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Instructors

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Crime Scene Investigator PCR Basics Kit Instructors Stan Hitomi Director, Edward Teller Education Center UC Davis / Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Instructors


1
(No Transcript)
2
Crime Scene Investigator PCR Basics Kit
  • Instructors
  • Stan Hitomi
  • Director, Edward Teller Education Center
  • UC Davis / Lawrence Livermore National
  • Laboratory, Livermore, CA
  • Kirk Brown
  • Lead Instructor, Edward Teller Education Center
  • Science Chair, Tracy High School
  • and Delta College, Tracy, CA
  • Sherri Andrews, Ph.D.
  • North Carolina School of the Arts
  • Winston-Salem, NC

3
Why Teach Crime Scene Investigator PCR Basics
Kit ?
  • Standards-based
  • Exciting real-world connections
  • Tangible results
  • Statistical Analysis

4
DNA ProfilingWorkshop Time Line
  • Introduction to DNA profiling
  • Set up PCR reactions
  • Electrophorese PCR products
  • Analysis and interpretation of results

5
Target audience
  • The Crime Scene Investigator PCR Basics Kit is
    intended to be an introduction to the polymerase
    chain reaction (PCR)
  • Students will have a much better appreciation of
    the kit if they have some understanding of DNA
    structure and function

6
What is DNA profiling?
  • The use of molecular genetic methods to
    determine the exact genotype of a DNA sample in a
    way the results can basically distinguish one
    human being from another
  • The unique genotype of each sample is called a
    DNA profile.

7
How do crime scene investigators create a DNA
profile?
  • 1. Evidence is collected at the crime scene

Blood
Tissue Semen
Urine
Hair Teeth Saliva
Bone

8
How do crime scene investigators create a DNA
profile?
  • 2. DNA is extracted from sources at scene and
    from victim and suspects

9
How do crime scene investigators create a DNA
profile?
  • 3. DNA samples are processed

Sample Obtained from Crime Scene or Paternity
Investigation
Biology
DNA Extraction
Technology
Separation and Detection of PCR Products (STR
Alleles)
Genetics
Comparison of Sample Genotype to Other Sample
Results
10
Since humans are 99.9 identical where do crime
scene investigators look for differences in DNA
profiles?
  • 4. Crime Scene Investigators search in areas
    that are unique from individual to individual and
    are anonymous (control no known trait or
    function) The areas examined are Short Tandem
    Repeats or STRs
  • STR region

11
Example of an STR
  • The TH01 locus contains repeats of TCAT.
  • CCC TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT AAA
  • This example has 6 TCAT repeats.
  • There are more than 20 known TH01 alleles.
  • Each individual inherits 1 allele from each
    parent.

12
Determining genotypes for individuals using
STRs
  • Ms. Smiths TH01 locus for her two chromosomes is
    given below.
  • What is her genotype?
  • MOMS CHROMOSOME
  • CCC TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT AAA
  • DADS CHROMOSOME
  • CCC TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT
    TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT TCAT AAA

13
To determine the genotype (DNA profile) Crime
Scene Investigators make billions of of the
target sequence using PCR
Target DNA
PCR
14
Whats the point of PCR?
  • PCR, or the polymerase chain reaction, makes
    copies of a specific piece of DNA
  • PCR allows you to look at one specific piece of
    DNA by making copies of only that piece of DNA
  • PCR is like looking for a needle in a haystack,
    and then making a haystack out of the needle

15
Crime Scene Cadets heres your case! Use DNA
profiling to determine which suspect can not be
excluded from suspicion.
16
How are suspects included or excluded from an
investigation?
  • Suspects are included in an investigation if
    their DNA profile matches with genotypes found at
    the crime scene
  • Suspects can be excluded if their DNA profile
    does not match genotypes found at the crime scene

17
Set up PCR reactions
  • Find the PCR tubes at your station. Label them
    CS for Crime Scene DNA, A for Suspect A DNA,
    B for Suspect B DNA, C for Suspect C DNA, and
    D for Suspect D DNA.
  • Keeping the tubes on ice, add 20 µl of Master Mix
    blue primers to each tube.
  • Keeping the tubes on ice, add 20 µl of each DNA
    to the appropriately labeled tube.
  • USE A FRESH TIP EACH TIME!
  • Mix and put in thermal cycler
  • Cycle 3 hours

