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Slajd 1


Good practices of food chain in Polish food industry facts and chalanges Ma gorzata Korzeniowska Wroc aw University of Environmental and Life Sciences – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Slajd 1

Good practices of food chain in Polish food
industry facts and chalanges
Malgorzata Korzeniowska Wroclaw University of
Environmental and Life Sciences
Life Cycle Assessment
  • Definition of food chain
  • A food supply chain, logistics network, or
    supply network is a coordinated system of
    entities, activities, information and resources
    involved in moving a product or service from
    supplier to customer.
  • The entities of a supply chain consist of primary
    producers,secondury production, manufacturers,
    service providers, distributors, and retail
    outlets. Food supply chain activities transform
    raw materials and components into a finished

The primary objective of food supply chain
management is to fulfill customer demands through
the most efficient use of resources.
Sustainable food chain
Environmental objectives 1) air pollution
control, 2) water pollution control, 3) soil
pollution control, 4) noise pollution control, 5)
protection against radiation.
Nutritional objectives 1) providing enough food
for mankind, 2) providing nutritious food (macro-
and microelements), 3) providing safe food, 4)
providing stable food delivery, 5) providing food
in time and place required by consumers.
Economic objectives 1) achievement of equality
point between supply and demand, 2) ensuring
moderate food prices, 3) maintenance of job
posts, 4) maximization of added value, 5)
maximization of return on investment.
Social objectives 1) ensuring a good standard of
life for families of farmers, processors, traders
and all involved in the food chain, 2) promotion
of good interpersonal relations between people
involved in the food chain, 3) promotion of good
health of all food consumers, 4) promotion of
prolonged lifespan of all food consumers.
Relationship betwen food quality , food health
quality and food safety traits
Obligation of food safety and quality systems
Diagram of the relationship between GMP, GHP,
HACCP, QACP, QMS (ISO-9000, ISO-14000, etc.) and
TQM (Sikora Strada)
Integration of good nutritional practice in
quality system
Good Practice means activity of the quality
assurance which ensures that food products and
food related processes are consistent and
controlled to assure quality procedures in food
  • If analyse good practices we can find three
    categories of good practices
  • Directly connected with food (i.e. GMP good
    manufacturing practice)
  • Indirectly connected with food issues (i.e. GRP
    good research practice)
  • Needed be not existing in reality (i.e. GKP good
    housekeeping practice)

  • Good practices directly conected to food issues
  • good agricultural practice (GAP)
  • good catering practice (GCP)
  • good housekeeping practice (GKP)
  • good hygiene practice (GHP)
  • good laboratory practice (GLP)
  • good manufacturing practice (GMP)
  • good retail practice (GRP)
  • good storage practice (GSP)
  • good transport practice (GTP)

GAP Good Agricultural Practice is selection of
the methods of land use which can best achieve
the objectives of agronomic and environmental
sustainability in primary food production.
A GAP approach aims at applying available
knowledge to addressing environmental, economic
and social sustainability dimensions for on-farm
production and post-production processes,
resulting in safe and quality food and non-food
agricultural products. Based on generic
sustainability principles, it aims at supporting
locally developed optimal practices for a given
production system based on a desired outcome,
taking into account market demands and farmers
constraints and incentives to apply practices.
  • World agriculture in the twenty-first century is
    faced with three main challenges
  • to improve food security, rural livelihoods and
  • to satisfy the increasing and diversified demands
    for safe food and other products
  • to conserve and protect natural resources.
  • GAP principles
  • Soil
  • Water
  • Crop and fodder production
  • Crop protection
  • Animal production
  • Animal health and welfare
  • Harvest and on-farm processing and storage
  • Energy and waste management
  • Human welfare, health and safety
  • Wildlife and landscape

GCP Good catering practice consist of practical
advices and assistance to managers of catering
(food service) outlets and suppliers to
caterers. The Guidelines concentrate on the
essential steps needed to ensure that the food
served is always safe and Wholesome.
GHP Good Hygiene Practice refer to procedures
that must be undertaken and hygiene conditions
that have to be fulfilled and monitored at all
stages of production or trade in order to
guarantee food safety. Good Hygiene Practice
consists of practical procedures and processes
that return the processing environment to its
original condition (disinfection or sanitation
programmes) keep building and equipment in
efficient operation (maintenance programme)
control of cross-contamination during manufacture
(usually related to people, surfaces, the air and
the segregation of raw and processed product).
GLP Good Laboratory Practice consists of a
qualitative system governing organisational
processes and conditions of planning,
implementing, controlling, recording and
reporting. The principles which consist of GLP
are intended to identify the GLP requirements for
test facilities (laboratories) which perform
studies for regulatory purposes.
GMP Good Manufacturing Practice denotes all the
actions that must be undertaken and conditions to
be fulfilled in order to ensure that production
of food, wrapping materials and other materials
expected for contact with food, is executed in
proper way to guarantee safe end products and
safe food for human consumption. Good
Manufacturing Practice consists of practical
procedures and processes that ensure quality
system, provide consistent manufacture and
control of products by qualitative criteria and
conformity assessing criteria with intended
purpose as required by the marketing
authorisation and specification of the product.
It is part of the quality assurance which ensures
that food products are consistently produced and
controlled to the quality standards appropriate
to their intended use.
  • GMP principles
  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Pest control
  • Water and air quality
  • Temperature control
  • Personnel (facilities, hygienic way of working,
    health, education)
  • Structure and infrastructure (surrounding area,
    building, materials, equipment)
  • Technical maintenance
  • Waste management
  • Control of raw material
  • Work methodology

