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The Height of Greek Civilization

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Title: The Height of Greek Civilization


1
The Height of Greek Civilization
  • Chapter 5
  • World History

2
Chapter Themes
  • Innovation The ancient Greeks developed a
    culture that becomes one of the foundations of
    Western civilization
  • The Parthenon

3
Chapter Themes
  • Innovation Ancient Greek thinkers believe in
    reason and the importance of the individual
  • Socrates

4
Chapter Themes
  • Cultural Diffusion Alexanders empire brings
    about a mix of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures
  • Alexander the Great

5
Quest for beauty and meaning
  • This section discusses the Mid-400s B.C., Greeks
    Golden Age. Artists excelled in architecture,
    sculpture, and painting. These beautiful yet
    simplistic works are termed classical. Writers
    and thinkers also made enduring achievements in
    literature and drama.

6
Terms to Define
  • Classical
  • Sanctuary
  • Perspective
  • Amphora
  • Tragedy
  • Comedy

7
People to Meet
  • Myron
  • Phidias
  • Praxiteles
  • Aeschylus
  • Sophocles
  • Euripides
  • Aristophanes
  • m

8
Places to Locate
  • Olympia

9
Building for the Gods
  • The Greeks were lovers of the beautiful
  • City-states tried to turn acropolis into
    architectural treasure

10
Building for the Gods
  • The Parthenonthe temple to the goddess
    Athena--built on the summit of the Acropolis in
    Athensbest exemplifies classical Greek
    architecture

11
Building for the Gods
  • Parthenon of Athens built under the rule of
    Pericles
  • Started 447 B.C. and finished 432 B.C.
  • Classical is characterized by beautiful
    simplicity and graceful balance.
  • Iron in its marble makes it gleam in the sun

12
Building for the Gods
  • The Parthenons graceful proportions perfectly
    balance width, length, and height, exemplifying
    the Greek ideal of the golden mean
  • This was part of the Golden Age of Greece

13
Building for the Gods
  • Greeks worshipped in their homes or out doors.
    So their temples were built for the homes of
    their gods.

14
Building for the Gods
  • Parthenon represented the Golden Mean
  • nothing to excess
  • midpoint between two extremes

15
Building for the Gods
  • Greeks understood perspective
  • Columns thicker in middleappear straight from
    all angles
  • Steps lower in center--appears straight
  • Creating perception of perfection

16
Classical Greek Art
  • Copied by the Romans
  • Set lasting standards
  • Other achievements in literature, art, drama,
    etc., many considered classics today.
  • Many Europes traditions/cultural standards began
    with Golden Age

17
Greek Arts
  • Greeks emphasized the individualthus excelled at
    portraying the human form
  • In both painting and sculpture, the Greeks
    excelled at portraying the human form.
  • Poseidon

18
Greek Art
  • They did paint murals but non survived. Their
    works are captured on vases
  • Large vases were called amphora and normally uses
    for wine or oils
  • Painting on vases were everyday scenes

19
Greek Arts
  • Greek sculpture, like Greek architecture, reached
    its height in Athens during the time of Pericles
  • The great sculpture Phidias was in charge of the
    Parthenons sculptures and carved the towering
    statue of Athena that was placed inside.

20
Greek Arts
  • Praxiteles work reflected the changes incurred
    from the Peloponnesian War
  • Sculptures were life-size, graceful, not powerful
  • Ordinary people and deities and heroes.