18
The PCR ReactionWhat do you need?
What is needed for PCR?
  • Template (the STR you want to amplify for the
    study)
  • Sequence-specific primers flanking the target
    sequence
  • Nucleotides (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP)
  • Magnesium chloride (enzyme cofactor)
  • Buffer, containing salt
  • Taq polymerase

Reverse primer
5
3
3
5
5
3
3
5
Forward primer
Target sequence
19
What is happening in the PCR tube while in the
thermocycler?
PCR Animation
20
Heat (94oC) to denature DNA strands Cool (52oC)
to anneal primers to template Warm (72oC) to
activate Taq polymerase, which extends primers
and replicates DNA Repeat 35 cycles
The PCR ReactionHow does it work?
21
Denaturing Template DNA
3
Heat causes DNA strands to separate
5
3
5
3
5
Denaturation of DNA at 94oC
5
3
22
Annealing Primers
  • Primers bind to the template sequence
  • Taq polymerase recognizes 3 end of primer
    template strand

Primers anneal at 52oC
5
3
5
3
5
3
5
3
Taq extends at 72oC
5
3
5
3
3
5
3
5
23
Taq polymerase extends..
Cycle 1
  • STR DNA is replicated

Cycle 2
Repeat denaturing, annealing, and extending 35
cycles
Cycle 3
The exact-length target product is made in the
third cycle
24
TH01 alleles
To visualize PCR products Crime Scene
investigators use gel electrophoresis
(14)
(13)
(12)
(11)
(10)
(9)
(8)
(7)
(6)
(5)
(4)
(3)
25
Electrophorese PCR products
  • Add 10 ul of Orange G Loading Dye to each PCR
    tube and mix
  • Set up gel and electrophoresis equipment
  • Load 20 ul of CSI allele ladder to Lane 1
  • Load 20 ul of your PCR reactions in lanes 2 to 6
  • Electrophorese samples
  • Stain gel with Fast Blast DNA Stain
  • Analyze results

26
Using the digital micropipetteAdd 10ul of
loading dye to each microtube
27
AgaroseElectrophoresisPlace gel in gel
boxPour buffer in box until gel wells are
covered.
28
Place 20ul of samples into appropriate wells Set
up electrophoresis chamber by putting top in
place and connecting it to the power supply
29
AgaroseElectrophoresisRunning
Agarose gel sieves DNA fragments according to
size Small fragments move farther than large
fragments Use a 3 gel to separate small
fragment sizes
Gel running
30
Milestones in Forensic DNA analysis
1985 Alec Jeffries develops RFLP 1990 PCR
analysis using single locus STR begins 1992 FBI
initiates STR work 1994 DNA Identification Act
provides funding for national DNA
database 1995 OJ Simpson trial focuses public
attention on DNA evidence 1998 FBI starts CODIS
database Swissair disaster all remains
identified using STR DNA profiling 2001 World
Trade Center disaster in NYC many remains
identified using a combination of DNA profiling
approaches 2004 California proposition 69
provides funding to maintain a DNA
database 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami Interpol
and other world agencies to use DNA profiling
to identify victims
31
Crime scene investigators use techniques that are
fast, cost effective, and have a high Power of
Discrimination
Power of Discrimination
Speed of Analysis
32
The Power of Discrimination increases with the
number of loci profiled
33
Crime scene investigators analyze many STR at the
same time to improve the Power of Discrimination
  • Card game example
  • Jolly Rancher/MM/jelly bean example

34
CODIS COmbined DNA Index SystemA
federally maintained database used by law
enforcement officials
13 loci guarantees high power of discrimination
35
STR Allele Frequencies vary in ethnic groups
increasing Power of Discrimination
TH01 Locus
45
40
35
30
25
Allele frequency
20
15
10
Caucasians (N427)
5
African Americans (N414)
0
6
7
8
9
10
Latinos (N414)
TH01 alleles
36
Real STR analysis Four different fluorescent
tags have been used to identify 7 amplified
loci Allele ladders are indicated by arrows
37
Analysis of ResultsWho cant be excluded?
CS
A
B
C
D
AL
15
10
AL Allele ladder CS Crime Scene A Suspect A B
Suspect B C Suspect C D Suspect D
7
BXP007 alleles
5
4
3
2
1
5-2
7-4
5-2
7-2
10-3
genotype
38
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