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Fire & Water – Cleanup & Restoration™


Employee Training Program Carpet and Upholstery Certification Fire & Water Cleanup & Restoration * All good terms make sure they get all of them. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fire & Water – Cleanup & Restoration™

Employee Training Program Carpet and Upholstery
Fire Water Cleanup Restoration
Basics of Cleaning
Levels of Clean
  • Sterile For an environment to be sterile, it is
    completely free of contamination. Operating
    rooms must be sterile. To get a sterile level of
    clean, you must use special products, equipment,
    and processes. It is VERY hard to reach this
    level of clean.
  • Disinfected An area is disinfected when at least
    99 of the contaminants are removed. The
    disinfected level of clean is also very hard to
    reach. Disinfectant cleaning products can
    disinfect some nonporous surfaces.
  • Sanitary In the sanitary level of clean, enough
    contaminants are removed to protect general
    health. The soil and contamination in the
    environment are at acceptable levels. SERVPRO
    cleaning should reach the sanitary level of clean.

Types of CleanWhen we talk about something being
clean, we are really talking about six factors
  • Looks Clean
  • Smells Clean
  • Feels Clean
  • Stays Clean
  • Dries Fast
  • Is Sanitary

  • Vacuuming uses air to pick up more than half of
    the soils in upholstery and draperies and 79 of
    the soils in carpet. This is why it is ALWAYS
    important to vacuum first.

Like Dissolves Like
  • Water dissolves water-based soils, and solvents
    dissolve oil-based soils.

Cleaning StepsThere are THREE steps when
dissolving soils. The steps are the same whether
you are using a water or a solvent.
  • WASH
  • DRY

Dissolving and Suspending Soils
  • Some soils are not loose particles. To remove
    soils attached to surfaces, we must first
    dissolve them in a cleaning product. After being
    dissolved, the soils are suspended in the
    cleaning product so they can be removed by

Like Dissolves Like
Put the parts together to define the terms below
  • Hydrophilic
  • Hydrophobic
  • Lipophilic
  • Lipophobic
  • Water-Loving
  • Water-Fearing
  • Oil-Loving
  • Oil-Fearing

Now remember that oil and water dont mix. If a
substance loves water, it also hates oil. This
means that if something is hydrophilic, it is
also lipophobic, and if something is hydrophobic,
it is also lipophilic.
Oil and water dont mix, but by using a
detergent, a connecting link is made between oil
and water molecules allowing them to be evenly
distributed in the cleaning solution. This is
called EMULSION.
Solvent Safety
  • When using solvents, wear proper PPE including
    goggles, gloves, and a respirator with an organic
    vapor cartridge. Make sure all people, plants,
    and animals (especially birds) are out of the

The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being
neutral. Pure water is neutral.
  • Acids are substances with a pH less than 7.
    Acids are normally thought of as sour. MOST
    soils and spots are slightly acidic.
  • MOST cleaning agents are alkaline. Soap has a pH
    of about 9, making it a mild alkali.
  • A general rule of thumb is to not use a pH
    greater than 10 on synthetic fibers.
  • Solvents do not have a pH. A substance must
    contain water to have a pH. This means that
    substances like oil and grease dont have a pH.

  • Anionic molecules are negatively charged. These
    molecules are effective when trying to emulsify
    oils and have a tendency to foam. Anionic
    solutions are the most compatible with the soil
    protectants used on fabrics and carpet fibers.
    MOST laundry detergents are typically anionic, as
    are most carpet shampoos and pre-sprays. Alkalis
    are typically anionic also.
  • Cationic molecules are positively charged.
    Cationics are most often found in deodorants,
    fabric softeners, anti-static formulations,
    biocides, and disinfectants. Cationics CANNOT be
    mixed with and anionic. Acids are typically
  • Nonionic molecules have no electrical charge.
    Nonionics are usually compatible with anionic and
    cationic agents.
  • - Anionic
  • Cationic
  • o Nonionic

Polarity and Cleaning Solutions
  • Polarity helps explain the power of cleaning
    solutions. Most cleaning involves soils
    dissolving into cleaning solutions.
  • Polarity (the electrical charges of molecules)
    make it possible for one substance to dissolve in
    another substance.

  • A surfactant lowers the surface tension of the
    water, allowing the water to penetrate better
    into a surface.
  • By lowering the waters surface tension, soils
    are better able to mix with water. An Expression
    used in the industry says Surfactants make water

Basics of Cleaning Review Questions
  • 1. What level of clean is typically achieved by
    SERVPRO cleaning methods?
  • 2. What are six types of clean?
  • 3. What percent of soils will pre-vacuuming pick
    up on upholstery? On carpet?
  • 4. Define lipophilic and hydrophobic.
  • 5. What is an emulsion?
  • 6. What is a surfactant?
  • 7. What are the safety steps you should take when
    using solvents?
  • 8. What is pH? Which numbers reflect neutral?
    Acidic? Alkaline?
  • 9. Can you mix anionics with nonionics?
    Cationics with nonionics? Cationics with

TextilesFibers and Materials
Types of Fibers
  • Natural Fibers come from plants or animals.
  • Cellulosic Fibers come specifically from plants.
    Examples include cotton, linen, jute, and
  • Protein Fibers come from animals only. Examples
    include wool and silk.

Types of Fibers cont
  • Man-made Fibers
  • (or semi-synthetic)
  • Start as natural substances and are processed to
    create a usable fiber.
  • For example Rayon is created by putting wood
    pulp through a chemical process to make a soft,
    silk like fiber.
  • Synthetic Fibers
  • Used in 98 of carpets manufactured today
  • They are also blended into many upholstery
  • The are made by combining by-products of the
    energy industry in the form of thermal plastic
  • To simplify it, just think of tiny plastic
    pellets that get melted down.

How Fibers are Made
  • Natural fibers are Staple fibers (with the
    exception of fibers created by silkworm)
  • Staple fibers are short fibers that must be spun
    or twisted into yarn.
  • For example the wool on a sheep will only grow
    to a certain length, so wool is ALWAYS a staple
  • Staple fibers must be combed to untangle them,
    blended to thoroughly mix the fibers, and
    drafted(pulled into long ropes) to spin them into
    longer threads.

