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K-State Extension Professional Horticulture Tour


K-State Extension Professional Horticulture Tour June 21-25, 2009 Big Brutus, West Mineral, Kansas Brenda s Berries and Orchards Brenda Olcott-Reid and Bill Reid ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: K-State Extension Professional Horticulture Tour

K-State Extension Professional Horticulture Tour
  • June 21-25, 2009

Big Brutus, West Mineral, Kansas
We all met in Pittsburg, KS Sunday evening.
First tourist stop on the way to Bill and
Brendas on Monday morning
Note size of normal equipment in the foreground
(road grader, etc.).
Brendas Berries and Orchards Brenda Olcott-Reid
and Bill Reid, Chetopa, KS
Notes Peaches and blackberries are 75 of their
income. Only Brenda picks peaches, takes too
much time to teach others to do it correctly.
Rest of operation is 95 u-pick. Have a few
apples, sometimes let customers pick those, but
dont let the customers up on ladders. Open 7
days/week from 730 to noon and 7 to 9 pm, but
not open Sunday a.m. Have mostly local
customers, but some drive out from Wichita, other
cities, some from out of state. Dont have
commercial scale blueberriestoo costly to put in
to be cost effective, and other growers near-by
on more acid soils with good blueberries. Their
soil pH is 6.3, on a Cherokee silt loam, or
second bottom soil, lots of clay, a fragipan.
Have 120 acres. As for berries, prefers early
bearing varieties over ever-bearing. People
dont want to come out and pick in the fall as
muchtoo hot, have given up on their own gardens.
Likes Royalty Purple raspberry variety a lot, is
¾ red, heat tolerant, early, and also likes
Revellle, also heat tolerant. Dont like
Heritage that much (classic red variety). Use
a trellis system (see photo) to keep them
together, not sprawling. Prune almost
constantly.prune out old fruiting canes, head
back the primocanes early, and also throughout
the season. Birds not a big deal, but stink
bugs getting worse, spray once a week for them
with product called bifenthorin. Bugs create
white patch on berry from sucking juice from
druplets. Also spray for cane blight, but not
much sun scorch problem.
Notes cont When asked about high tunnels, Bill
says High tunnels dont make money in Cherokee
county. Have to keep their prices low here. The
county is the poorest in the state. People here
are so tight they squeak. Often have 15 freezers
in their garageone for their deer, one for
fruit, one for veg..thats just how they do
things here. Population of the county is about
21,000, and on average you can expect 3 of the
population within 30 miles to come to u-pick.
Need 300-500 customers to get u-pick to worksee
details in book. Started with blackberries in
2001, added strawberries in 2002, grew from there
except set-back with 2007 Easter freeze. Saw
Brendas apple breeding projectcrosses popular
varieties with Co-op disease resistant cultivars.
Nice stand of peaches with several varieties to
spread out the harvestlike Intrepid,
Challenger, Carolina Gold, Sure Crop, New Haven,
Red Haven, etc. Blackberry varieties.likes
Washita, Triple Crown has good growth, but late.
Nachez is ok. Dont plant Arapaho. Many plant
mix-ups from the nurseryat least twice, didnt
get what they ordered. Likes Shingko Asian pear,
is resistant to fire blight. Spot spray with
roundup for weeds, horse nettle. Saw Bills
bed-making equipment. Hire people to help prune,
pick, at minimum wage mostly.
Price list (pyo/pre-picked)
  • Strawberries 2.11/NA per qt
  • Raspberries 1.64/3.28 per pt
  • Blackberries 2.11/3.75 per qt
  • Peaches NA/1.12 per lb
  • Sand hill plums 1.40/2.80 per qt
  • Apples Pears 0.94/1.12 per lb

Stink-bug damage despite weekly insecticidal
U-pickers at the farm (R) Helpful trellis system
for blackberries and raspberries (below).
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Blueberries (planted in trench filled with sand
and peat (L) and Brendas apple crosses from seed
(above). Crossing things like Gala with
disease resistant varieites.
(top left) disks for building raised beds,
(above) attachment for rotovator for building two
raised beds for strawberries, and (left) orchard
spraying equipment. Does a lot of spraying for
cane blight, use pristine. Used to use captan,
before that used sulfur, but didnt recommend
sulfur as it kills beneficial mites and can be
Pecan Experiment Field Chetopa, KS
After shaking, pecans are picked up with machine
(above). Later are cleaned and bagged using
machine on right. Electronic scale was hanging
from the ceiling to protect from high water.
Notes Exp. Sta has xx? Acres? Good land here,
river bottom, wide, not narrow like in MO. Doing
var. trials, some native, some improved, some
named varieties developed by others in OSU, AR,
etc. Doesnt like really big nuts, dont fill
out, medium-sized paper shell do best. Biggest
problem getting into the business is waiting the
13 years until first harvest. Doing some
intercropping with soybeans (agro-forestry).
People often graze under pecans as well. Only
get 20 per acre rent for cattle, but saves 12
per acre per mowing. Pecans are probably the most
profitable crop for this region of KS, but need
at least 300 acres to make a living at it.
People arent serious if they have less than 40
acres. Not a good back yard tree for nuts,
because squirrels will get them all, but get nice
shade from it. Trees can live for decades, or
even centuries. Only limit for commercial
production is if they get to big for shaker to
work. They are a low input crop, on a relative
basis. Require about 3 sprays per year, compared
to apples which need about 7, and even more for
peaches. They are mostly mechanized, though not
quite as much as field crops. Can still do a lot
of work from a tractor. Dont try to grow pecans
near fields with 24D, cotton pesticides also
harmful to pecans. They tolerate flooding. Had
3 floods so far this year. River is 1 mile away,
but flood plain is 5 miles wide.
Outdoor view of pecans at station (right). High
water mark on bathroom in shed (below).
Three Springs Farm Oaks, Oklahoma Emily Oakley
and Mike Appel
Transplanter (2000) and other equipment (chisel
plow, disk).
Notes Both have degrees in sustainable ag. Met
at Friends University in Long Island, (Quaker
Friends World) has a degree program that takes
you all over the world. (Emily did MS on seed
saving techniques) Lived in Tulsa for a while,
started marketing in Tulsa, farmed 3 acres
outside of Tulsa. Then moved to this farm 6 years
ago. Hes from NY, shes from OK, so moved here.