21
Sculpting the Human Body
  • Myron depicted what people should look like
    rather than actual persons
  • Carved Discus Thrower
  • Phidias carved the statue of Athena in the Athens
    Parthenon

22
Impact of War on Art
  • Praxiteles carved ordinary people into life-sized
    statues
  • Loss of self confidence
  • Emphasis of grace over power
  • Before the Peloponnesian War, artists carved only
    deities and heroes. After, they carved ordinary
    people

23
Drama and Theater
  • The Greeks were the first people to write and
    perform plays, presented twice a year to honor
    Dionysus.
  • The earliest Greek plays were tragedies, in which
    the lead character struggles against fate only to
    be doomed to an unhappy ending

24
Aeschylus
  • First of great writers of tragedies
  • Aeschyluss (EHSkuhluhs) Oresteia trilogy
    show how the consequences of ones deeds are
    carried down generation to generation
  • Its moral is that the law of the community, not
    personal revenge, should decide punishment

25
Sophocles
  • Sophocles, the next generation, accepted human
    suffering as unavoidable but stressed human
    courage and compassion
  • His Oedipus Rex depicts the plight of Oedipus,
    a king doomed to kill his father and marry his
    mother.

26
Sophocles
  • Despite Oedipus efforts to avoid his fate, the
    deities decree comes true
  • When he discovers what he has done, he blinds
    himself and goes into exile

27
Euripides
  • Euripides, the last great Greek tragedian,
    focused on the human characteristics that bring
    disaster to them Euripides hated war and many of
    his plays show the tragedy that war brings

28
A Comedy Tonight
  • Eventually the Greeks also wrote comedies, plays
    with humorous themes and happy ending
  • Aristophanes (aruhSTAHfuhNEEZ), the most
    famous writer of comedies, created imaginative
    social satire

29
A Comedy Tonight
  • Aristophanes works included witty comments about
    leading figures and issues of the day
  • Theater at Delphi

30
The Olympic Games
  • Greeks believed healthy bodies made best use of
    natures gifts
  • Hercules by Phidias

31
The Olympic Games
  • Greeks stressed athletics in school curriculum
  • Men spend leisure time in polis gymnasium

32
The Olympics
  • Olympic Games were held in Olympia every 4 years
  • Olympics were religious festival in honor of Zeus
  • Trading and fighting stopped

33
The Olympic Games
  • Athletes came from all over Greek-speaking world
  • Women not permitted, even as spectators
  • Womens games in honor of Hera held in different
    location

34
The Olympic Games
  • Consistent with Greek emphasis on the individual,
    there were individual rather than team events
  • Foot races at first
  • Later, broad jump, discuss, jumping, boxing,
    javelin, etc.

35
The Olympic Games
  • Winners were crowned with wreaths of olive leaves
  • Parades held in honor of winners
  • Sometimes, taxes were dismissed

36
The Greek mind
  • Greeks believed the mind could understand
    everything. Philosophers, or thinkers, produced
    remarkable ideas. Philosophy means, the seeking
    of wisdom. A foundation was laid for new
    disciplines like history, political science,
    biology, and logicthe science of reasoning

37
Terms to Define
  • Philosopher
  • Logic
  • Hygiene

38
People to Meet
  • Sophists
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Herodotus
  • Thucydides
  • Thales
  • Pythagoras
  • Hippocrates

39
The Sophists
  • In 400s B.C., education provided by sophists
  • Sophists knowers
  • Traveled polis to polis
  • Claimed they could find answers to all questions

40
The Sophists
  • Rejected gods/goddesses influenced behavior
  • No absolute moral/legal standards
  • Man is measure of all things
  • Truth different for each person

41
The Sophists
  • Took money for teaching
  • Interested in teaching argumentation to get ahead
  • Socrates and Plato criticized them

42
Socrates
  • Born 479 B.C., Athenian
  • Sculptor by trade
  • Spent time teaching
  • Believed in absolute truth
  • Attracted to process of learningteaching
    thinking for oneself

43
Socrates
  • Teaching method became known as Socratic Method
  • Ask questions of students and then oppose their
    answers with logic
  • Forced students to defend their answers

44
Socrates
  • Prominent Athenians accused him of corrupting
    youth
  • not worshipping the gods
  • Socrates argued the search for intellectual truth
    was the most important thing

45
Socrates
  • Dont calculate living or dying, only doing
    right or wrong
  • Jury of citizens found him guilty and sentenced
    him to death