How Fibers are Made Cont.
  • Synthetic fibers take many different steps to
    make and are made by humans
  • Small plastic pellets are melted down in a large
    vat using heat or chemicals
  • The melted mixture is forced down through a
  • (a lot like a shower head)
  • The plastic comes out of the holes and cools, or
    the chemicals evaporate and the plastic
  • The result is a long continuous filament or long
  • The whole process is called Extrusion.

Fiber Dying
  • In the Solution Dying method, the dye is mixed
    in with the plastic pellets before the fibers are
    extruded through the spinnerets. In this way,
    dye becomes a part of the fiber itself. Solution
    dyes are the most permanent colors, but this
    process can be used only for synthetic fibers.

Topical Treatments
  • Soil Repellents
  • The primary purpose of soil repellents is to
    delay the absorption of
  • soils into the fibers. Delaying the soil
    absorption allows more time to
  • remove the soils before they become permanent
    stains. Soil repellents
  • coat the outside of the fibers.
  • Soil Release Agents
  • Soil release agents are the opposite of soil
    repellents. Soil repellents make
  • fabrics very hydrophobicthey resist water
    penetration. Soil release
  • agents make fabrics hydrophilicthey readily
    absorb more water. By
  • making a fabric more absorptive, detergent
    solutions can more easily
  • penetrate the fabric and release the soils.
  • HydrophilicWater loving
  • HydrophobicWater Fearing

Fiber Terms
  • Bleeding If the dye is not set properly, it may
    become unstable when wet and run into the fibers
    or material next to it.
  • Color Loss When dyes are loosened during
    cleaning, they can be washed out of the fabric.
  • Crocking If there is too much dye in a fabric or
    carpet, the dyes can transfer from one material
    to another, even when the fabric is dry.
  • Staple fiber A natural or synthetic fiber that
    is a relatively short length and must be spun or
    twisted into yarn. It is the opposite of
    continuous filaments which could go on forever,
    where staple fibers are short.

Natural Fibers Cotton
  • Strengths of Cotton
  • Strong
  • Normally very colorfast
  • Withstands high cleaning temperatures and many
    types of bleaches
  • Weaknesses of Cotton
  • Most absorbent fiber
  • Will absorb up to 20 of its weight in moisture
    before it even feels wet to the touch
  • It will take longer to dry

Natural Fibers LinenLinen is a cellulosic fiber
that comes from the stem of a flax plant
  • Strengths of Linen
  • 20 stronger when wet
  • Dries quickly
  • Withstand high cleaning temperatures
  • Weaknesses of Linen
  • The fibers will split at creases in heavily worn
  • Fibers have a string wicking actionmeaning that
    stains are absorbed deep into the fiber and are
    hard to remove.

Natural Fibers SisalSisal comes from the agave
plant and is often used to make rope and door
mats, and is the face fiber in some rugs and
  • Strengths of Sisal
  • Stronger when wet
  • Weaknesses of Sisal
  • Cellulosic browning
  • Easily stained
  • Easily damaged by wet cleaning processes

Natural Fibers JuteJute comes from the stalk of
the jute plant found primarily in India. Jute
used to be a common carpet backing material and
can also be found as the widthwise yarns in woven
carpets, but today is used in only 1 of carpets
and rugs. You may find jute in older homes.
  • Strengths of Jute
  • Strong when dry
  • Stretches well during carpet installation
  • Weaknesses of Jute
  • Shrinks when wet
  • Weak when wet
  • Contains tannin, a dye that will bleed into face
    fibers and cause browning
  • Acts as a food source for mold

Natural Fibers WoolWool comes for the fleece of
  • Strengths of Wool
  • Can be stretched 30 without breaking
  • Has an outer membrane that repels water
  • Weaknesses of Wool
  • Will dissolve in chlorine bleaches
  • pH of cleaning solutions must be between 4.5 and
  • Because wool is so absorbent, over wetting is a
    potential problem.

Natural Fibers SilkSilk is produced by silkworms
  • Strengths of Silk
  • Strong
  • Easily dyed
  • Weaknesses of Silk
  • The texture may change after wetting
  • Damaged by high alkalinity
  • Strong acids and chlorine bleaches will also
    damage silk

Man-Made Fibers RayonRayon does not have the
strengths or durability to be used in carpets,
but occasionally you will find rayon in
upholstery or in an area rug. When cleaning
rayon, treat it like a cellulosic fiber.
  • Strengths of Rayon
  • Resistant to mildew
  • Weaknesses of Rayon
  • Mats easily. Pile fabrics are extremely
    sensitive and must be groomed immediately after
  • If stretched, rayon will not return to its
    original shape
  • Damaged by strong alkalis, acids and bleaches
  • Easily damaged by aggressive agitation during
  • Weakest fiber when wet. It loses up to 70 of
    its strength.

Synthetic Fibers NylonNylon is now the most
commonly used synthetic fiber and can be found in
carpet, upholstery and draperies. Nylon wears
better than any other synthetic fiber. You will
often find nylon blends that mix the strengths of
nylon with the appearance of another fiber.To
create 5th generation nylon, scientists added
something called acid dye blockers. Acid dye
blockers are simply large, colorless dye
molecules that have a negative charge. Acid dye
blockers fill the dye sites on the fibers that
are not already filled with regular, colored dye
and repel other dyes with a negative charge.
Most food eyes have a negative charge, so the
acid dye blockers reduce the chance of the stains
becoming permanent.When dealing with 5th
generation nylon, we have to be more careful
about what products we use. Highly alkaline
products can cause yellowing. Cationic products
like disinfectants can produce a sticky
jelly-like buildup. Also, applying a cationic
can void the manufacturers warranty on stain
resistant carpets.
Synthetic Fibers Polypropylene
  • Olefin is a generic term used to refer to
    polyethylene and polypropylene materials.
    Polypropylene is the primary olefin material used
    in textiles. Polypropylene is used in
    conventional indoor carpets as well as in outdoor

Textiles Fibers and Materials Review Questions
  • What is the difference between celluolsic fibers
    and protein fibers?
  • Explain the process of how synthetic fibers are
  • What is the difference between a soil release
    agent and a soil repellent?
  • What is the difference between crocking and
  • Which fiber is the most absorbent?
  • Which fiber is the weakest when wet?
  • What advances were made in the 5 generations of
  • What is the most common carpet face fiber?
  • What is solution dyeing process?
  • What is the difference between a staple fiber and
    a continuous filament?

