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THEME 4: TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS THAT RESPOND TO DEMANDS AND MARKET OPPORTUNITIES Synthesisers Report

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Title: THEME 4: TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS THAT RESPOND TO DEMANDS AND MARKET OPPORTUNITIES Synthesisers Report


1
THEME 4 TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS THAT RESPOND TO
DEMANDS AND MARKET OPPORTUNITIES Synthesisers
Report
  • Frances Kimmins, Mette Vaarst,
  • Cyprian Ebong, Kerry Albright

2
Synthesisers report
  • Review the papers describing technology options
    under Theme 4 to draw out
  • Best practices
  • Key lessons learnt
  • Options which are not represented
  • Introduction
  • Review of crop/soil resource papers
  • Review of livestock papers
  • Cross cutting issues
  • Gaps from both

3
Theme 4 Technological options that respond to
demands and market opportunities
  • Goal To provide appropriate technologies,
    knowledge, information and methods that enhance
    productivity, increase value and the
    competitiveness of agricultural systems and the
    products in both national and international
    markets.
  • Outputs
  • Technological options that increase productivity
    of crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry
    resources developed and promoted
  • Technological options that optimise quality,
    broaden utilization base and enhance
    marketability of agricultural products developed
    and promoted
  • Appropriate farm power, tools and equipment that
    optimise production and processing developed and
    promoted

4
Technological options mean
  • Technical options (tests, electronic equipments,
    bio-control agents etc.)
  • Knowledge and information
  • Management practices

5
Selected papers for theme 4
  • Approximately 52 papers in total
  • 36 crop/soil resource papers
  • 16 livestock papers
  • The majority originated from Uganda and a number
    covered cross regional programmes.
  • The remaining papers were submitted by
    researchers in Kenya, Benin, Ethiopia, Senegal
    River Valley, Malawi and Nepal.

6

7
Technology options
  • Focus for crop/soil resource options
  • Crop varieties
  • Management practices
  • Biological control of pests and diseases
  • Agroprocessing
  • New equipment
  • Gaps
  • Only a few economic evaluations were reported

8
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9
Technology options
  • Focus for livestock options
  • Breeding
  • Feeding
  • Animal husbandry practices
  • Incl. management of medicine
  • Animals role on the farm
  • Gaps
  • Only a few economic evaluations were reported
  • No new technologies described

10
Partnerships represented in the papers
  • National scientists
  • Natural social sciences
  • International scientists
  • NGO
  • Farmer groups
  • Extension organisations
  • Poorly represented commercial partners

11
Purpose of technological options
12
Crop/soil resource papers
  • Most papers described field based participatory
    studies to identify, develop and assess
    technologies
  • Few addressed strategic/basic research issues
  • Smallest number submitted on crop processing/new
    equipment

13
Examples of participatory research activities 1
on crop/soil research
  • Good practice in development of technological
    options
  • through participatory methods
  • 335-4 Working with Smallholder Farmers to Improve
    Maize Production and Marketing in Western Kenya.
    Paul L. Woomer and Eusebius J. Mukhwana,, Kenya
  • 64-4 Experiences of Soil Fertility Management
    Through Legume Based Farmer Participatory
    Experimentation in Malawi. Amon Kabuli Judith
    Malawi
  • 157-4 Developing Technology Options for Rice
    Integrated Crop Management (RICM) in the Sahel
    Zone of West Africa Case of irrigated rice
    production the Senegal River Valley Mohamed
    Kebbeh, Kouamé Miezan and Mameri Camara
  • 77-4 Evaluation and dissemination of Striga
    management technologies for small-scale sorghum
    farmers in eastern Uganda Olupot,J.Ra.,
    J.Oryokotb, D.S.O.Osiruc and B.Gebrekidanda

14
Some examples of participatory research
activities 2
  • Best practice in improving producers access to
    new technologies
  • 95-4 Pigeon pea seed production and delivery
    system An experience in the Lango farming system
    J.E.P. Obuo, J.R. Omadi, D. Okwang and H.
    Okurut-Akol Uganda
  • 114-4 Farmer Led Multiplication of Rosette
    Resistant Groundnut Varieties. Tino Grace
  • 116-4 Promoting Potato Seed Tuber Management for
    increased Ware Yields in Kapchorwa, Eastern
    Uganda. Sarah Namisi and Julian Smith