GRP Good Retail Practice consists of practical
procedures and processes that ensure the right
products are delivered to the right addressee
within a satisfactory time period and at required
conditions. A tracing system should enable any
faulty product to be found and there should be an
effective recall procedure.
GSP Good Storage Practice consists of practical
procedures and processes that ensure appropriate
handling of foods, regarding implementation and
control of product storage in accordance with a
defined regime prior to their use.
GTP Good Transport Practice consists of
practical procedures and processes that ensure a
qualitative system governing the organization,
implementation and control of transport of food
products from the producer to the final user.
Good Nutrition Practice interlinking relevantgood
practices in food supply chain
Good Nutritional Practice as basis for launching
Good Life Practice principles
The Prerequisite Programme (GHP/GMP) is the first
step to implementation of food safety and quality
systems along the entire food chain beginning
with the initial production, feed production,
animal rearing, processing, transport and ending
with the retail trade. The area covered by the
GHP and GMP requirements Turlejska 2003
comprises the site, surroundings and
infrastructure of the enterprise, enterprise
facilities and their functional layout,
machines and equipment, washing and
disinfecting processes, water supplies, waste
control, pest protection and appropriate
control in this field, personnel training,
personnel hygiene, keeping documentation and
records in the area of GHP.
New European Union Food Hygiene Regulations
require that all food businesses (except primary
producers) implement food safety management
procedures based on HACCP principles from 2006.
The principal objective of the new general and
specific hygiene rules is to ensure a high level
of consumer protection with regard to food safety
(Regulation EC, 2004).
HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control
point) is a quality management system for
effectively and efficiently ensuring
farm-to-table food safety by controlling
microbial, chemical, and physical hazards
associated with food production. A
prevention-based system, it takes a proactive
approach by identifying the principal hazards and
the control points where contamination can be
prevented, limited, or eliminated across the
whole food production process rather than trying
to identify and control contamination after it
has occurred. HACCP principles are being applied
to an increasing range of food products.
Critical control points (CCPs) are the result of
hazard analysis and, in practical conditions,
they can be treated as an operation or action
that the manufacturer must pay special attention
to because these points pose real hazards to the
safety of food products in the case of deviations
from the established parameters. At the same time
CCPs are the point of control for the identified
hazard but is not always the point where the
hazard occurs i.e. enters the food chain. The
control can be applied before the hazard occurs
or after i.e. cooking.
CCP decision tree
  • The HACCP system is based on seven principles
    which, simultaneously, make up consecutive stages
    of its implementation
  • hazard analysis, in other words, identification
    and assessment of threats and possible hazards of
    their occurrence and determination of control
    measures and methods of counteracting these
  • determination of critical control points (CCP) in
    order to eliminate or minimise the occurrence of
  • establish critical limits for the critical
    control points identified,
  • determination and implementation of a system for
    the monitoring of critical control points,
  • establishment of corrective actions, if a
    critical control point does not fulfill the
    necessary requirements,
  • establishment of verification procedures in order
    to confirm if the system is effective and acts in
    accordance with the plan,
  • elaboration and maintenance of the documentation
    of the HACCP system concerning stages of its
    implementation and determination of the method of
    data registration and storage as well as
    archiving of the system documentation.
  • The basis for the elaboration and implementation
    of the HACCP system is the Codex
  • Alimentarius. Other standards are also known,
    among others, the Danish Standard
  • or the new ISO 22000 Standard.