Pretesting is required on every job. You need
to know what you are cleaning, how your cleaning
products will affect a textile, and if your
cleaning method will work. Pretesting will
answer these questions.
Pretesting is important to the customer. It
establishes your credibility. Involve the
customer and explain what you are looking for.
Pretesting Video
  • eLearning Video

Burn Testing Technique While burning fibers,
observe the ODOR and characteristics of the ASH
and the color of the FLAME to identify the type
of fiber. Compare the results to the Burn Test
Chart. The key question you want to answer is
whether the fiber is natural or synthetic.
Chemical Testing Technique
Specific Gravity Test
  • Olefin is the only synthetic fiber with a
    specific gravity of less than one (this means it
    floats on water).

Shrinkage TestThis test is meant for upholstery
and drapery cleaning only.
  • Select an unexposed place to perform the test
    (the skirt and the cushions are typically the
    spots on upholstery that are most likely to
  • Hold a small furniture pad(measuring 2 ½ by 2
    ½) against the fabric and insert a straight pin
    at each corner to outline the area. Use straight
    pins with bright colored plastic heads to make
    them more visible. Take the furniture pad away,
    leaving the pins in place.
  • Use a salt and shampoo mix (2 oz. table salt and
    2 oz. Carpet and Upholstery Shampoo per gallon of
    water) and a clean white towel to saturate the
    fabric within the square made by the pins. Also
    saturate about ½ inch outside of the pins.
    (Mixing salt with the shampoo helps prevent
    bleeding.) Work the solution into the fabric.
    If the solution beads up, this indicates the
    fabric has been treated with a soil and stain

Shrinkage Test cont
  • Wait 10 minutes (15 if the solution beads) for
    the area to dry. Using a hair dryer to speed up
    the results may give you faulty information.
  • Place the same furniture pad back into place
    between the pins. If the pad doesnt fit, the
    fabric has shrunk. A very small amount of
    shrinkage inside the shrink test area can equal
    several inches over the entire area of an
    upholstery or drapery item.
  • Always remove the pins from the fabric after
    completing the shrink test. Some pins will rust
    if left in place, and they can be a safety hazard
    for the customer.
  • If the fabric shrinks, do NOT risk wet cleaning.
    Dry clean the fabric.

Colorfastness Tests
  • Test in an inconspicuous area.
  • To test for bleeding, use a highly alkaline
    solution (such as Blood and Stain Remover) to
    saturate the test area. If colors do not bleed
    with this product, they shouldnt bleed during
    the proper cleaning. Wait for the area to dry
    completely (many times bleeding will not occur
    until the final stages of drying). NOTE If you
    are doing a spot removal, test with each product
    before you use it. If bleeding occurs,
    neutralize the area with a low pH fabric rinse
    and test the textile again with a mild cleaning
    solution (such as Carpet and Upholstery Shampoo
    having pH close to 7).
  • Test for crocking by rubbing a clean white towel
    against the dry material. If there is a color
    transfer, you may want to use a dry cleaning

Pre-Existing ConditionsLook for the following
pre-existing conditions
  • Carpet stretched in poorly.
  • Heavy wear patterns and matting.
  • Deeply soiled carpets and upholstery may have
    permanent damage that regular restorative
    cleaning will not take care of. Permanent stains
    cannot be removed without removing textile dyes.
  • Physical damages torn seams, holes, rips,
    delamination, dry rot, mildew damage, burns,
    frays, damaged tips, sun fading/fume fading.
  • Upholstery can have structural damage such as
    deterioration of foam padding in the cushions
    (check for ink marks on the inside cushion foam
    as well), damaged zippers, loose or missing
    buttons, stability of the frame or springs, and
    missing arm covers.

QuestionsOne of the biggest complaints of
customers is poor communication. Know what to
discuss with customers, then everyone involved
will be happier.
  • The following questions are good to ask
  • Has the carpet/upholstery been cleaned before and
    how was it cleaned?
  • Are there any spots or stains that I need to be
    aware of?
  • Is the carpet/upholstery under warranty?
  • How old is the carpet/upholstery?
  • Are there special drying time requirements?
  • What type of carpet/upholstery is it? Are there
    tags or labels that came with the product?
  • Use these questions, plus the information you
    find while pretesting to document any problems
    that you have identified. For carpet, document
    problems on the invoice and ask the customer and
    ask the customer to initial the statements to
    indicate he or she is aware of the conditions.
    For upholstery or draperies, use the Upholstery,
    Textile and Drapery Condition Report.

Pretesting Review Questions
  • Which fiber will dissolve in Chlorine Bleach?
  • Why is the Upholstery, Textile and Drapery
    Condition Report used?
  • Which synthetic fiber floats on water?
  • Why do you pretest?
  • How do you perform a shrinkage test?
  • How do you test for crocking?
  • How do you test for bleeding?
  • What do you look for when doing a burn test?
  • What is the point of doing a burn test?
  • What type of things should you look for when
    inspecting carpet? Upholstery?

Carpet Construction
Types of Backings
  • Synthetic Backings
  • Synthetic backing material is made from
    polypropylene. Synthetic backings are much more
    common in todays carpets.
  • Jute Backings
  • Jute tends to shrink after wetting and can cause
    brown tannin dyes to bleed into the carpet face
    yarns as it dries. This staining is called
    cellulosic browning.

How Tufted Carpet is Created
  • The tufting machine used in making carpet has
    rows of needles above the primary backing with
    yarn threaded through the eyes of the needles.
    Devices called loopers are underneath the primary
    backing. The needles punch through the primary
    backing, bringing the yarn with them. As the
    needles come through the primary backing, loopers
    slide through the loops of yarn and hold them as
    the needles are pulled back up through the
    primary backing. The primary backing advances
    like a conveyor belt and pulls the loop of yarn
    off the looper. In loop pile carpets, the loop
    is left uncut and becomes the finished tuft for
    the face of the carpet.

Cut Pile
  • Pile tips which are trimmed or cut are known at
    cut pile. Cut pile carpets have many different
    styles, but one thing remains the same
  • The tufted ends are cut not looped.

4 Main Types of Cut Pile Carpets
  • Velvet Plush cut piles have very little twist in
    the yarns.
  • Frieze cut piles are very tightly twisted.
  • Saxony Plush has a appearance between velvet
    plush and frieze.
  • Shag carpets are cut pile, but the tufts are much
    longer than in other types of cut pile.