15
Lessons learnt from the participatory research
activities 1
  • ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF RESEARCHERS
  • Broader than just the development of
    technological options, need to manage knowledge
    and communicate options to end users
  • APPROACHES TO TARGETING RESEARCH
  • Important tool for prioritising research
    activities
  • Can be used to address a range of farming
    constraints and/or provide other benefits such as
    additional grain for food, weed suppression,
    animal feed, fuelwood etc

16
Lessons learnt from the participatory research
activities 2
  • OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH PROMOTION ARE ENHANCED
  • enables researchers, service providers and
    farmers to work together to identify effective
    practices for different environments
  • provides a good environment for learning and
    sharing messages between the different
    stakeholders
  • empowers farmers in the decision processes
  • RESOURCE ALLOCATION
  • Resources must be available for a number of years
    especially for perennial crops because
    outcomes/impact will not be evident over a 3 year
    time scale

17
Lessons learnt from Participatory Research
Activities 3
  • DEMAND ARTICULATION
  • Demand should not rely on solely researchers
    assessments because they realise they may not
    have an adequate understanding of farmer
    resources (e.g. time, labour or capital) or
    market requirements.
  • Demand-led research is also not a simple case of
    reacting to farmers demands because it does not
    take into account knowledge and technologies of
    which farmers are unaware.

18
Lessons learnt from Participatory Research
Activities 4
  • Improves the likelihood of technology uptake
  • Improves the speed of delivering varieties with
    marketable qualities to farmers

19
Questions arising from the participatory projects
  • Q. Next steps?
  • Q. How do researchers scale up their findings?
  • Q. What promotion channels can be used to promote
    the benefits to non- participating farmers?

20
Strategic research activities
  • Good practice described in
  • 126-4 Seed transmission of Fusarium xylarioides
    in Coffea canephora in Uganda. Hakiza G.J.
    Kyetere D. T1., Erbaugh M., Warren, H., and S.
    Olal.
  • 322-4 The use of starter cultures in the
    fermentation of bushera a Ugandan traditional
    fermented sorghum beverage. C. M. B K. Muyanjaa,
    T. Langsrudb J.A. Narvhusb,
  • 323-4 Early screening of cassava for resistance
    to root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)Kagoda,
    F., Coyne, D., Kajumba, C., Dusabe,
  • Biocontrol research papers submitted by the
    Ugandan National Banana programme and IITA
  • 325-4 A greenhouse experiment to evaluate compost
    derived from household and market crop wastes
    Idenfors, A., 1E. Otabbong, 2J.S. Tenywa and 2A.
    Amoding

21
Lessons learnt from strategic research projects
  • Underpins technology development and client
    oriented approaches by generating new knowledge
    on poorly understood problems
  • Explores management options for which there are
    no existing solutions
  • May require policy action by researchers
  • Provides a relatively controlled environment to
  • test hypotheses
  • screen large numbers of genotypes
  • enhance local breeding efforts
  • Provides baseline information
  • Important for providing training opportunities

22
POST HARVEST PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIESAPPROPRIATE
FARM POWER, TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
  • 259-2 Long-term storage of sweet potato by
    small-scale farmers through improved post harvest
    technologies Namutebi, A., Natabirwa, H., Lemaga,
    B4, Kapinga, R, Matovu, M., Tumwegamire, S.,
    Nsumba, J. and Ocom J.
  • 161-4 Improving the AEATRI-motorized maize
    sheller to meet the market demands of commercial
    maize farmers Candia Alphonse, Saasa Richard,
    Muzei James and Ocen Paul
  • 34-4Production of tomato puree an alternative to
    conservation of locally produced tomato in Benin
    D. Montcho O Fagbohoun
  • 40-4Development on improved parboiling equipment
    for paddy rice in BeninPaul Houssou Eric
    Amonsou

23
Lesson learnt from the post harvest processes and
technologies
  • Economic analyses should be integrated into
    research projects to assess financial benefits.
  • Research to broaden utilization base and enhance
    marketability should be enhanced in national
    programmes-linkages to private sector?