The application of HACCP Stage 1. effective
preparation and planning Stage 2. the application
of the 7 HACCP principles Stage 3. the
implementation of the HACCP study output Stage 4.
the ongoing of the HACCP system

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Stage 3. Implementing the HACCP plan
Stage 4. Maintaining the HACCP plan
Standards from the ISO 9000 family include
standards which implement in various
organisations systems of quality management. They
were elaborated in such a way as to allow their
application in different enterprises irrespective
of branches in which they operate. It is,
therefore, unimportant if a given organisation
manufactures a product or provides services. The
ISO 9000 family comprises the following
standards ISO 9000, which embraces the basis
of the quality management systems and terminology
ISO 90002000, ISO 9001, which specifies
requirements concerning the quality management
system it is precisely this standard that is
implemented in enterprises ISO 9001 2000,
ISO 9004, which specifies guidelines for the
improvement of the system already implemented in
a company ISO 90042000, ISO 19011, which
contains recommendations concerning auditing
ISO 190112002.
ISO 9000 standard in accordance with the eight
principles customer-oriented, leadership
(leaders establish the unity of the aim and
operation of the organisation), involvement of
the personnel, process approach, system
approach to management, continuous
improvement, decision taking on the basis of
facts, mutually beneficial cooperation with
suppliers. It also simplifies purchase and
supplier qualification procedures and, at the
same time, reduces costs associated with these
operations. The quality management system based
on the ISO 9000 standard covers the following
areas management of the organisation, management
of resources, process of product realisation as
well as measurements, analyses and improvement.
The International Food Standard (IFS) and the
British Retail Consortium (BRC) standard are
based, among others, on the GHP/GMP principles,
the HACCP system and the ISO 9001 standard.
However, the above standards include requirements
which are not found in any of the earlier
discussed norms and comprise the obligation
to include in the threat analysis of the hazards
associated with allergies, monitoring of work
effectiveness, the need to cover facial hair
with appropriate hygiene masks, checking of the
hands hygiene of workers, the requirement to
carry out application tests of products,
documented system of management of stocks of raw
materials and products, complying with the FIFO
principle, elaboration of a system which allows
the company to obtain information about GMO,
elaboration of procedures in case of unusual
situations, the requirement to apply metal
detectors, elaboration of the list of places in
the production-storage area where glass and other
hazardous material occur, development of a
procedure for the qualification, approval and
verification of suppliers, total ban of smoking
on the entire area of the company.
Both the IFS and BRC standard do not allow any
freedom and each, even the smallest requirement,
is described precisely. The advantage of this
approach is that there are no problems with the
interpretation of requirements and later on with
the overinterpretation of auditors.
The ISO 220002005 standard is a completely new
standard published in September 2005 with the aim
to unify principles of the quality systems used
in the food industry. It is an optional standard
because it goes beyond the framework of the
GHP/GMP and HACCP requirements. Its range
encompasses ISO 220002005 The Prerequisite
Programme (PRP), i.e. the GHP/GMP principles and
GAP (Good Agricultural Practice), GVP (Good
Veterinarian Practice), GPP (Good Production
Practice), GDP (Good Distribution Practice ), GTP
(Good Trading Practice), the HACCP system,
the identification system (traceability
system), the quality management system ISO
90012000. ISO 220002005 integrates both the
quality management system (ISO 90012000) and
HACCP system. There are also cross references
between ISO 22000, ISO 9004 and terms and
definitions from ISO 9000. The most effective
system of food quality and safety was designed,
which implemented into existing structure of
management can give profits both organisation and
other interested party. Furthermore, it may be
implemented independently of other management
systems existing into enterprise.
The level of GHP, GMP and HACCP system
implementation in Polish food industry after
accession to the European Union
The level of GHP implementation in Polish food
Source Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of GHP implementation in Polish food
industry in 2005
Source Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of GMP implementation in Polish food
Source Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of GMP implementation in Polish food
industry in 2005
Source Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of HACCP system implementation in
Polish food industry
Source Morkis G., 2007, 2008
The level of HACCP system implementation in
Polish food industry in 2005 and 2007
Source Morkis G., 2007, 2008
Dynamic of GHP, GMP and HACCP implementation
in Polish food industry between 2004 and 2007
Source Morkis G., 2008
Benefits from the implementation of HACCP system
in terms of improving food safety
Trafialek i Kolozyn-Krajewska, 2007
Intangible benefits from the implementation of
HACCP system in terms of improving food safety
Trafialek i Kolozyn-Krajewska, 2007
Tangible and economical benefits from the
implementation of HACCP system in terms of
improving food safety
Trafialek i Kolozyn-Krajewska, 2007
  • Main barriers during HACCP implementation
  • training,
  • human resources,
  • planning,
  • knowledge and competence,
  • documentation,
  • resources,
  • management commitment