Tulsa is 1 hr away, and sell at FM twice a week
there, plus have a CSA. Tried traditional model,
now use a very flexible system. Have 80 members,
they buy 200-300 share and then use that as
credit when buy at the FM. If they dont use up
their share, food is donated to food bank. Get a
newsletter and 10 discount as part of the
membership. Both have worked on a farm/CSA in
CA, with 800 members, but a lot of pressure to
have 8 items in the bag every week. About 25 of
their business is through the CSA. Own 20 acres,
5 in cultivation, 3.5 in annual crops, rest in
perennials like apples, blueberries and
asparagus. Rest of farm in wetland and wildlife
habitat. Grow 50 different crops, with tomatoes
as their biggest crop. Grow several thousand
(20,000) transplants in a very small greenhouse,
minimally heated, with small sized cells and high
quality potting mix (Ocean Forest). Start
peppers in a hot cabinet out in the barn (old
cooler with small space heater).
Notes cont Purchased some equipment, a little
tractor (Massy Ferguson) with a rotovator, chisel
plow/ripper, 2-row cultivator (700), disk (to
work in residue), and new transplanter (2000).
Used to take 2 hrs to hand transplant a row, now
takes 7 minutes, Emily drives, Mike puts plants
in. Water tank for starter soln. Use old
electric line spools to wind up used drip tape
and re-use. Also bought a Buckeye-Tractor bed
shaper (see photo) for 1500, makes 60 wide
beds. Tried to buy a planet jr. from e-bay, but
ended up buying a new one. Marketing van takes 45
boxes, thats all they can take to market. See
price list, get good Tulsa prices, but have to
include sales tax. Last year put in 450
blueberry plants, constant challenge to keep
weeded, cultivate frequently to keep Bermuda
grass in the borders, drip tape under the plants.
Doing for customer demand, soil is acidic, use
poultry/hen litter for fertility. Have a mix of
hybrid tomatoes and heirloom (like Cherokee
purple), included some heirlooms grafted on
disease resistant rootstock. Looked good, except
rootstock also sending out shoots, need to prune?
Sungold popular cherry, growing sun sugar
now too. Originally thought theyd grow mostly
heirloom, but due to pricing and demand have
shifted to at least 50 hybrid. Plant
successively to have continues crops. Dont
control disease, since have already harvested
peak production, just let them die. Steak and
weave system. Sell regular tomatoes 3/lb, and
heirlooms for 4 per lb.
Notes page 3 Keep careful notes on
profitability. Wrote the article for GFM a
couple of years ago comparing their prices to
Walmart, theirs are lower than Walmart on
average. Drop some crops due to lack of
profitability (like Edamame soybean), keep others
that are marginal since they fill a seasonal
niche (like radishes.labor intensive to bunch
them all). Also have cut back from 26 week to 21
week marketing season. Was too difficult to get
crops to grow in Aug. for the Sept. market.
Leads to a simple but comfortable life. Cant
afford to buy a Hummer every year. Are certified
organic, through OK Dept. of Ag, only 100 per
year. Also practice sustainable ag, discussed
sustainable principles very well. Some
principles include leaving part of land as
wetland and wildlife, some also means they dont
hire any labor. They also dont have
livestockjust doesnt fit into their system at
this point. Have a dog and a couple of catspart
of pest control, so mice dont eat the drip tape
in the winter. Buy most of their seed from
Johnnys, dont find enough time to harvest their
own seed, even though that is what they studied.
Buy hen litter, but worry about antibiotics
uptake in veggies, dont buy broiler due to
arsenic. Do the farming partly as a business, but
also as a cause.
Buckeye Tractor brand bed shaper (left) and
results (below). Inserted long bolts in back to
drag the soil and leave planting guides.
Van only holds 45 boxes, so limit for Sat. and
Wed. market in Tulsa. Sell certified organic,
prices include sales tax. Detailed market
records help determine which crops sell well,
make most profit.
Blueberries (left) and 5 acres layout (above).
Rotate blocks of summer and spring crops, use
drip irrig, and attempt 3 cover crops per year
plus veg. crops. Use poultry litter for
Small greenhouse for growing all transplants,
lettuce and arugula as late spring crops, still
doing well in heat with no irrig!
Okay Berry Farm Okay, Oklahoma Gene and Nancy
Notes Planted some blueberries in 1983, others
about 8 years later. Noticed the ones near the
road not doing well, but did ok if moved.
Thought it might be carbon monoxide from cars.
We suggested could be the calcium from the road
too. This area in the zone between high bush and
rabbit eye blueberry, so mostly planted highbush.
Native pH is 6.8, so had to add a lot of sulfur
and sawdust when planted. Now at about 4.8 to 5.
Planted on 10 wide rows, 4 between plants.
Would recommend wider rows, easier to mow. This
results in 10,000 per acre. Varieties include
Blue Ray, Blue Crop (big berries, people like
this), Duke (tough skin), and Collins (good
flavor, but small). U-pick season from June 2
through July 4, but this year tomorrow is the
last day. Told us that he does the mowing, but
there are so many branches in the way he wears a
heavy pair of coveralls, a motorcycle helmet,
goggles, etc, and wouldnt wish the job on his
worst enemy. Thats why he recommends wider
rows. Hes a also a bit behind on pruning, which
would help open up the rows a bit. Has some
family help, but no one chomping at the bit to
take over. Has help from his wife, his
mother-in-law (in her 90s) and a daughter living
near-by. One grand-son is a little bit
Sends customers down certain rows, but they
wander around until they find the big ones. I
found the little ones have more flavor.
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Doug Walton Kerr Center for Sustainable
Ag www.kerrcenter.com (Poteau, OK)
  • Ate BBQ downtown, even though they did not serve
    any local food. Is at least locally owned.
  • Doug talked about his work with local foods, the
    Oklahoma Food Cooperative, the Muskogee farmers
    market got a building for it now.
  • See literature on buy fresh buy local campaign
    and Kerr Center newsletter.
  • City (Muskogee) has a nice park for a small town
    (less than 40,000, but a hundred acre park with
    arboretum, azalea festival, rose garden, Japanese
    garden, etc.