24
Livestock papers
  • All papers described on-farm or
    in-farming-community studies to identify, develop
    and assess technologies
  • Unclear in most papers previously identified
    problem areas gt participatory approach
  • sensitized / trained / provided with /
  • Researcher formulate research question in most
    studies, carry out the research and interpret the
    results

25
Improved breeds
  • Ssewannyana, E., Oluka, J, Masaba, J.K. Growth
    and performance of indigenous and crossbred goats
    at Serere, Uganda. 537-542.
  • Ssewannyana, E. Onyait, A.O., Ogwal Okot, J.,
    Masaba, J. Strategies for improving the meat and
    egg productivity of indigenous chickens in Kumi
    and Apac district, Uganda.
  • Bebe, B.O. Effects of feeding systems and breed
    of cattle on reproductive performance and milk
    production on smallholder farms. 558-563.
  • Needs to address
  • What should be ready before breeds are considered
    (e.g. water, feed, hygiene )?
  • Consequences for management practices?
  • Consequences on household, community and animal
    population levels?

26
Time and improvement
  • Ssewannyana, E. Onyait, A.O., Ogwal Okot, J.,
    Masaba, J. Strategies for improving the meat and
    egg productivity of indigenous chickens in Kumi
    and Apac district, Uganda.
  • Lesson learned about a success
  • Improvement can be measured in very short time
  • Vaccination strategy simple with dramatic
    (positive) effect
  • Gender issue explicitly addressed
  • Concern project organised by researchers
  • Concern about long-term exhausting projects with
    identification phase etc.!

27
Disease management
  • Okello-Onen, J., Ssekitto, C.M.B., Mwayi, W.
    Factors affecting the sustainability of tick and
    tick-borne disease control in Uganda and
    malpractice associated with acaricide use.
    663-666.
  • Twinamasiko, E., Tailor, N., Mbuza, F., Senyonga,
    S. Evaluation of the role of antibiotics and
    anti-bacterial agents in the control of
    contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. 458-465.
  • Lesson learned gives background to raise
    critical voice
  • Background knowledge Increasing problems with
    resistance against medicines. Residuals also food
    safety issue!!!
  • Medicine is often used inappropriately
  • Medicine cannot compensate for bad conditions/
    management
  • Diagnostics? Facilities to evaluate relevance of
    medication?

28
Health promotion and disease management
  • In research (often) the tragic divorce
  • In extension, training learning how cover both
    also partly divorced!

Can the current animal health and veterinary
system meet the demand ? How improve? How
collaborate with other disciplines?
29
Focus on resources
  • Okello-Onen, J., Okoth, J.O., Abila, P.P.,
    Matete, G.O., Wamwiri, F., Politzar, H.
    Effektiveness of monoscreen traps for tsetse fly
    control. 667-671.
  • Ssewannyana, E. Mukasa, B. Assessment of the
    potential productivity of pigs in the Teso and
    Longo farming systems, Uganda A case study.
    549-553.
  • Okurut, S., Odogola, W.R., Candia, A., Saasa,
    A.R. Constraints to utilization of draft animal
    power technology at farm level in Uganda.
    564-568.
  • Ocaido, M., Muwazi, R., Opuda-Asiibo, J.
    Economics of developing mixes game and livestock
    production systems around lake Mburo National
    Park, Uganda.
  • Lesson to learn more from focus on available
    resources!
  • Non-chemical solutions gives no prestige?
  • Scavenger animals
  • Feed resources local / left overs / conservation
    / mixed grazing systems
  • Draft animals
  • The role of the animal(s) / species breeds!!!

30
Whose responsibility to transfer?
  • Shrestha, N.P. Edwards, S.A. Evaluation of
    suckling and post weaning practices for improving
    reproductive efficiency in Nepalese Pakhribas
    pigs. 554-557.
  • Oluka, J., Ssewannyana, E., Petersen, P.H. Effect
    of management systems on body weight of
    indigenous goat kids reared under on-farm
    conditions.
  • Oluka, J., Petersen, P.H., Kiwuwa, G.H.
    Bareeba, F.B. Population screening for selection
    of bucks and does in Mubende goat in Uganda.
    543-548.
  • Who and how to transfer this?
  • Best reproduction in sows only night suckling
    for piglets after 6 weeks in Nepalese study
  • Best results with kids women are care-takers
  • Indication weight of doe influences kids weight
    till yearling age
  • Farmer innovation? Researcher contribute?
    Extension agents? Technology/ recommendation?