Loop Pile
  • In Level Loop carpets, pile loops are all the
    same height, and the loops are not cut. This
    makes a smooth and level surface that offers good
    wearing qualities.
  • In Multi-Level loop carpets there are 2 or more
    heights of loops.
  • Some other types of loop pile is Berber and
  • Cut and Loop.
  • Combining cut pile with loop pile can create a
    mixture of surface textures

Woven CarpetsWarp and Weft
  • Warp yarns are the yarns that run lengthwise in a
    woven carpet. These are the yarns that are
    initially loaded into a loom.
  • Weft yarns (also called filler yarns) run across
    the width of a woven carpet. These are the yarns
    that are woven into the already existing warp

Types of Weaves
  • Axminster Weave
  • To identify an Axminster carpet, look for the
    stiff fibers (sometimes referred to as wires)
    that create an easily identifiable heavy-ridged
    backing. Try rolling the carpet in a sidewise
    direction and in a lengthwise direction. If the
    carpet is difficult to roll sidewise but rolls
    easily lengthwise, it is likely that it is an
    Axminster carpet. Almost all other carpets can be
    rolled easily in either direction.
  • Wilton Weaves
  • To identify a Wilton weave, examine a cut edge
    from a Wilton woven carpet. Note the buried yarns
    that alternate with surface colors. The pile will
    be denser and the carpet tighter than other

Other Types of Carpet Construction
Needlepunched Carpets
  • Needlepunched carpet is made by first laying down
    many strands of carpet fiber in loose random
    fashion until the layer reaches a specific
    height. A solid sheet of polypropylene is then
    placed over this blanket of fibers, and more
    layers of fibers are placed on top of this sheet.
    A machine with thousands of needles punch
    through these layers of carpet fibers on the top
    and bottom of the polypropylene sheet. As the
    needles punch through the polypropylene sheet,
    they pull fibers with them. The fibers are
    interlocked with each other and with the sheet.
    More layers of fiber are spread on top and bottom
    of the polypropylene sheet, and the needlepunch
    process is repeated. This process is repeated
    until the carpet reaches the thickness desired.

Fusion Bonded Carpets
  • In fusion bonded carpets, the thick back-coating
    of thermoplastic or PVC rubberized material is
    used in place of a secondary backing. These are
    most commonly a level loop type carpet. They are
    designed for glue-down installations without
    carpet padding.

Carpet Pad
  • Rebond is made from multicolored chunks of foam
    rubber that are glued together to form a pad.
  • Foam padding is a solid sheet of foam rubber
  • Waffle padding is so named because it has a
    pattern of mountains and valleys that look like a

Carpet Installations
  • Tackless
  • Direct glue-down
  • Double glue-down
  • In a tackless installation, the pad is cut to fit
    the room, taped to the floor, and then the seams
    in the pad are taped. The carpet is not attached
    to the pad, it is simply stretched over the top
    and attached to tackless strips around the edges
    of the room. The smooth side of the pad faces up
    to make installation easier. This is the
    installation type that you will find most often
    in homes.
  • In a direct glue-down installation, the carpet is
    cut to fit the room, adhesive is applied to the
    floor, and the carpet is glued directly to the
    floor. This is the type of installation you will
    find most often in commercial buildings.
  • In a double glue-down, the pad is glued to the
    floor and the carpet is glued to the pad. This
    type of installation is also found in commercial

Carpet construction Review Questions
  • What are the 4 components used to make tufted
  • When you encounter a jute carpet backing, what
    are two things you should be aware of?
  • What is a fusion bonded carpet?
  • How is a loop pile carpet made? How is a cut
    pile made?
  • What is the difference between a weft yarn and a
    warp yarn?
  • What are the different types of cut-pile carpets?
  • How do you identify a Wilton weave? An Axminster
  • How is a needle-punched carpet made?
  • What are the 3 major types of carpet pad?
  • What is the difference between tackless
    installations, direct glue-down installations,
    and double glue-down installations?

Carpet Cleaning Methods
  • Regular Vacuuming
  • 79 of soils are removed by vacuuming!

Steps Necessary in All Carpet Cleaning Jobs
  • Vacuuming
  • Pilating
  • Pre-Spotting
  • Moving Furniture

Safety and General Precautions
  • It is necessary to have a current MSDS on the van
    for each product on the van
  • Always mix product by using a measuring cup!
  • Take special precautions to protect children and
  • Do not lay hoses on top of plants or shrubbery.
    Heat from the solution hoses can damage plants.
    If possible, lay hoses on the sidewalk.
  • Wrap a cleaning towel around metal hose fittings
    to protect the carpet.
  • For maximum safety, personal protective equipment
    (PPE) needed for carpet and upholstery cleaning
    includes splash goggles, vapor/particle
    respirator (especially if you are dealing with
    solvents), and chemical resistant gloves.

  • Carpet Cleaning
  • Job Overview

  • Meet and greet the customer (if the customer
    likes your professional and positive approach in
    the beginning, 90 of the job is done.
  • Preview the area to be cleaned and pretest.
  • Talk about and qualify cleaning results with the
  • Get all paperwork signed. Dont start work
    without a signed authorization.
  • Set Retail Spotting Kit and Thank You Card on
    table or kitchen counter. The Retail Spotting Kit
    is a great add-on sale.
  • Select an area to set up equipment and mix
    cleaning agents and get approval from the
    customer. Makes sure pets and children are kept
    away from the setup area. Always use a tarp that
    will protect the floor.
  • Get permission for a location to dispose of
    cleaning wastes. The preferred location to
    dispose of cleaning wastes is in a toilet
    connected to a sanitary sewer line. NEVER DISPOSE
    (check local requirements).

  • Set up the room or area to be cleaned.
  • Pilate the carpet to help break up soils and
    correct matting problems.
  • Vacuum the carpet.
  • Put on personal protective equipment, mix
    products and test equipment in setup area.
  • Prespot stains and pretreat traffic areas if
  • Clean edges around the room by hand.
  • Clean the carpet using the appropriate method.
  • Reset furniture. DO NOT SET FURNITURE ON DAMP
    CARPETS. Use furniture pads or blocks to prevent
  • Do a walk-through with the customer and fix any
  • Ask the customer to fill out a Thank You Card and
    sign the Customer Satisfaction Statement.
  • Collect payment for jobs that are not on a
    scheduled billing system.
  • Load equipment and supplies back onto the van.