Livesay Peach Orchard Porter, Oklahoma Kent and
Jane Livesay
  • Website http//livesayorchards.com/index.htm

Notes Kent runs the farm with his brother Steve
(and spouses and employees, etc). Steve takes
care of the farming part, and Kent the business
end presumably. They ended up here because their
grandfathers brother bought the farm to the
south of this one in 1966. He had a heart attack
in 1969, so their dad and brothers moved here to
help out with the pruning. Their uncle had 55
acres of orchard plus some cotton. Their father
is now 85, and was active in the business until
he was 75, drove the truck to Tulsa to sell the
peaches by the truck-load. The building that we
were standing in was something his father wanted
to build. Was an insulated Morton-style building
with a kitchen, bathrooms, stage, balcony, tables
and chairs, and really seemed to be set up for
some agri-tainment or hoe-down or something. His
wife brought us some peach pastries, and then
peach half-moon pies, hot from the oven with
juice. Delicious! He described a somewhat
surprisingly god marketing relationship theyve
had with Walmart over the past 12-13 years. They
sell to them by the bin, in several stores, but
deliver directly to the store, not to the
distribution center. They want to peaches to be
in good shape when they go on the shelves in the
store, and it might not happen if they go through
the distribution center. Sells to between 18 and
24 Walmarts in the area, depending on his supply.
He gets to sell them under his brand name, they
display the boxes, a banner, and last year added
a photo and press conference. The problem was
that it was the weekend before their peach
festival, so they sold out too soon. I asked if
they have to be GAP certified to sell to Walmart,
and they said it is a new thing this year. They
had to fill out a 3- page questionnaire, have a
HASSP plan in place, and there were also
questions on sustainability. The farm hosts a
peach festival on the 3rd Saturday of July, so
skip a week at Walmart then. Could cover the
season with about a dozen varieties, but has more
than 30 in the orchard. Have peaches from early
June through Sept. Var. include Red Haven, and
Autumn Prince, developed in GA. It is a late
peach, but susceptible to bacterial spot. This
is not surprising though, since it has to be in
the field so long.
Notes cont In total, has 100 A of peaches, 10 A
of apples, 20 A of watermelon, both seeded and
seedless. Also has 1-2 A of cantaloupe, and fall
pumpkins, which are a challenge in the heat.
They host school groups in the fall in this
building, and have various activities, and they
each take home some apples. Have up to 6000
kids, (at 4 to 6 per kid). They also host some
u-pick on the apples and pumpkins, but it isnt a
big part of their business. Through experience
have learned to not let people have ladders in
the orchard (too much liability). People drive
down for the u-pick, and some pick 4 and some
pick 20. Last year charged 21 (Per ½ bu?).
Sell to Walmart at 19-21 per ½ bu (23 lb), and
then saw that they sold them for 0.88 per lb,
which is at a slight loss. (must be using it as a
loss leader?). Sell in the store retail at 24
per ½ bu. Biggest losses so far were the first
year they bought the farm, on Jan. 6, and cold
temps on Jan. 16th wiped out a lot of trees. The
2007 freeze also wiped out their crops. Peach
trees usually live up to 20 years, and then go
out due to peach tree decline which is a
complex of insect and disease pests. Replanted
the trees we were standing in 1998, and hasnt
had trouble with planting peaches after peaches.
Trees looked very healthy and well-cared for. In
the orchard near the highway, see more loss of
trees sooner for some reason. Wouldnt be in
business without Hispanic employees. Has had the
same primary employee since 1984, with the others
coming and going, some from Mexico, most of them
friends or family of his main employee. They do
all the pruning by had. Tried mechanical pruning
once, but was hard on the trees. Have over
10,000 trees to prune. Also do all the thinning
by hand. Tried poles, but again hard on trees.
Hire helicopters for frost protection when
needed. Used 3 times last year, so there was a
little bit of frost thinning too. During the
hard freeze tried some use of heaters in the
orchard, but they didnt do any good, even for
the trees close by, so doesnt use them now.
Does a lot of temperature monitoring around the
property, watches the air inversions carefully.
They arent in a frost pocket, but not in the
best spot either (fairly flat land).
Notes page 3 Toured the market stand, saw value
added products from their peaches (custom packed
by another business), their cold room for packing
and sorting, and even colder room for storage of
pallets before shipping. Must have taken a long
time to build up the business to this point.
Everything was well kept, and he talked a couple
of times about acquiring a new piece of land or
orchard over the years as the operation grew.
Now owns the peach stand near the highway (see
photo) which is in a very visible, high traffic
area. Some in our group commented later that
Kent didnt strike them as a business person in
his mannerisms didnt have a canned
presentation, etc, but he seems to know what he
is doing by the looks of things.
Farm stand (top left) across the road from
entertainment building (above) and orchard (left).
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Sign says no swearing, and we didnt hear any.
Value added products in stand too (below)
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Peaches on pallets ready to ship out (above
left), 2nd farm stand near busy highway (above)
and photo of highway (left).
Doyles Farm, Stillwell, OK Bobby and Jane Doyle
Notes page 1 Drove up a long driveway to the top
of the hill to reach the farm, which had an
impressively designed (but as yet unoccupied)
house, some outbuildings, and lots of piles of
things that looked like possible projects. The
farm produces two things beef and strawberries,
and we got to see both. Bobby Doyle is 73, a
retired school teacher (ag?) and administrator.
Bought the farm 12 years ago when he retired.
His soil type seems to be gravel with lots of
larger rocks (see photos). He manages to till
and plant strawberries into this stuff on the
contour on a hillside below the house, and also
in a patch on top of a hill fenced off from the
beef cattle. Uses a ripper as a plow, and also
has a fairly sturdy looking cultivator as well.
Plants on the bed system, with about 2 ft between
rows of starter plants, and pickers walk down the
wheel tracks between every other row. He doesnt
like using the wide bed system because it
wastes berries, and is hard to reach the center
of the bed. Irrigates the strawberries from
the creek, at a rate of 1 per hour for four
hours once a week. Has a 4 to 6 pipe running up
the hill from the creek to water those too. Uses
a pump (40 or 80 hp?) to pump the water 150 up
the hill from the creek which is fed by 3
springs, which feed the stream from an aquifer.
Can only run 120 sprinklers for 5 hours a
day. Figures out it costs about 7000 per acre
to establish strawberries (including plants,
labor, etc). Figures he can harvest up to
30,000 worth of berries per acre in a good year
(3 per qt, 10,000 qt per acre?). He wholesales
them at 20 per flat, and retails at 24 (8
qt/flat?). We forgot to ask where his market
are. He did mention that in Bentonville they get
5 to 6 per qt. Uses a product called Quadris
to control anthracnose and red steele, but is
getting expensive, at 1048 per 2 ½ gal. Can
keep a patch going about 7 years, but renovates
them with tillage beginning in year 3 or 4. This
allows the replacement plants, or daughter
plants to fill in. He believes the cause of
decline of yield is because when plants are
young, the crown and root are close together, and
each year they are farther apart, so the crown
has more trouble getting nutrients from the
roots. He also believes that the rocks in his
soil break down and give his strawberries an
especially good flavor. (Note neither of these
ideas is confirmed by any science we are aware
Notes page 2 Sets out his strawberries in March,
using standard varieties like Ovation, Early
Glow, Darselect, etc. New variety Record (?).