46
Socrates
  • Had the right to ask for a lesser sentence, e.g.,
    exile, but chose to follow the law to the letter
  • Drank poisonous hemlock and died quietly among
    friends

47
Plato
  • Born Athenian aristocrat
  • After Socrates death
  • At age 30, opened his Academy and taught
  • Existed until A.D. 529
  • Student of Socrates

48
Plato
  • From memory, remembered dialogues between
    Socrates and students
  • Wrote first political science book
  • The Republic
  • Ideal society and government

49
Plato
  • Plato disliked Athenian democracy
  • Preferred Spartan government
  • Service to community above self
  • Too much freedom breeds disorder
  • Distrusted lower classes
  • Only best educated and most intelligent should
    participate in government

50
Plato
  • Plato believed in searching for truth
  • Rejected the senses hearing, feeling, seeing,
    etc.
  • Believed many things thought to be senses were
    only appearance
  • Real world was ideas or ideal forms
  • Could only be understood through logical thought
    or reasoning

51
Aristotle
  • Studied with Plato at the Academy for 20 years
  • Tutored Alexander the Great
  • Opened Athenian school called Lyceum

52
Aristotle
  • Wrote more than 200 books
  • Astronomy
  • Poetry
  • Political Science
  • Weather
  • Etc.

53
Aristotle
  • Italian poet Dante called him, the master of
    those who know
  • Influenced later philosophers with work in logic
  • Developed the syllogism
  • Does the conclusion follow the premises

54
Aristotle and Science
  • Great influence on scientific work
  • First person to observe and then classify facts
  • According to differences and similarities
  • Views and methods of inquiry dominated European
    scientific thinking for decades

55
Aristotle and Government
  • Wrote about political science
  • No theories on ideal government
  • Analyzed governments of many city-states
  • Wrote a book, Politics
  • Democracies, oligarchies, and tyrannies were all
    workable, depending on circumstances
  • Preferred power in middle class
  • Middle class knew both command and obey

56
Writers of History
  • Until 400s, Greeks considered literary legends as
    history
  • Herodotus, first Greek historian, and later,
    Thucydides, attempted to separated fact from
    fiction

57
Herodotus
  • Historians consider him, the father of history
  • Chose the Persian Wars as this subject
  • Wrote Historia
  • Meant investigation

58
Herodotus
  • Traveled throughout the Greek world
  • Asked questions, checked sources
  • Accepted some untrue numbers
  • Sometimes offered supernatural explanations

59
Herodotus
  • Didnt limit himself to political or military
    events
  • Wrote about individuals, social customs,
    religious beliefs and practices
  • Later historians learned much about culture of
    the period and civilizations

60
Thucydides
  • Thucydides (thooSIHduhdeez) was second noted
    Greek historian
  • Wrote about Peloponnesian War
  • First scientific historian
  • Rejected deities as part of historical outcome
  • Visited battle sites, carefully examined
    documents, and only accepted evidence of actual
    eye witnesses

61
Thucydides
  • Offered explanations of why events took place
  • What motivated political leaders
  • Believed future generations could learn from the
    past

62
The First Scientists
  • Great science heritage
  • Believed world ruled by natural laws
  • Believed humans could discover the laws
  • By reason
  • Through observation and thought
  • Developed theories

63
Greek Mathematicians
  • First to distinguish math as pure science
  • Constructed systematic methods of reasoning
    through mathfinding truth

64
Greek Mathematicians
  • Thales, first prominent Greek scientist
  • Studied astronomy in Babylon and mathematics in
    Egypt
  • Foretold solar eclipses
  • Theory that water was basic substance of all
    things

65
Greek Mathematicians
  • Pythagoras tried to explain everything in math
    terms
  • Wrote the Pythagorean Theorem
  • Taught world was round and revolved around fixed
    point

66
Greek Medicine
  • Hippocrates
  • the father of medicine
  • Diseases had natural, not supernatural causes
  • The body could heal itself
  • First doctor to view medicine as science,
    separate from religion or mythology

67
Greek Medicine
  • Hippocrates
  • Based much on observation
  • Traveled Greece diagnosing/treating illnesses
  • Urged good recordkeeping and information exchange
    among doctors
  • Advocated good hygiene, sound diet, and rest
  • Drafted ethical code still recited today, The
    Hippocratic Oath

68
Alexanders Empire
  • The Persians under Darius I and Xerxes tried to
    conquer Greece and failed. The Macedonians, led
    by Alexander the Great, would not.