Carpet Cleaning Methods
  • Bonnet cleaning is the least aggressive cleaning
    method and is used when there is light soiling.
    It is commonly used for maintenance cleaning.

Bonnet Cleaning Video
  • eLearning Video

  • Shampoo cleaning is more aggressive than bonnet
    cleaning, but it is also more common for
    maintenance cleaning than for restorative
    cleaning. Shampoo cleaning works well when there
    is light to moderate soiling.

Hot Water Extraction
  • Hot water extraction is a
  • deep cleaning process. It uses a portable
    extractor or a truck mount to apply solution and
    then extract soils, moisture and cleaning product

Hot Water Extraction Video
  • eLearning Video

  • Deluxe preconditioner and rinse cleans more
    thoroughly than hot water extraction. In Deluxe
    preconditioner and rinse, carpet Pre-Spray is
    sprayed onto the carpet and allowed to work
    before it is extracted.

Deluxe Preconditioner and Rinse Video
  • eLearning Video

  • Showcase cleaning is the most effective cleaning
    process in the carpet cleaning industry. It is a
    two-step process--you are basically cleaning the
    carpet twice. The first step is to shampoo the
    carpet, mixing showcase cleaner and rinse with
    the carpet and upholstery shampoo. The second
    step is to rinse the carpet using an extractor
    and a clean water rinse or a solution of fabric
    rinse and color set.

Showcase Cleaning Video
  • eLearning Video

  • In absorbent cleaning, a cleaning compound (a
    damp powder made of cellulosic materials And
    cleaning agents) Is put onto the carpet and
    agitated into the fibers with counter rotating or
    rotary brushes. After it dries, the cleaning
    compound is vacuumed out of the carpet. Soils
    are absorbed by the cleaning agents and stick to
    the cellulosic particles. Very aggressive
    vacuuming using a vacuum cleaner with beater
    brushes or bars is required to remove the solid
    particles from the carpet.

Carpet Cleaning Methods Review Questions
  • What percent of soils will dry vacuuming pick up
    from carpet?
  • What paperwork must you have for each product you
    take to the job site?
  • What is the maximum amount of PPE needed for
    carpet cleaning?
  • When you pick a location for your staging area,
    what three things should you take into
  • What is the least aggressive carpet cleaning
    method that SERVPRO offers?
  • What is the most aggressive carpet cleaning
    method that SERVPRO offers?
  • What is the difference between Shampoo cleaning
    and Showcase cleaning?
  • What is the difference between Deluxe
    Preconditioner and Rinse cleaning and Rotary Jet
    Extraction cleaning?
  • What is Absorbent Compound cleaning?
  • What is the proper way to lay down a wand?

Upholstery and Drapery Construction
There are two ways to mix the fiber types.
Twisting two or more types of fibers together can
make a blended yarn.For example, cotton and
polyester fibers may be twisted together to make
a cotton-polyester yarn. Another way to make
blended fabrics is by weaving different types of
yarn together. Either way, it is very common for
upholstery and drapery fabrics to be made of more
than one type of fiber.
Weaving Fabrics
  • Warp yarns run across the length of a fabric.
  • Warp speed ahead
  • Weft yarn (or filling yarns) run across the width
    of a fabric. To remember weft yarns, think weft
    to right

Plain Weave
  • Plain weaves are the strongest weaves they
    stand up well to wear and use. The strength of
    plain weave fabrics lets cleaners use more
    aggressive cleaning methods. Agitation is not
    likely to damage the fabric.

Twill Weave
  • The twill weave has some yarns that pass over two
    or more yarns running in the opposite direction
    before passing back under. These yarns are
    called float yarns.

Jacquard Weaves
  • A Jacquard weave is easily recognized since the
    back side if the fabric will be the negative
    image of the front side.

  • Chintz fabrics normally has designs printed on a
    solid background of a plain weave fabric. Then a
    glaze is applied to give the fabric a sheen. The
    glaze may come off in cleaning, so dry cleaning
    is the preferred cleaning method for chintz

  • Quilted fabrics are made by sewing three layers
    of fabric together in a stitched pattern to
    create puffed areas.

Upholstery Construction
  • Platform
  • The platform (aka the deck) is the area where
    the cushions rest. The dyes in fabric covering
    the platform may not be colorfast. The platform
    can also easily water mark when wet. You should
    cover this fabric during cleaning to prevent
    water stains and to keep dyes from bleeding into
    other fabrics. If dye bleeding is not a concern,
    wet the platform evenly to avoid water marks.
    Put wax paper or plastic over the deck material
    before setting damp cushions on the deck.
  • Dust Cover
  • The dust cover is the material under the bottom
    of the piece of upholstery. The dust cover
    prevents insects and dust from getting inside the
    piece of furniture.

Drapery Construction
  • Cornice
  • A cornice is a wood box or fabric covered wood
    box covering the top of draperies and the
    draperies and the drapery rod area.
  • Pleat
  • Pleats are gathers of material on the front side
    of draperies used to form the folded effect at
    the top of draperies. Pleats may be formed by
    sewing or by pleater hooks.

Upholstery and Drapery Construction Review
  • What is the name of the yarn that runs lengthwise
    in woven fabrics?
  • What is the name of the yarn that runs across the
    width of the fabrics?
  • Which type of weave normally produces the
    strongest fabric?
  • What is the name for the material underneath
    upholstered furniture that prevents dust from
    getting inside the piece of furniture?
  • What do you call the gathers of material at the
    top front of draperies that give a folded effect?
  • What is a float yarn?
  • What should you do to protect the decking on a
    chair you are cleaning?
  • What are two methods of making a blended
  • What effect might hot cleaning solutions have on
    Chintz fabrics?
  • How do you identify a Jacquard weave?

Upholstery and Drapery Cleaning Methods
  • Upholstery
  • Foam/Shampoo
  • Haitian Cotton
  • Hot Water Extraction
  • Showcase
  • Machine Dry Clean
  • Hand Dry Clean
  • Dry-Wet-Dry
  • Drapery
  • Machine Dry Clean
  • Hot Water Extraction

General Precautions
  • Mistake 1High pH Solutions
  • Mistake 2Hot Cleaning Solutions with Unstable
  • Mistake 3Over wetting the Fabric
  • Mistake 4Uneven Application of Cleaning
  • Mistake 5Incomplete or Uneven Extraction
  • Mistake 6Removing Cushion Covers

General Precautions Continued
  • Make sure pets and children can be kept away from
    the set up area
  • Always use a tarp to protect the floor
  • Test equipment in the set up area
  • Never dispose of cleaning wastes on the customers
    lawn, driveway, septic tank or storm drain. It
    must be disposed of at an approved disposal site.
  • When items have a lot of pet hair or soot, use a
    dry cleaning sponge to remove most of residues
    before vacuuming.