Stated that labor is a producers worst
nightmare. He figures it takes about 10 people
to pick a patch. Brings in workers from 6 am to
noon to pick, and pays them 120 in cash. About
70 of his employees are Mexican. He also has
detailed figures on how long it takes to weed a
row of strawberries, and how much he makes over
his labor costs, so seems to keep good records,
and much of it he has memorized. Pays 6 per hr
for weeding, takes 30 for someone to weed 4
rows, for example, needs to week 5 times per
year. Uses chicken manure for fertility. Even
though he has lots of hay, he didnt seem to be
mulching anything. Will abandon strawberry patch
after few years, and then plow up a new patch, so
that probably helps with disease control. Then
got on a wagon to see the beef side of the
operation and the patch of strawberries on the
hill. Buys registered angus cows, 6 year old
reject donor cows for embyo transfer. These
are high quality breeding lines, and sometimes he
keeps selling embryos from them (gave example of
one he bought for 1300 because she had a
prolapsed uterus, but she kept producing embryos
every 45 days for several years, sell for around
400 per embryo, so he made several thousand off
of that purchase. Most of the cattle he breeds
to a bull the first year on the farm, and from
then on he uses AI. At end of tour, saw a new
addition to a barn which includes a show ring for
selling cows and bulls of the farm, hay storage,
and the new house up close. Turns out he bought
rose quartz from a mine in SD and had it shipped
here for the house. Has spent over 30,000 just
for the quartz. Told his wife hed build her a
house here, has lived here 12 years, been working
on the house for 8, and plans to move in this
Christmas. He gave us a brief tour inside, and
it is very impressive, and nearly done, sort of.
Jane, his wife apologized for not having lunch
for us, as the person shed asked about doing a
BBQ backed out, so we went into town for Chinese
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Note high-value cull cows in the background.
Nice view from hilltop.
More gravel-soil on hill. Plant on right was
from renovation. See distance between crown and
Rose quartz house siding (detail) below.
Doyles Country Garden Stillwell, OK Burl Doyle
(brother on the left)
Notes His business is just out of town on the
main HW. Burl is the older brother, in his
80s now. He started his business in 1972, but
retired later (also from teaching?), and plans to
keep doing this basically forever. Neither
brother seems to have an heir that wants to take
over their businesses, so not sure what will
happen after they are gone. They expect
everything will be sold at auction asap, so are a
little discouraged by that. Sells greenhouse
plants, hanging baskets, mums, cut flowers, as
well as veggies and fruit crops. Picking
blackberries now? Had some tomatoes in a high
tunnel, which he said they started picking June 4
(?). Has 1450 plants. Variety is Bush Celebrity,
(which Ted says you cant get anymore), so they
might be regular Celebrity (not bush). Ted says
Mt. Glory is a replacement for Bush Celebrity
too. Did a walking tour of his operation, saw
tomatoes in a high tunnel (he likes high
tunnels), blueberries, blackberries, etc. planted
on the contour. He doesnt waste space, so
planted onions and other crops in-between the
rows. To irrigate, he runs water down the row in
a flood irrigation (?!) system, until about an
inch accumulates. His soil seems to be the same
gravel that we saw at his brothers place, but
the plants looked surprisingly good in it. Also
saw his greenhouse where he has grown
transplants, hanging baskets, ornamentals, but
some hadnt been watered for a while, so were
looking pretty rough. When first started
selling in the 70s, the only farmers market was
in Dallas (xx miles away?), now there are markets
all over. Says market possibilities are
limitless, so if you are young, go for it! At
his store, has gone from selling 250 lb of seed
potatoes to 2300 lb, from 2 ½ bu of onion sets to
14 bu of sets, from 2000 tomato plants to 22,000
plants. There is a big gardening trend now, so
get in on it. Can sell a tomato plant for 3
when all you have invested in the plant is a few
cents for the seed, the pot, and the potting soil
He isnt organic, but sees organic plants
selling for 5. He sells his blackberries and
strawberries for 2 per pint, though some get 3.
note Ted is selling his blackberries,
raspberries and blueberries for 6 per pt
Notes page 2 He doesnt recommend growing
beans, okra or raspberries unless you pick them
yourself. Cant good labor to do a good job
picking them all, so the next time through the
field you are picking over-mature fruits, which
is a waste of time. He said people ask him if he
could sell more than he is now, and the answer is
yes. When asked if he could grow more, the
answer is no, hes doing all he can
now. Doesnt want to retire because the
government will get it all. Owns 33 rentals,
and was going to sell those, and his tax advisor
warned him that hed be paying 49 in taxes, so
he didnt sell them. Comments on extension
depends on who is in the position. The one before
wasnt worth a damn, never returned soil test
results, etc. But the one in place now is great,
very cooperative, helpful. He now has 3 inputs
that he recommends use marthon (a pesticide?)
on non-edibles, soap as a pesticide on edibles,
and always get the best soil/potting mix money
can buy. Had a bad soil mix once from Wamart,
Miracle Grow brand, though the fertilizer
products are ok. He doesnt see young people
going in to this business. His grandkids all
want 18 per hr jobs with 8 hour days, rather
than the 14 hour days he puts in, even though he
has about 500,000 invested in it so far. Tells
his grandson he can make 4 times the money they
are now, but they dont want to work that hard.
Says he farms because he loves it, but also makes
from his rental properties. When asked if he
had any ideas for getting young people involved
in farming, he said let them go hungry. Said
that he read that the average age of farmers is
58, and 60 of production comes from farmers over
78 years of age. There are 3 million acres of
farmland going under concrete every year, and the
country is vulnerable to collapse. He sees tough
times coming, possible food shortages. note
these were comments from Burl and his brother at
the end of the tour when we were asking
questions. Someone asked why there was a sign
that said Stilwell was the strawberry capital of
the world? He said that in 1964, the county had
4100 A of strawberries. Then the price dropped
from 0.14 to 0.10 per lb, and most went out of
business. Now there are only 7 growers and 17
acres of strawberries in the county, but they
keep the sign up anyway. Labor is too scarce in
the county to go up to the levels they used to
be, and also cant be grown on old land, but do
better after pasture or timber. He said hed
like to continue growing 3 to 4 acres of
strawberries for the rest of his life.
