)Jack Kerouac, Allen
    Ginsberg criticized materialism and conformity of
    50s culture

Kennedy and the New Frontier
  • Glamour of Kennedy
  • Very qualified cabinetRFK and McNamara
  • New Frontier Inspiring people to do for America
    and the world (Ex. Peace Corps)
  • Difficulties getting his medical and educational
    bills passed
  • Tax cuts
  • Much government money into space program!

Civil Rights Under Kennedy
  • Reluctant to get involved
  • Took awhile to give government aid to Freedom
  • Developed relationship with MLKalthough FBI was
    tapping his phone
  • Used federal troops to help integrate Ole Miss
  • Before he died, called for passage of Civil
    Rights Bill

JFKs Assasination
  • Nov. 22, 1963, Dallas
  • Alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, shot to
    death by Jack Ruby
  • Warren Commission still couldnt figure out
    exactly what happened
  • Shocked and saddened nation
  • Inspirational figure more for promise and image
    (Camelot) than for what he really accomplished

LBJ takes over
  • Senator from Texas
  • Supported New Deal programs, wanted to expand
  • Passes Civil Rights Act of 1964banned
    discrimination in public facilities, strengthened
    government power to end segregation in schools,
    created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
    provision for gender equality.

Johnsons Great Society
  • Saw as a War on Poverty
  • Economic and welfare measures inspired by New
  • Flood of legislation after LBJs victory in 1964

Great Society Reforms
  • Expanded Office of Economic Opportunity
  • Created Dept. of Transportation and Dept. of
    Housing and Urban Dev., National Endowment for
  • Aid to educationfederal money to students, Head
    Start program
  • Medical care for elderlyMedicare and Medicaid
  • Immigration reform1965 law abolished quota
    system, provisions for family unification

Voting Rights Act (1965)
  • 24th Amendment had abolished poll tax
  • Johnson passes this through after brutal attacks
    against civil rights workers and Selma campaign
  • Political victory for blacks
  • Now had political power
  • Whites began to court black vote
  • Did nothing to deal with economic conditions of
    African Americans

The Shift to Black Power
  • Increased focus on economic racism
  • Watts Riots (1965)highlights segregation,
    poverty and police brutality in ghetto
  • Increased focus on economic racism
  • Rise of militant black leaders
  • Goal is separatism, not integration

Malcolm X
  • Symbolizes radical shift in the movement
  • Leader in the Nation of Islam
  • Radical message of black separatism
  • Willingness to use violence against violent
  • Focused on structural racism
  • At end of his life, did move to more inter-racial
  • Killed in 1965

Black Panther Party
  • Founded in Oakland, CA
  • Inspired by Stokely Carmichaels call for Black
  • Original focus was police brutality in community
  • Became a political/social organizationdevoted to
    empowering blacks, also giving community
    important servicesbreakfast programs
  • Targeted by FBI, COINTELPRO

Racial Violence
  • Series of uprisings in 1967showed discontent and
    frustrations of African-Americans
  • Whites reacted with more fear and withdrawal
  • 1968 Martin Luther King assassinated
  • Violence and rioting again in inner city

Legacies of Civil Rights Movement
  • Many more voters and black government officials
  • School integration
  • More blacks in middle class
  • Still much room for improvement
  • No more de jure segregation, but de facto

The Chicano Movement
  • Desegregation of schools
  • Mendez v. Westminster (1946)
  • Cesar Chavez and foundation of UFW
  • Adoption of term Chicano
  • Fight for ethnic studies and Chicano studies at
  • Brown Berets
  • 1968 Walkouts to protest biased curriculum and
  • 1970 Chicano Moratorium against Vietnam

Other Movements
  • Native American Movement
  • 1968 Founded American Indian Movement (AIM)
  • 1969 Occupied Alcatraz to unify Native Americans,
    voice discontent
  • 1973 Occupied Wounded Knee
  • Some victories more control over reservation
    schools, some land
  • Asian American Movement
  • LGBT Movement

Protest and Counterculture in the 1960s
  • Rooted in 3Ps Youthful population, protest, and
  • Negative attitude towards authority
  • Free Speech MovementUC Berkeley, led by Mario
  • Counterculture Challenge to conformity of 50s
  • Drugs, acid rock, communes, hippies
  • Sexual Revolution Birth control, gay rights
  • Declined by 1970s

Economic Decline in 1970s
  • Women and teenage workers brought down wages
  • New government health and safety regulations
  • Shift from manufacturing to service sector
  • Inflation Vietnam War, rising oil prices, LBJs
    spending on Great Society and military build-up

Judicial Activism of the Warren Court
  • From 1953, Earl Warren led court in decisions
    affecting sexual freedom, civil rights and
    political representation.
  • All reflected deep concern for individual
  • Ensured right to privacy, right to legal
    counsel, right to remain silent (Miranda rights),
    no prayer in public schools
  • Nixon tried to install conservative judges,
    largely fails.

Nixons Domestic Policy
  • Expanded some welfare programs Food Stamps,
    Medicaid, AFDC
  • Encouraged integration of industry through quotas
  • Development of affirmative action for groups
    Admit or hire women and minorities in proportion
    to presence in pop.
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
    Occupational Health and Safety Administration
  • Progress with environment because of Rachel
    Carson's Silent Spring

The Watergate Scandal
  • Begins with break-in to Democratic party
    headquarters in 1972.
  • Men responsible worked for CREEP Committee to
    re-elect Nixon
  • Made worse when V.P. Spiro Agnew resigned for
    taking bribesreplaced with Gerald Ford.

The Scandal Worsens
  • Nixon denied any prior knowledge of break-ins
  • Became evident Nixon was covering up
  • Senate Committee investigating asked Nixon to
    turn over tapes from White House, Nixon refused
  • Saturday Night Massacre Nixon fires prosecutor
    involved in investigating
  • Nixon starting to look more suspicious

The End of Nixon
  • Finally handed over tapes in 1974
  • Showed Nixon had obstructed the investigation of
    the Watergate Scandal and that he had been
    involved in the cover-up
  • Senate began plans to impeach Nixon
  • August 8, 1974 NIXON RESIGNS
  • First president ever or since to resign
  • Shows power of impeachment, President must be
    held to the law

Ford The Unelected President
  • Took over in 1974
  • Public had no faith in him
  • Granted total pardon to Nixon Democrats
  • Signed Helsinki Accords Toward détente, but many
    argued Soviets not doing enough

Feminism in 60s and 70s
  • Second-wave feminism In 1960s, much more
    activist, focused on equal rights
  • NOW National Organization for Women
  • Some victories in 1970s
  • 1972 Title IX Prohibits sex discrimination in
    any federally assisted educational program or
  • Helped female athletics
  • Roe v. Wade Legalization of abortion

Feminist Defeats
  • Nixon vetoed nationwide public day care
  • Rise of antifeminists
  • Equal Rights Amendment defeated in 1982
  • Had been passed by Congress
  • Not ratified by enough states

Racial Controversies in 1970s
  • End to school busing
  • Attacks on affirmative action
  • Regents of University of California v. Bakke
  • Preference in admission may not be granted on
    basis of ethnic or racial identity alone