General Procedures on Upholstery Cleaning
  • Always note any furniture defects (rips, tears,
    etc) on the invoice or Upholstery, Textile and
    Drapery Conditions Report and have the customer
    sign before work begins.
  • Always Pretest
  • Always Pre Vacuum
  • Be careful with buttons
  • Solvent Safety

  • Apply the shampoo to the fabric with either a
    natural sponge or the tampico upholstery brush.
  • Clean cushions first, then clean the inside back
    and arms of the upholstery.
  • Pilating is done on pile fabrics such as velvets
    or chenille. Flat weaves do not require pilating.

Haitian Cotton
  • The Haitian Cotton cleaning method is very
    similar to the shampoo method. The biggest
    difference is the cleaning agent. You use a
    different cleaning agent for Haitian and Tahitian
    cotton to prevent cellulosic browning in the
    fabric. Haitian cotton fibers have unprocessed
    portions of cottonseeds, stems and other
    materials that are very sensitive to cleaning
    agents. Water and cleaning agents can release
    the dyes in these unprocessed materials that
    bleed into the fibers and cause the fabric to
    turn a dingy brown color.

Hot Water Extraction
  • Hot water extraction is used on wet cleanable
    fabrics that are moderately soiled. The cleaning
    solution is heated and applied using an
    upholstery cleaning machine, portable extractor,
    or truck mount. The solution along with
    dissolved soils is then extracted. Hot water
    extraction removes more soils from fabrics than
    the shampoo/foam method.

  • Showcase cleaning is the most aggressive
    upholstery cleaning process available. For wet
    cleanable fabrics that are heavily soiled,
    Showcase cleaning is the appropriate method.
    Upholstery that has been contaminated with soot
    from a fire damage is most often cleaned by the
    showcase method.

Machine Dry Solvent
  • Some fabrics are sensitive to wet cleaning
    processes and must be cleaned with a solvent.
    Machine dry cleaning is the most effective way to
    clean fabrics with a solvent. You can apply more
    agitation to the fabric with machine dry cleaning
    than you can with hand dry cleaning. Machine dry
    cleaning also rinses and vacuums emulsified soils
    from the fabric. Machine dry cleaning cannot be
    used with certain fabrics. Fabrics with acrylic
    backing cannot be dry cleaned. Solvent cleaners
    may damage the backing and ruin the fabric. Also
    delicate fabrics can be damaged by the upholstery
    machine and require hand dry cleaning.
  • Dry cleaning solvents may damage the finish on
    wood floors, wood furniture, baseboards, chair
    rails and all finished wood surfaces. Protect
    finished wood surfaces on upholstered furniture
    and around the work area. Blot off overspray
    from wood surfaces with a dry towel. DO NOT RUB!
    If overspray gets on flat wall paint or on
    window glass, leave it and let it dry. Dry
    cleaning solvent leaves no residue. Blotting or
    wiping these surfaces may damage the finish.

Hand Dry Solvent Cleaning
  • Fabrics that are not wet cleanable must be
    cleaned with solvents. If those same fabrics are
    also delicate they could be damaged by the
    upholstery machine. Use the hand dry cleaning
    method to
  • prevent abrasion and damage to the material.
  • Hand dry cleaner is a solvent based product for
    use on fabrics that might shrink or bleed if
    exposed to water based cleaners. This method is
    effective on light soiling conditions only. Hand
    dry cleaner will not clean heavy soil as
    effectively as shampoo, but will improve the
    appearance of most fabrics.

  • The dry-wet-dry method is a combination of wet
    cleaning and dry cleaning. Use this method on
    fabrics that cannot be cleaned with water based
    cleaning agents, but are soiled with soils that
    will not dissolve with solvent cleaners. For
    example syrup is water soluble and will not
    dissolve in dry cleaning solutions. If you had a
    couch with a syrup spill on it, dry cleaning will
    not remove the syrup. But if the dyes in the
    fabric bleed in water based solutions you cannot
    perform a stand wet cleaning process.
    Dry-wet-dry gives you an option to clean the
    syrup without damaging the fabric.

Upholstery Cleaning Methods Review Questions
  • Who should not have access to the area used for
    setting up equipment and cleaning agents?
  • What is the preferred location for disposing of
    normal upholstery cleaning wastes?
  • What is an effective way to remove pet hair from
    upholstery fabric?
  • Before cleaning upholstery or draperies, the
    technician should pre-qualify with the customer
    and note pre-existing conditions on what form?
  • When cleaning upholstery, which areas should be
    cleaned first?
  • Which type of fabric requires pilating after
  • To prevent damages to fabrics before dry cleaning
    upholstery, what should you always check?
  • If dry cleaning solvent overspray gets on flat
    wall paint while youre cleaning upholstery or
    draperies, what should you do?
  • The Shampoo upholstery cleaning method is MOST
    effective on what level of soiling?
  • Which upholstery cleaning method is appropriate
    for heavy soiling and is the most aggressive

Spot Removal
  • Spot removal is a vital part of all upholstery
    and carpet cleaning jobs. A job will be judged
    as a great success when the spots are gone.
  • Sometimes people use the terms
  • spot, stain, and discoloration
  • to mean the same thing. As professional
    cleaners, we need to know the difference between
    the terms.

  • Spot- is something that adds body or substance to
    fibers. Materials such as food, oil, wax, and
    gum leave residues on fibers that can be felt and
  • Stain- a substance that adds color to fibers.
    Materials such as ink, wine, fruit juice, and
    coffee are examples of staining substances.
  • Discoloration-is the loss of color from fibers.