Does some cut flower production, cultivates,
grows crops between blackberry rows.
Unheated greenhouse for early tomatoes. Says he
is growing Celebrity.
Berries with intercropped vegetables on
shale/gravel. He flood irrigates the rows, as
there is a slight downward slope from this end.
Words of wisdom from the brothers Anything is
possiblego for it, opportunities are
endless.stay in farming or the government will
take all your money
Fruit Research Station Clarksville, AR
We did a lot of tasting here comparing
blackberry varieties, and melting vs. firm
flesh on peaches.
Notes Arrived in late afternoon, and met up
with John Clark, the fruit breeder, Dan Chapman,
the farm manager, and Elena Garcia, the Fruit
Extension specialist. John is based out of
Fayetteville, but stays at Clarksville several
days a week to do the crosses and evaluations.
They are working on several crops at the same
time, and many levels of selection (initial all
the way to released varieties). There has been a
station here since 1948, with an emphasis on
breeding since 1964. John started here in 1980,
as a grad student of the breeder on site then
(Dr. Moore?). Have 200 acres in blackberries,
peaches, nectarines, etc. Says that blackberries
are a new urban, locally grown crop that you
can find in the stores now, when they werent
available a few years ago. Doesnt mind
out-of-state/country blackberries coming in at
different times of the year, as they make a
place-holder on the shelf for when the local
berries are ripe.
Notes page 2 In 1989 had the first upright
thornless, winter hardy blackberry. Now
Natchez is the newest var, replaces Arapaho.
Try to get twice the yield, twice the berry size.
Not sure if they are winter hardy in KS.
Released Ouachita in 2003, and is a real
success story, seems to do well from Monterey CA
to the Carolinas broadly adapted. Is also the
backbone of the shipping market as it holds up
well. Kiowa has a big berry, but is less hardy
and has thorns (?). Prime Jim and Prime Jan have
their short comings, but are the first primocane
bearing blackberries. The canes arent winter
hardy, but it doesnt matter since they fruit on
first-year canes. Had some numbered varieties
ATF 45 and 41 next generation, will be the next
release, though they still get orange
rust. Flavor of blackberries is sweet, tart and
sometimes bitter. Flavor not just due to the
variety, but also disease, insects, defoliation
can affect it. Some store better than others.
Rain followed by sun leads to sun scald on
blackberries. He says the white druplets are
actually sun scald, (not stink-bug, as Bill was
telling us earlier). See photo for detail..but
the damage looked a bit different than Bills
berries, more grey or seedy than white. The
station gets some university , but also a nice
stream of income from the patented varieties,
though John says his bosses have magnets for
hands. He also gave the example of U of MN
making a lot of off of Honey Crisp apple they
developed. Maybe KSU can do this with Teds
purple sweet potato? Peaches are just getting
started this year, weird season, size is small,
flavor off a little bit. Says peaches have a
soothing flavor, as compared to blackberries
which beat your palate like a dog. Then gave
us examples of melting vs. non-melting flesh, and
said the non-melting ships better, if can get
sweet enough, which he seems to have accomplished
(according to taste tests by us). Can also let
the firm peaches ripen on the tree a bit longer.
He is NOT looking for another yellow, free-stone
melting flesh peach (other breeders doing this)
so he is looking for the unusual. Other ideas
are white peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, etc.
Nice thing about flat peaches is they fit in a
lunch box. Also looking for low acid peaches
and nectarines, but finds they then loose the
flavor. Has put the acid back into some of the
white peaches, with non-melting flesh to add
taste. Other goals are adding more zip to the
flavor of nectarines, and making sure the flat
peaches have healed navels (helps with shelf
Notes page 3 Got on wagons at this point for a
tour. Started with a peach variety trial (one
of many), and he showed example of bacterial spot
of the leaves. They try to breed resistance to
this and also to scab, so dont use any
anti-microbials, e.g. antibiotics, which are
normally used, so they can see if the varieties
are resistant. B. spot and scab look similar on
the leaves, but one difference between the two is
that scab will also damage/slit the fruit. They
still spray fungicides to control brown rot, but
long term plan is to try to bring back some genes
for resistance from China, though this is a
tricky process (both biologically and
politically). For this trial, and most of the
others we saw a V or Y pruning system for the
peaches. This allows for 2 to 3 times the
density of open vase pruned peaches. The two
arms of the tree are perpendicular to the row.
Irrigate with drip attached to micro-jet spray
nozzles. Saw Contender and also Reliance
peaches, late blooming. Have an extension
bulletin on the pruning system if we want to look
it up, but might not be as useful to backyard
growers, unless they are really space-limited,
and dont mind doing the summer pruning to let
the light into the middle of the tree. Had a
blueberry trial, comparing organic and
conventional techniques. They are south of the
standard highbush zone, and north of the
rabbit-eye blueberry zone, so grow something
called Southern Highbush. We saw the conv.
side of the trial (set up as an observation, or
demo apparently), with bark mulch and herbicide.
On the organic side, they are trying to use black
plastic applied to kill weeds, then removed, then
re-applied, etc. When asked about why, they said
that weeds like Bermuda grass grow right though
landscape fabric (another option), but in this
case, they put down the plastic too late, and it
heated up the blueberries too much, so they lost
some. They said on another site, this worked
well, but apparently timing is very important. I
think they said this was SARE grant funded (so
their report will be in the SARE database if
needed). Also had a pecan fertility trial,
comparing ammonium based fert. to organic
product made of processed chicken parts plus
manure/compost. They said the organic fert.
seemed to produce better trees, but lost some to
frost first year of trial.
Notes page 3 The blackberry variety trial was
just up the hill, on a trellis system similar to
Bill Reids, but with bigger end-posts. He had
5-plant blocks, apparently replicated. He
mentioned some of the same insect pests (cane
borer, and also crown borer, which they didnt
realize they had for a while). He said that yes,
one can treat for those things, but if one gets
4 to 5 good crops/years from a plant, just take
it out and replace it, dont expect it to last
forever. I think he said they do spray for the
cane borer, but that the crown borer is more
difficult to control. To identify, just look for
plants that are kind of wasting away, and then
dig down and examine the crown. For just the
blackberry breeding trials alone, he has 6 ½
miles of row to walk and evaluate. Says he
starts getting into shape in the winter for all
this walking. Seemed like they had several times
that area in peaches too. Saw his grape breeding
project, where he is more interested in table
grapes than wine grapes, probably because they
have received less attention from breeders
recently. They are looking for resistance to
black rot, anthracnose, the mildews, etc.