69
Terms to Define
  • Domain

70
People to Meet
  • Philip II
  • Demosthenes
  • Alexander the Great
  • Zeno
  • Menander
  • Eratosthenes
  • Euclid
  • Archimedes

71
Rise of Macedonia
  • Macedonians, like the Spartans, were descended
    from the Dorians
  • Greeks looked down on them as backward
    mountaineers
  • Phillip II

72
Rise of Macedonia
  • Philip II became king 359 B.C.
  • As youth, Greek hostage in Thebes 3 years
  • Admired Greek culture and military organization

73
Rise of Macedonia
  • As king, Philip had three goals
  • Create strong army
  • Unify Greek city-states under Macedonia
  • Destroy Persian empire

74
Rise of Macedonia
  • Philip reorganized his army to phalanx system
  • 16 rows deep
  • Philip pursued goals for 23 years
  • Polis by polis
  • Conquering, bribing, marrying

75
Rise of Macedonia
  • Greek city-states weakened by Peloponnesian War
  • Would not cooperate in resistance
  • Great Athenian orator, Demosthenes, appealed to
    Greeks to fight for their liberty

76
Rise of Macedonia
  • Philip conquered all of Greece except Sparta
  • Before leading Greeks and Macedonians to war
    against Persia, he was murdered
  • Persian agent, or
  • Assassin hired by wife

77
Rise of Macedonia
  • With the death of Philip II, Olympiass son
    Alexander became king
  • Soon to become known as Alexander the Great

78
Alexander the Great
  • Only 20 as ruler of Macedonia and Greece
  • Commander in Macedonian army at 16
  • Respected for courage and military skill
  • Well educatedtutored by Aristotle

79
Early Conquests
  • In 334 B.C., led 30,000 soldiers and 5,000
    cavalry into Asia
  • Opened his campaign
  • West against East
  • First major encounter at Granicus River

80
Early Conquests
  • At Granicus River, Alexander won
  • Sent 300 suits of Persian armor to Athens as
    tribute to Athena
  • Freed Ionian city-states from Persians

81
Early Conquests
  • Second major battle against Persians at Issus,
    Syria
  • Alexanders superb tactics won
  • King Darius III flees
  • Does not pursue Darius

82
Early Conquests
  • Captures Phoenician seaports
  • Cuts off Persian supplies
  • Persian fleet surrenders

83
Early Conquests
  • Invades Egypt
  • People tired of Persians
  • Declare Alexander a pharaoh
  • Establishes city of Alexandria

84
Final Campaigns
  • In 331 B.C., Alexander invaded Mesopotamia
  • Smashed Darius main army at Gaugamela near
    Tigris River
  • Went on to capture numerous cities in Persian
    empire

85
Final Campaigns
  • Alexander captures
  • Babylon
  • Persepolis
  • Susa
  • Darius killed by one of his generals
  • Alexander becomes ruler of Persian Empire

86
Imperial Goals
  • Alexanders original goal to punish Persia for
    invasion of Greece 150 years earlier
  • Alexanders view changed with the conquering of
    more land

87
Imperial Goals
  • Alexanders new vision
  • Create an empire that would unite Europe and Asia
  • Combine the best of Greek and Persian cultures
  • The culture Hellenistic

88
Imperial Goals
  • Alexander tried to promote goals through example
  • Wore Persian dress
  • Imitated Persian courts
  • Married daughter of Darius III
  • Encouraged 10,000 soldiers to marry Persian women