Overview of Spot Removal Procedures
  • Step 1 remove excess spotting material. A
    SERVPRO tech will often deal with older spots.
    Always try to remove excess spotting material
    first. Vacuum, scoop or blot as much material as
    possible before wetting the spot or applying a
    spotting agent.
  • Step 2 Determine type of soil in the spot or
  • Step 3 Determine the type of fiber
  • Step 4 qualify with the customer and never
    guarantee bold spot removal
  • Step 5 select spotting agent and remember, like
    dissolves like, start dry and go to wet and start
    with the least aggressive agent.
  • Step 6 apply the spotting agent
  • Step 7 rinse, extract and neutralize
  • Step 8 dry the area

Tips for Successful Spotting
  • Take your time when spotting spotting agents
    need time to work, and applying more spotting
    agents to speed up the process may damage the
    fibers or backing material. Also, excess spotting
    agent may stick to surface later and attract
    soils. Dont scrub the spot to speed up the
    process! Too much agitation may damage fibers,
    making the spot look worse than before.
  • Leaving textiles in a mildly acidic state may
    help stabilize dyes and reduce potential for
    bleeding as the textile dries.

Examples of Water Soluble Soils
  • Sugar
  • Syrup
  • Starchy foods
  • Candy
  • Water based lipstick and cosmetics

Examples of Protein Soils
  • Blood
  • Egg
  • Vomit
  • Urine
  • Feces
  • Milk
  • Ice Cream

Examples of Tannin Stains
  • Coffee
  • Tea
  • Soda
  • Beer
  • Fruit juice
  • Mixed drinks

Examples of Color Adding Stains
  • Red Wine
  • Fruit Juice
  • Mustard
  • Some Inks

Examples of Volatile Solvent-Soluble Soils
  • Light Oils
  • Grease
  • Tar
  • Asphalt
  • Carbon Paper
  • Copier Toner
  • Latex Adhesives
  • Airplane Glue
  • Candle Wax
  • Chewing Gum

Examples of Nonvolatile Solvent-Soluble Soils
  • Dried Paint
  • Floor Wax
  • Latex Glue
  • Indelible Ink
  • Crayons
  • Lipstick
  • Nail Polish
  • Varnish

Example of Rust Stains
  • Rust

Spot Removal Review Questions
  • What are soils classified as when they add
    substance and can be felt on fabrics?
  • What are soils classified as when they have no
    texture and cannot be felt on fabrics?
  • What is the first step in spot removal?
  • When qualifying spot removal with a customer, in
    what situation would you guarantee spot removal
  • If you do not know what type of soil is in a
    spot, should you start with a water-based
    spotting agent or a dry solvent spotting agent?
  • To remove a spot of shoe polish, should you use a
    volatile solvent spotting agent, a nonvolatile
    spotting agent, or a water-based spotting agent?
  • After using a nonvolatile spotting agent, do you
    rinse with Citric Acid or with a volatile
    spotting agent?
  • What might happen if you try to speed up the spot
    removal process by applying a lot of spotting
    agent? What might happen if you scrub the spot?
  • What part of a spot should you work on first in
    order to prevent the spot from spreading to a
    larger area during the spot removal process?
  • When finished removing a spot and rinsing the
    area, should the surface be left strongly acidic,
    slightly acidic, slightly alkaline, or strongly

  • Color fading in textiles may be caused by
    several things. Dye stability, sunlight, wear,
    fume fading, and spills from bleaching agents are
    some for the most common reasons for color
    fading. Some colors can fade in areas exposed to
    direct sunlight.
  • Fume fading is caused by gases from cooking,
    heating systems and other gases in the
  • Color loss can occur when bleaching agents
    contact a textile

  • There is no real solution for color loss or
    fading. These are typically pre-existing
    conditions and must be carefully noted on the
    Upholstery, Textile and Drapery Condition Report.
    Once colors have been removed or damaged the only
    way to replace them is to re-dye the fabric.

  • Bleeding occurs when dyes are loosened by the
    cleaning agent and begin to run into other parts
    of the fabric.
  • The primary way to prevent color bleeding is to
  • If colors begin to bleed during cleaning, stop
    and immediately apply a slightly acid rinse like
    a Fabric Rinse and Color Set
  • product.

Yellowing ProblemsSoiling
  • Soils like animal urine, oils, cigarette smoke,
    cosmetics, lotions, and do-it-yourself upholstery
    and carpet cleaning products can cause color
    change in dyes. If the soil was deposited in a
    particular spot, yellowing or discoloration is
    typically in that spot, but discoloration from
    cigarette smoke and cleaning solutions may be
    over most of the fabric.
  • Yellowing caused by soils such as cigarette smoke
    or animal urine may be removed by cleaning.

Streaking Problems
  • The way to avoid streaks is to avoid overwetting,
    to extract the upholstery well, and pilate
    (especially on velvets).

Browning, Spots and Stains
  • Older fabrics, excessive moisture and long drying
    periods increase the likelihood of browning.
  • Browning from previous cleanings or water damage
    may sometimes be removed by cleaning upholstery
    fabric with an upholstery shampoo that contains
    bleaching agents (such as Haitian Cotton
    Upholstery Shampoo). If Haitian Cotton Upholstery
    Shampoo does not work, use Carpet and Upholstery
    Shampoo mixed with a Brown Out product that
    removes brown stains
  • Make sure to pretest first Brown Out can bleach
    a textile bright white. Regardless of the
    products you use, limit the amount of moisture on
    the fabric by using the foam cleaning method.

Recurring Spots
  • Spots sometimes reappear quickly after spot
  • The key to preventing spots from reappearing is
    to remove soils and cleaning agents. Rinsing and
    extracting are critical. Several rinse and
    extraction passes may be needed to remove all
    residues completely.
  • You may also pack the area with Stain Absorb
    Powder. This will allow soils to wick into the
    powder instead of drying in the fibers.

Latent Stains
  • What do you do when you see no stains as you
    first examine a piece of carpet or upholstery,
    but stains appear as you clean and the carpet
    becomes wet?
  • These stains are called Latent Stains and they
    typically appear as a lighter color (like a spot
    that has been bleached out).
  • Normally, you can do nothing to reverse these
    stains. The damage was done before you arrived.

Problems Specific to Carpet
Filtration Soiling
  • Filtration soiling is caused by air being forced
    through a carpet, around the edges of carpet, or
    between doors and carpets. Air contains soils
    such as smoke, cooking oils, dust, smog and other
    pollutants. The carpet acts as a filter as air
    passes through and soils are deposited in the
    fibers and backings.
  • Filtration soiling looks like sharp,
    well-defined, dark gray or black lines around the
    edges of walls, under doors, or even in the
    middle of the room.