Another trait he is looking at is unusual grape
shapes (for fun? see photos). Said if a person
wants job security, breed grapes, because you
could start at age 3 and still be working at it
at age 88 (espec. if trying to transfer the
resistance from wild grapes to other varieties).
In general, grapes make less for a person than
other fruit crops, so not as much interest in
them. Towards the end of the tour we asked how
they keep the financial support for the station
going, as they have 9 support staff plus Johns
position. He said it seemed to be important to
keep the station administratively separate from
the main university system, more independent. He
said they serve the needs of the state, but that
breeding is also an international endeavor, and
some of the traits he selects for do well in
Tasmania, for example. He also said it is good
for a university to have some diversity, not just
do wheat and beans, though that is the majority
of ag production in the state. They generate
some of their own revenue for the station (the
patents, grants etc) but it doesnt pay the whole
bill. His advice in general was Dont let the
boat get tied to the dock, or else someone can
pull the plug (?!) Meaning dont be part of the
university, stay independent, or they can cut you
off. Then he related the story of the apple
breeder (see more info in Fayetteville section)
who had that happen to him. At the end of the
tour, he let us bag up and take the fruit samples
with us. Was a peach picking paradise.
Note the Y pruning system on these peaches.
Allows for high density planting for breeding
stock, and also useful for commercial growers,
but have to do some summer pruning. Use
sprinklers for irrigation (below).
Blueberry trial (above) and bacterial spot on
peach leaves (right).
Blackberry trial and trellis system.
Sun scald or stink bug?
Pecan Trial
Have a table grape breeding project, which is
unusual, and also breeding for odd shapes (see
V-pruning illustrated. Also 3 trees in selection
nursery, side-by-side, full sibs, and one is
yellow, one is white, and one is not ripe yet.
Fayetteville Univ. of Arkansas Fruit Research
Notes Curt Rom and Donn Johnson (entomology)
show organic apple trial. Uses Enterprise
variety on M26 rootstock, trellis system, with
several types of mulch, /- fertilizer (3 tree
Notes page 1 This was our first stop the next
morning, located near the main university campus
in Fayetteville. Met with Curtis Rom (pronounced
roam) and Donn Johnson (entomologist). Turns
out Curtis is the guy who had his apple breeding
project terminated back in 1998. Seems like he
was able to make lemonade out of the whole
situation, and with encouragement from a
colleague at Gerber Products (baby food, etc), he
started the university down the road of working
on sustainable and organic fruit and vegetable
production back in 2000. He gave us a handout
with some background, and more detailed trial
descriptions (available if needed). Since then,
theyve raised over 1.25 million in grant funds
for these projects, but privately he told me the
university has never sent out a press release
about these awards, or his Fulbright fellowship
to Italy to study organic production practices
there. The college of ag also refused to
co-sponsor a recent sustainable conf. they
hosted, so he got co-sponsorship from the
business school, as they see this as an important
trend for the future. At this point he has
several collaborators on campus though, including
folks from crop sci, plant path, ag econ, as well
as the business school (in addition to Donn
Johnson, on the tour with us). Background info
(some from the handout) the hort dept. has 12
faculty (including 2 extension specialists and
dept. head), 75 undergraduate students, and 12
grad students (8 MS, 4 PhD). They have 80 acres
of research land at the 2000 acre university
facility/farm, with 2.5 acres certified organic
for the apple trial we toured. In addition to
the fruit research, Curtis teaches, and is the
faculty advisor for the GroGreen Student Organic
Farm Project. We didnt actually tour the
student farm, but it was near-by, so got some
photos and background info. Turns out that a
significant number of GroGreen members are
univ. faculty and staff, and the student farm is
set up as a community garden, with members
getting a 25x25 space. There are about 70
members, with 50-60 non-ag majors (they just
want to learn to grow healthy food), and about
20 univ. faculty and staff. They can sell at
the Fayetteville farmers market, which helps
bring visibility to the project, but they havent
secured any funding for the student farm yet, so
it is basically un-staffed. They sell organic
blackberries at the farmers market for 10 per
PINT (money is not an issue for the customers).
Notes page 2 Some misc. comments Told us in
his intro comments that Fayetteville ended up
with the land-grant university in AR because no
one else wanted it. They all said it was
Lincolns idea and wanted nothing to do with
it. Signed up for it on the last possible day it
was available. The first univ. farm was an
orchard and vineyard, and the first class taught
on campus was fruit and veg. culture. First stop
on the tour was the organic apple trial.
Mentioned that one thing he learned in Europe is
that here we try to grow conv. varieties
organically, while there they find disease
resistant apples that do well in organic systems,
and then popularize those varieties. Thus, his
trial uses the disease resistant cultivar
Enterprise out of the Co-op breeding program
(IN, IL and OH), on M26 root stock. Has four
mulch trts (mow-blow fescue, paper mulch,
bark/wood chip mulch, and compost mulch) and 3
fert. levels replicated 6 times with 3-tree
blocks. Spacing is 12 between rows, 6 between
plants, and prune the trees to max. 9.5 height,
and uses a supported trellis system. Irrigates
with the micro-ject sprinklers. Results so far
show that even though they planted endophyte
infected fescue to discourage mice, the voles
didnt get the message, and wiped out most of the
mow-blow plants. They are installing owl boxes
and perches to try to control them now. The
paper mulch has a high CN ratio, and also forms
mats, which leads to anaerobic conditions, so
these trees also looked poor, espec. with no
addn. fert. Bark was next, even though it also
had a high CN ratio (2001) and the compost
mulch (CN of 121) looked the best (see photos).