Barriers faced by firms in implementing
HACCP Implementation of HACCP impeded by
internal budgetary constraints Problems obtaining
external funding Current food safety controls
considered sufficient Lot of changes to our
production processes needed before HACCP could be
put in place The things needing to be done in
order to implement HACCP overwhelmed us Other
investments considered more important Lot of
changes to our food safety controls needed before
HACCP could be put in place Wide scale upgrading
of the plant needed before HACCP could be put in
place Scale of operation is too small to have
HACCP Not sure whether the implementation of
HACCP would meet future regulatory
requirements Uncertain about the potential
benefits of implementing HACCP HACCP difficult to
implement because of internal organization of the
company Concerned that HACCP would reduce our
flexibility in production Thought it best to wait
and see the experiences of other companies before
implementing ourselves Did not really see HACCP
as suitable for our plant Not sure whether the
implementation of HACCP would meet our customers
requirements Considered that costs of
implementing HACCP likely to get cheaper over
time Greater priority given to other issues than
enhancing our food safety controls Food safety
issues not considered sufficiently important to
warrant the investment HACCP goes against all of
the ways in which we have traditionally done
Factor loadings of barriers to HACCP
Implementation Uncertainty about potential
benefits from HACCP Perception that current food
safety control are sufficient Tendency to learn
from other's experience before acting Uncertainty
about whether future regulatory requirements met
by HACCP Perception that firm's scale of
operation is too small for HACCP Perception that
HACCP is not suitable for the firm Perception
that HACCP would reduce the flexibility of
operations Perception that HACCP goes against our
traditional methods Uncertainty about meeting
customer requirements with HACCP Scale and scope
of changes prior to adopting HACCP Scale and
scope of changes to food safety controls Wide
scale facility upgrading required for HACCP
implementation Overwhelmed by things to be done
to adopt HACCP Greater priority given to other
issues Food safety investment being a low
priority Relative importance of other
investments Internal budgetary constraints Difficu
lty in obtaining external funding
Economic difficulties during the implementation
of the HACCP system before and after Polands
accession to the EU
Trafialek i Kolozyn-Krajewska, 2007
Difficulties with personel composition and with
essential facts concerning the problem during the
implementation of the HACCP system before and
after Polands accession to the EU
Trafialek i Kolozyn-Krajewska, 2007
What can be done more???
No let-up on the basics In the food processing
environment, constant reinforcement on the food
safety basics is necessary. These basics include
such procedures as personnel hygiene practices
and training programs, cleaning, sanitation and
maintenance procedures, effective product recall
programs, provisions for safe water supply, and
procedures for handling product throughout the
entire manufacturing and distribution processes.
Continuing consumer education Once food leaves
the processor, there is also a role for consumers
and others to play in maintaining basic food
safety precautions. Improper food handling in the
home and at retail food establishments accounts
for more reported cases of foodborne illness than
does failure at the food processing level.
Greater use of risk-based criteria and greater
flexibility in directing regulatory resources
quickly and efficiently to high-risk areas
Massive restructuring of the nations food
regulatory agencies may not be politically or
economically feasible, at least in the short
term. However, attention can and should be
focused on strengthening regulatory agency
capabilities in areas where greatest risks lie.
In todays world of heightened terrorist
awareness, where deliberate contamination of food
supplies is a very real threat, additional
attention and resources will be directed at this
problem. But that effort can complement existing
food safety approaches in many ways. Many of the
systems and tools that will strengthen
protections against accidental contamination will
also help protect against deliberate
contamination of the food supply.
Expanded partnerships. The publics perception
is that the government will protect them 100
percent when it comes to eating their food. The
reality is that government has to work in
partnership with industry and in partnership with
consumers themselves in guaranteeing safer food.
More sharing of information and less duplication
of effort The advent of international food
safety management system standards is opening up
new avenues for cooperation and sharing of data
among food safety regulatory agencies, the food
industry, and the network of private-sector
organizations that are springing up to audit the
food industry to these new standards. Multiple
audits and inspections of individual facilities
can be reduced. These opportunities need to be
Greater use of economic incentives Economic
incentives are demonstrably more effective than
regulatory pressure. An example is the USDA
Agricultural Marketing Services use of economic
incentives and performance standards linked to
statistical process control and continuous
improvement to ensure that ground beef purchased
for school lunch programs is safe and meets
purchasing requirements. In the four years that
this program has been in effect there has been a
continual improvement in the microbiological
quality of the ground beef. If purveyors want to
sell ground beef to the school lunch program,
they must have systems that are shown to be in
process control. If a suppliers process
deteriorates, that supplier will be removed from
approved status and placed on conditional status.
During this time the supplier must take
appropriate corrective and preventive actions to
bring the process back into compliance with
specification. If the supplier fails to do so it
will be placed on ineligible status.
Expanded diligence by food companies on supplier
quality performance The recent sickening of pets
from toxic ingredients blended into pet foods was
more a failure of corporate supplier quality
programs than a failure of the regulatory
Globally applicable tools for a global food
chain Sourcing of food and food ingredients is
now a global business, so it makes sense to
tackle food safety issues with internationally
accepted and globally applicable tools such as
the ISO 220002005 standard.
More effective inspectionnot more inspection
State inspection resources are limited and
workload is growing, so these resources need to
be targeted where they are needed most. Food
producers and processorsdomestic or foreignthat
do not show evidence of compliance with HACCP
and/or ISO 220002005 and those dealing in
higher-risk foodstuff should be subject to closer
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