Improper Carpet InstallationIf a carpet is not
installed properly, you may come across the
following problems
  • Waves or wrinkles develop in the carpet after
    cleaning due to poor stretching.
  • Seams come apart and delaminate in the area of
    the seam.
  • Edges of carpet in the seam were not glued
    (buttered) before seaming and pile tufts are
    missing or come out during cleaning.
  • Carpet pile direction is reversed causing the
    carpet to have different shades of coloring.
  • Carpet is not properly attached to tackless strip
    or edging strips.

Apparent Soils
  • Apparent soils are not actually soils, but
    conditions that look like soil.
  • Wear actually occurs when there is a loss of
    fibers from the textile causing other fibers to
    not stand up properly. Even when pilated, fibers
    may lay back over quickly.
  • Worn textiles may look matted (even though
    matting is usually caused by heavy soiling).
  • Cleaning can reverse most matting problems, but
    cannot reverse wear problems.

Troubleshooting Review Questions
  • What is the only way to fix color bleaching or
    color loss?
  • What can a technician do to avoid bleeding
  • What are some possible causes of yellowing?
  • How can you avoid leaving streaks in fabrics?
  • How can you correct cellulosic browning?
  • How do you fix a recurring spot?
  • What is a latent stain?
  • What types of problems are caused by improper
    carpet installation?
  • What is wear?
  • What causes filtration soiling?

Job Process
  • The overall process for completing an upholstery
    or carpet cleaning job in a commercial or
    residential setting is very similar, regardless
    of the cleaning method being performed. Each job
    will have unique characteristics, but the basic
    process is the same.

Authorization to Perform Services
  • For basic residential and commercial jobs, the
    crew chief makes sure the customer signs the
    authorization to perform services line on the
    SERVPRO Invoice before beginning work. Never
    start work without an authorization! The SERVPRO
    owner will notify you if there is an exception to
    this rule.

  • Do not total the invoice until AFTER all
    production work has been completed. This allows
    you an opportunity to write in any add-on
    services and/or retail sales during the job.
    Once all changes have been made, total the

Production Guidelines
  • Production guidelines will guide you through the
    steps of each production process. The crew chief
    should review the EZ Production Guideline for
    each type of service being performed.

  • The crew chief will review the inventory list to
    be sure everything needed for the day is loaded
    onto the truck.
  • The inventory list should be used to verify
    products, equipment, accessories and safety
    equipment needs.

Vehicle Location
  • Do not block the customers
  • Vehicle in or park a van
  • Leaking oil on a driveway.
  • Do not park in basement
  • Garages, carports, or
  • Where exhaust can enter a building.
  • When possible, the van should be placed
  • Where neighbors can see it to advertise

Follow SERVPROS standard production rules and
customers will be impressed with SERVPROS
  • No Smoking Never smoke or use chewing tobacco on
    the job site.
  • Uniforms Always dress in proper uniform at a job
    site. NEVER take off your shirt and make sure it
    is tucked in.
  • Safety Always wear the appropriate PPE and take
    proper safety measures on the job site. Product
    and equipment staging areas must be kept out of
    reach of pets and children. Ask customers to
    remove pets from the area if necessary. Put lids
    back on product bottles.
  • Language Profanity is strictly prohibited.
    Conversations should be work related customers
    do not want to know about our personal business.
  • Telephone Do not use a customers telephone. If
    a business-related emergency arises, ask
    permission and be as brief as possible. Never
    answer a customers phone.
  • Privacy/Security Do not enter areas that are not
    being cleaned. Always ask permission before
    opening a closed door.

Crew Rules Continued
  • Bathroom Use Always ask permission to use a
    customers bathroom. Leave the toilet and sink
    clean. Never use a customers towels (use a
    SEVPRO towel or paper towels).
  • Courtesy Always listen to the customer with full
    attention. Treat customers like you would want
    to be treated. Remember, the customer is the
    person who makes it possible for us to earn a
    living! They deserve to receive the best possible
  • Drug and Alcohol Use NEVER use drugs or alcohol
    on the job. Politely refuse if customers offer
    you drugs or alcohol.

Customer GreetingandJob Preview
  • Everyone in the crew should go to the front door
    and greet the customer.

The Security Check
  • With the security check we notify each neighbor
    for security purposes that SERVPRO is working in
    their neighborhood.
  • We give each neighbor a SERVPRO Professional
    Cleaning Services brochure, telling about the
    services we perform.

Pretest and Qualify
  • Pretesting should be done even if the estimator
    has pretested during the estimate.
  • The crew chief must always pretest.
  • If a helper is on a job, use the pretesting as a
    training opportunity.
  • If the pretest shows any possible problems, talk
    to the customer so everyone clearly understands
    the results.
  • Customers may be disappointed if you promise
    great results and fall short.
  • Instead promise less and try to do more for the
    customer. This means Under Promise and Over

Add-On Sales
  • An add-on sale is an attempt to provide
    additional services to customers who already have
    work being performed.

Tips for Offering Add-ons
  • When offering an add-on service to a customer,
    offer services that you can complete while you
    are there. Introduce one add-on service at a
    time and discuss the Features, Advantages and
    Benefits (FAB) of that service. Use SERVPRO
    Specification sheets to outline the FAB.
  • Only offer cleaning services that are truly
    needed and will be of value to the customer.
  • Features
  • What it is
  • Advantages
  • What it does
  • Benefits
  • What it does for you

Customer Walk-Through
  • The customer walk-through is done to make sure
    the customer is happy with the job.
  • Ask the customer to check the work and verify
    that furniture and contents have been returned to
    the proper place.
  • Do the walk-through before breaking down
    equipment and reloading. This make it much
    easier if you need to re-clean an area.

Job Process Review Questions
  • Why should the SERVPRO invoice not be totaled
    before the production crew leaves for the job?
  • How does a residential customer give
    authorization for you to perform services?
  • How can you be sure you have all required
    cleaning agents, supplies and equipment on the
    van for a job?
  • When parking the van at a job site,what parking
    locations should you avoid?
  • When the production crew first arrives at a job
    site, who should go to the door to greet the
  • What is the purpose of a security check?
  • If an estimator or salesperson has already
    pretested the items to be cleaned, what must the
    crew chief do before cleaning?
  • Wh
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