Note prepared site with several tons of horse
manure prior to planting, which helped with
fertility, but also brought in white clover and
bindweed. The reason they focused on mulches in
this experiment was because in a national survey
of apple growers, they said they have some ways
to control insects and diseases, but needed help
with weeds, or under-tree vegetation. How many
weeds can an orchard tolerate? How does this
affect biological diversity, etc? When talked
about specifics though, they said they use
several products to control most apple pests
organically (Bt for oriental fruit moth, etc.,
traps for Japanese beetles, which are on the
increase) but that plum curculio still causes
about 20 fruit damage, which is an unacceptable
level. Theyve tried the surround clay
product, but keeps washing off note my
experience too. This national survey must have
included a lot of west coast growers, because
they dont have plum curculio west of the
Rockies, and it is the dreaded pest on most
organic orchards Ive visited in the Midwest and
east- RJ
Notes page 3 A little more background on
comparing US and Italian fruit growing systems -
On his sabbatical last year, found that 50 of
production in Italy is now organic, as compared
to 1 in the US (though with apples it is
apparently now up to 15 in the US?). In Italy,
14 of the population is growing food, and in the
US it is only 1.8. The ag policies in the two
countries reflect these different priorities in
Itay ag policy supports people, and in the US
they support industrialized ag. Said ag
policies in the EU are changing too, and by 2010
all fruits and veg. sold must be residue free.
Hes not sure they will meet it, but says the
Netherlands has outlawed all (?) pesticides and
fertilizers. Italy doesnt allow any
plant/biological waste to go into a landfill
must be composted, or somehow land applied.
Italy also supports national health care,
including for farmers, and pays for them to take
vacations (wow! But Ive also heard of this in
the Netherlands too). A farm of only 14 acres
can support 3 people in the region near
Venice. Curtis said about 70 of his research is
on organic/sustainable, and 30 on conventional,
but likes to do the organic/sustainable because
he feels this audience is underserved, and
deserves to have science-based information too.
For example, as a crop physiologist, he has noted
that all the nutrient data so far is on apple
trees with no understory vegetation. When you add
typical levels of vegetation, other varieties,
etc, to simulate an organic farm, you may get
different results, e.g. different leaf N
sufficiency levels, different recommendations for
timing, etc. More research is needed. Also
said that large corporations like Walmart are
supporting this direction, and will soon be
asking growers to complete some sort of
sustainability audit. They had a goal of buying
7 of their fruits and vegetables from local
(within 500 miles) sources, but could only come
up with 1 so far. Their goal is to get to 25 by
2015. Some are concerned about Walmarts
pricing strategy..give people what they ask for
initially, then keep inching downward until they
cant afford to sell to them anymore, but they
are such a large market they cant afford not
too Moved on to look at the blackberry and
raspberry trials. Is comparing high tunnel and
field grown, and considers both of these fruits
transitional crops for organic growers, since
things like blackberries are half-wild anyway.
Trying to shift the season up or later to avoid
pests, get good markets, etc. Finds that the
high tunnels heat up almost too much in the
spring, but that they dont protect the crops
from cool nights, and due to condensation/inversio
n (?) can get even colder inside than outside.
Can still protect plants from frost damage if use
curtains of poly cloth, and even use little
burners (like the ones used in buffet lines), but
be sure not to catch anything on fire. Can raise
the temp inside 10 degrees with the little
burners, and they last for hours. In the
brambles, the insect problems include rednecked
cane borer and raspberry crown borer, both hard
to control organically. Have 3 different studies
going with the small fruit (see handout for
details). One lesson learned is that they should
have tried to eliminate the Bermuda grass before
starting the small fruit trials. Also looking at
ways to apply a food waste products on the fruit
crops. Waste Management, Miracle Grow and
Walmart have teamed up (What a combo!?) to
develop this. Right now the Univ. spends 500,000
per year to dispose of food waste, so this could
result in significant savings. Also, the city of
Fayetteville wants be the new green valley, and
are looking at incentive programs for businesses
to go green, the mayor interested in this, etc.
Mow-blow treatment. Note loss of trees due to
excessive vole damage in winter.
Compost mulch, 121 CN ratio.
high N low N
Bark mulch
Paper mulch can tie up N, and also if compacts,
and make soil anaerobic.
Control..Compost (best
growth)..bark mulch
Blackberry trials in high tunnels as compared to
field. Wishes he had built larger high tunnels
to hold the heat better. These cool off too
U of AR Student Farm
Note on official tour, but a few of us did a
self-guided tour.
Plots are allotted to students and faculty more
like a community garden. Note diversity of
gardening styles.
Misc. items of interest use a mailbox in the
plot to hold a notebook for field notes (top
left), irrigation system with filter (top right),
lettuce in shade of corn (left) and very small
tomato plant with two fruits (right).
Patrice Gross No-till organic farming/gardening
Notes Patrice Gross, Foundation Farm Practices
no-till gardening/farming, a practioner and an
educator. Started this farming school 4 years
ago, hires 4 to 6 apprentices, (about 60 per
week for 3 mornings per week plus lunch). Also
has some volunteers, some work 1 day a week for a
season, some for a week and then leave. Interns
stay for 3 season, or at least 6 months. Farm on
MSF, and market on T, TH and Sat. This is his
main expense, plus water and misc. work 5 hrs,
from 7 to noon. His farm is in Eureka Springs,
about 20 mi away, so its a work farm.
Sometimes comes out after market to put things
away, water, etc. Tries to minimize labor and
other inputs, no hoeing, little weeding, do a LOT
of mulching, about 500 bales for 1/2 acre of
vegetables (bed space). Alleys add more. Farms
it as 5 zones, with one in cover crop. Property
is 10 acres, has a pole barn and attached
greenhouse, cool room with AC, kitchen. Gross
income is 60,000. Keeps detailed records of
sales. Also see charts of planting and
harvesting dates in kitchen. Farm is certified
organic. Learned to farm from a farmer in Santa
Barbara, CA. Spent 4 days a week there for 2
years, had some income, mid-career, when decided
to buy a farm didnt want to do all the tillage
though. After that began to read a lot,
Particular about where he gets his strawfrom
someone who threshes it out well (little
volunteer wheat or weed seeds). Also.gets rabbit
manure from someone who has agreed to collect
manure on concrete,, also under a roof so N
doesnt leach out, no Bermudas grass seed or
stolens in it. Pays him double for it compared
to before. This method of farming comes in and
lays out beds, in January spreads manure about an
inch deep, then straw mulch about a foot deep,
then transplant into it, or pull to one side to
plant rows of things. Rake to side if planting
lettuce. Zone in cover crops had red clover,
oats, and buckwheat. Saw lower fertility/plant
performance after last years cover crops.
