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IndustrialOrganizational Psychology Learning Module Organizational Justice Perceptions


State why managing perceptions of justice is important to organizations. Distinguish between three different elements of justice perceptions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IndustrialOrganizational Psychology Learning Module Organizational Justice Perceptions

Industrial-Organizational Psychology Learning
ModuleOrganizational Justice Perceptions
Think of a time youve been unfairly treated at
  • Were you ever treated rudely or disrespectfully?
  • Were you up for a promotion / raise / job, and
    didnt get it when you thought you should have?
  • Why was it unfair? How did you know?
  • How did you react? Did you take action? Why or
    why not?

Lesson Objectives
  • At the end of this lesson, you should be able to
  • State why managing perceptions of justice is
    important to organizations
  • Distinguish between three different elements of
    justice perceptions
  • List factors that influence perceptions of justice

Justice Perceptions are important
  • Justice Perceptions employee judgments about
    whether their work situation is fair
  • Justice Perceptions in organizations have been
    found to be related to
  • Job Satisfaction
  • Organizational Commitment
  • Job Performance
  • Withdrawal Behaviors
  • Counterproductive behaviors
  • Self-perceptions

Types of Justice Perceptions
  • Distributive Justice perceptions of the fairness
    of a particular outcome
  • Procedural Justice perceptions of whether the
    process used to make the decision was fair
  • Interactional Justice perceptions of whether
    organizational agents implement procedures
    fairly, by treating people respectfully and
    explaining decisions adequately

Distributive Justice
  • Rules for allocating resources
  • Equity resources are distributed to employees
    with respect to their abilities or contributions
  • Equality resources are distributed so each
    person gets the same outcome, regardless of their
  • Need resources are distributed to the person
    who needs them more

Distributive Justice Equity Theory
  • Employees compute a ratio of how much they
    contribute to the organization and how much they
    get back from the company
  • Employees choose a coworker and computes their
  • Employees then compare ratios, and react on the
    basis of this comparison. Unbalanced ratios
    create equity distress, which lead to a variety
    of responses including changes in work effort or

Procedural Justice
  • What are some things that lead to a procedure
    being seen as fair?
  • Voice getting a say in things
  • Consistency
  • Bias Suppression
  • Accuracy
  • Correctability
  • Ethicality

When is Procedural Justice Most Important?
High Procedural Justice
Reactions to Org.
Low Procedural Justice
Outcome Favorability
Interactional Justice
  • Interpersonal component treating people with
    dignity and respect refraining from improper
    remarks or comments
  • Informational component providing adequate
    explanations for decisions

Research Example (Greenberg, 1990)
  • Two plants in the same company announced 15 pay
    cuts for their workers
  • One plant given extensive explanations remorse
    was shown in the announcement
  • Second plant given a short explanation, but
    without remorse or apology
  • Measured missing inventory ? theft
  • Theft increased in both plants, but more so in
    the second plant (inadequate explanation)

Improving Fairness Perceptions
  • Change how fair the situation actually is
  • Improve distributive justice
  • Improve procedural justice
  • Treat employees with sincerity and respect
  • Change how fair the situation is perceived
  • How do you explain decisions and procedures to
    employees so they understand?

  • Employee perceptions of justice can impact
    important organizational outcomes, as well as
    employee feelings and attitudes
  • Types of justice include Distributive,
    Procedural, and Interactional
  • Justice perceptions can be altered by actually
    changing the justice of a situation, or by
    providing adequate explanations for
    organizational events
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