89
Imperial Goals
  • Alexanders examples (cont)
  • Enrolled 30,000 Persians in army
  • Founded 70 cities to spread Greek culture and
    language throughout empire

90
Divided Domain
  • After a short illness, Alexander died in Babylon,
    his chosen capital
  • Weakened from wounds, fever, and probably
    excessive alcohol, he died at the age of 32

91
Divided Domain
  • After Alexanders death, his empire is divided
    into three parts
  • Three of his generals each take a domain
    (territory)
  • Ptolemy
  • Seleucus
  • Antigonus

92
Divided Domain
  • Ptolemy
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Syria (part of)
  • Most famous Ptolemaic ruler was Cleopatra VII
    lost her kingdom to the Romans in 31 B.C.

93
Divided Domain
  • Seleucus
  • Syria (remainder)
  • Mesopotamia
  • Iran
  • Afganistan
  • Forced to give up eastern territory and withdraw
    to Syria

94
Divided Domain
  • Many Jews in the territory ordered to worship
    Greek deities
  • Judah Maccabees led reoccupation of Jerusalem
  • Temple rededicated
  • Commemorated by Hanukkah

95
Divided Domain
  • Kingdom of Judah was independent until Romans
    came
  • Seleucids ruled Syria until Romans came

96
Divided Domain
  • Antigonuss domain was Macedonia and Greece
  • City-states declared independence began fighting
    one another
  • In 100s B.C., Romans conquered Macedonia and
    Greece

97
Hellenistic Culture
  • Political unity of Alexanders empire left with
    his death
  • Greek language and culture would continue
  • Hellenistic culture flourished

98
City Life
  • Hellenistic culture concentrated in cities
  • Largest and wealthiest was Alexandria
  • Straight streets
  • White stucco palaces and temples

99
City Life
  • Double harbor could hold 1200 ships
  • Lighthouse visible for 35 miles
  • Alexandria also a major intellectual center

100
City Life
  • Alexandria
  • Library 1 mil volumes
  • Scientific research
  • Jewish scholars translated Hebrew Bible into
    Greek
  • Still used in Eastern Orthodox Church
  • Used by Apostle Paul

101
City Life
  • Greeks formed upper class of Alexandria and other
    cities through Hellenistic empire
  • Professional Greek soldiers moved to where ever
    they could find work

102
City Life
  • Social Status of Greek women improved
  • Women could move around freely
  • Learned to read/write
  • Entered occupations like real estate, banking and
    government

103
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Focused on how to achieve peace of mind
  • Three systems of thought
  • Cynicism
  • Epicureanism
  • Stoicism

104
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Diogenes was best known cynic
  • Criticized materialism
  • People should give up luxuries, live with nature

105
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Epicurus started epicureanism
  • Avoid joy and pain
  • Live simply
  • Live quietly
  • Have few close friends

106
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Zeno founded Stoicism
  • What happened to people governed by natural laws
  • Gain happiness by ignoring emotions
  • Follow reason
  • Accept difficult circumstances and do duty

107
Hellenistic Art and Literature
  • Hellenistic artists departed from Hellenic styles
  • No carvings of idealistic figures
  • People shown in grip of powerful emotions
  • Carved portrait headsart was now business

108
Hellenistic Art and Literature
  • Playwrights wrote comedies rather than tragedies
  • Menander most renowned playwright

109
Science, Medicine, and Mathematics
  • Hellenistic scientists produced experiments and
    new theories
  • Aristarchus (ARuhSTAHRkuhs)
  • Sun is larger than earth
  • Stars are at immense distances

110
Science, Medicine, and Mathematics
  • Eratosthenes (EHRuhTAHSthuhNEEZ)
  • Estimated earths circumference to within 1 of
    correct figure
  • Doctors dissected corpses to learn more about
    human anatomy

111
Science, Medicine, and Mathematics
  • Euclid wrote The Elements of Geometry
  • Archimedes invented the compound pulley
  • Also, the cylinder screw
  • And, discovered the principle of buoyancy and the
    lever
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