Maybe tried to grow too many? These all shallow
Notes cont Started out with 1.2 to 2 organic
matter, original pasture soil. Now OM is 5 to
6. Has a real belief in soil biology, optimize
the loife of the soil to grow the plants. Also
protects from compaction by using bed system, no
traffic on beds, all on grass strips. This does
well for him for summer and fall crops, not as
good for spring crops, that is why he is adding
high tunnels. Takes too long for the soil to
wake up. Doesnt use black plastic or
landscape fabric. Has 2 high tunnels so far,
about 100 ft long (?), learned this method/model
at a workshop at Kerr Center in Oklahoma. Uses
square stainless steel tubing bent in circle,
tied down with ropes, blew away last winter, put
them in again reinforced with pipe at base (see
photo) with large ground staples every 10 to 15
feet attached to base pipe. Cost about 1500
for all materials for one. No purloine
connecting the hoops. Has 3 rows in each tunnel
shorter tomatoes in cages (determinate) and
peppers on edge rows, indeterminate tomatoes down
the middle. Plans to put in about 20 or more
high tunnels. Tomato varieties include Early
girl, Yellow Taxi and Brandy Boy which is a
cross between Brandiwine and Better Boy. Outside
trellis system is a triangle system rather than
steak and weave. Only uses cages in the
greenhouse. Uses about a 2 ft spacing, since row
per bed. Plants cucumbers late, because doesnt
want his to come in when everyone elses do.
Asked how to protect squash from squash vine
borer. We didnt know except for remay, but how
pollinate. He is trying soap solution on leaves
and stems this year. Uses remay on eggplant to
keep off fleabeetles for the first few
weeks. Doesnt use compost except in seedling
germination, both indoors and outdoors.
Generally uses standard organic potting mix
(Sunshine brand), grows all his own transplants
except peppers and eggplant, and a friend with a
hotter greenhouse grows for him. Summer lettuce,
start with good heat tolerant varieties, like
Magenta or Teide both reds. Start with 40
shade cloth cover, then uncover for a week or so,
then cover again with hoops and a 60 shade
cloth. Also, dont mulch the lettuce or it will
get fungus infections. Can grow it all summer
long this way. Everything is on drip tape. Plans
to sell his farm this year and buy a different
farm. Wants to have an even more integrated
farm, with fish tanks, use fish waste as
fertilizer, and pine trees, use pine as his much.
Hasnt sold this one yet, but is listing in
Mother Earth News and Grit. His overall goal is
to grow beautiful food. His wife is a culinary
instructor, which helps him understand the food,
how to prepare it. He recommends that eeryon
learn how to cook, and shop as much at Farmers
Markets as much as possible. Is discouraged that
only 2 of about 10 ATTRA employees shop at the
Fayetteville FM. He also suggested that people
have food parties, cook together. (recommended
two local restaurants Café Sole and Garden
Bistro. Ate at Café Soile that nightwas great.
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Planting/harvesting chart on kitchen wall
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Chicken tractor (moved daily)
Oats cover crop (right)
Shade cloth on last bit of lettuce crop (left)
Lettuce transplants under 40 shade cloth for
summer production.
Showing how the bottom pipe is anchored to the
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Little Portion Monastery Pasture Poultry
Evening Tour Little Portion Monastery Tour guide
was Mike Iams (?) (note I didnt feel
comfortable taking many photos since it is a
community, and the moveable pens were fairly
standard) Monastery has been there 26 years,
founded by musician, John Michael Talbert.
Community of 35 still makes some income from the
music (go on tours, etc) and also raise the
chickens. Raise 600 every 2 weeks, or about
15,000 per year. Raise in moveable pens, about
60 per pen, have 10 or 12 of those. If get sick,
put them in a sick pen, try not to treat with
antibiotics, if they do, eat them, dont sell
them. Used to butcher on site, major building
burned down, now have butchered at local state
inspected plant. Re-building a butchering
building on-site that can be state-certified at
some point. Not organic now, trying to keep cost
of meat down. Buy non-GMO, low spray corn,
wheat, soybean. Store bulk grain on site, have
old-fashioned grinder mixer, use Fertrell mineral
mix. Sell the meat at 2.40 per lb for whole
bird. Will deliver in frozen food truck/trailer.
Deliver to quite a wide area, will meet someone
half-way if longer distance (like in KS). Still
looking for more markets. Also have 100
laying hens (Plymoth rock ) and large garden, try
to grow most of their own food, but buy in grains
for bread and brown rice. Fast 2 days a week,
and pray 3 times a day. Have another retreat
center for members about 7 miles away, and over
400 members that dont live on site, but are
Persimmon Hill Farm Lampe MO, Ernie Bonner
Persimmon Hill Farm, Lampe, MO Ernie Bonner,
Owner Owns 74 acres, 5 in blueberries, also 2
rows of elderberry, a couple of gooseberry, one
acre of blackberry. Has quite a few var. of
blueberries, including new one, Chandler, which
comes on later, not ready yet. Charge 2.55 per
lb for u-pick and 3.50 per lb pre-pick, pick
into gallon pales with plastic bag liner. Note
other blueberry farm we visited charged 21 per
gallon, which would be about 6 lb, or about
3.50 per lb. Stopped using pre-emergence
herbicide on the blackberries last year because
it seemed to be affecting the blueberries. Seems
to use an ipm approach to pest management, told
Charlie that they were certified organic for a
while but dropped it. Forgot to ask why. Also
has another shed to make bio-diesel, uses it in
all his trucks. Also has nice value-added
store/products, with blueberry shake,
Thunder-Muffin, Cumulo-Bluebus muffin with
icecream, BBQ sauce, jam, jelly, cobbler, drid
mushrooms (2 oz per 5.50), another brand for .85
oz for 5.50, also had dried mushroom soup,
etc). Mission statement is we want people to
feel better when they leave than when they came.
Had picnic tables, bathrooms, food, etc. A camp
near-by that brings by a few customers weekly,
more every four weeks, which is the day we
happened to be there. Sometimes even buys in
fruit for his customers, but makes it clear where
it came from, well labeled. Large shitake
operation, has 10,000 in the woods, nice
fruiting shed with concrete pits to soak the
logs. Has angle iron racks, with 10 racks, 6
logs per rack, 6 racks in the shed. Can lower
the whole rack into the pit to soak. Saw logs in
forest, stacked in angle against 7-posts,
separted by logs, newly inoculated ones on the
ground to soak up soil moisture, older ones have
sprinkler system to keep them moist. Usually get
100 lb per w
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