31
Transforming agriculture through
researchResearch and responsibility
  • Cross-disciplinary research
  • Also needed in vet. Science and livestock
    research!
  • Farming system view and approach
  • Focus on expert areas ok but take whole system
    into planning, analysing, discussing
  • Scientists responsible to be the professional
    take that role in the partnership!
  • Participatory research
  • No general correct answer developed in
    context
  • Action research
  • Research process and plans develop during project

32
Private farms
Research stations
Case-
Experiments
studies
Models
Decision
aids
resource use
production
and
Scientific results New knowledge, tools
FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH METHODS
33
Towards sustainability?
  • Sabiiti, E.N., Mpairwe, D., Rwakaikara, M.S.,
    Mugasi, S. Restoration of degraded natural
    grasslands to enhance soil fertility, pasture and
    animal productivity. 466-469.
  • Kabirizi, J., Mpairwe, D., Mutetikka, D.
    Incorporating leguminous forages in intensive
    smallholder dairy cattle production systems in
    Masaka district, Uganda Farmers experiences and
    lessons learnt.
  • Ocaido, C.P., Otim, C.P., Okuna, N.M., Ssekitto,
    C., Kakaire, D., Erume, J., Wafula, R.Z.O.,
    Monrad, G., Walubengo, J., Musisi, G.,
    Okello-Bwangamoi, Okure, S., Ebiaru, W. Dual
    control on ticks and tsetse flies using
    deltamethrin through community participatory
    methods. 672-679.
  • Responsible use of medicine costs benefits
  • Animals as a part of the farm gt
  • Species and breeds Specialization / diversity
  • Disease pressure in community and area
  • Avoid overloading of land
  • Human capital Work load!
  • Water and feed access supply? Dry season?

34
Questions arising from the on-farm projects
  • Q. Next steps dissemination?
  • Q. How do researchers scale up their findings?
  • Q. How can benefits be used by all farmers? How
    is the importance of the context evaluated when
    results are used somewhere else than where they
    were made?

35
Development of new Use of existing technologies
  • Developmen of some new technologies relevant,
    e.g. diagnostics, animal husbandry practices etc.
  • Going through these papers How can existing
    technologies be implemented when and where they
    are relevant and used appropriately?
  • In livestock research and development Need for
    involving more levels (human, farm, community,
    organisations, institutions) facing the
    complexity!

36
Farmer Field Training Learning
  • Context based
  • Exchange
  • Common knowledge developed
  • Local ressources
  • Complex life situations!
  • Farmers need to be driving force in on-farm
    improvement
  • Support from animal health professionals needed!
  • Development MUST be in harmony with need and
    conditions Research as development and vice
    versa!

37
Gaps in the livestock theme
  • In most papers reflections on the complexity of
    the livestock production systems lacking
  • Quite narrow focus on one or few technological
    options and not thinking further to
    implementation or how it fits into the whole
    farming system
  • Food safety and quality issues only covered
    through medicine mismanagement not zoonoses,
    hygiene, nutritional value of animal food
    products
  • Gender considerations poorly represented
  • Private sector particularly processors, retailers
    or exporters apparently not involved in research

38
Cross cutting issues in crop/soil resource papers
  • Linkages between the agriculture and health
    sectors have been identified by some teams
  • Sengoobas team on improved mangoes and citrus
    have linked health, gender and market concerns to
    technical information
  • Muyanja et al on bushera mentions that heat
    treatment of bushera can improve food safety by
    reducing coliform bacteria levels
  • Houssous and Amonsous paper acknowledge that
    par boiling of paddy enhances not only yield but
    nutritional quality/ value of rice
  • Sabiitis team mentions the importance of
    grasslands for both animal production and herbal
    medicine

39
Gaps in the crop theme
  • No papers on biotechnology
  • Offers possibilities of increasing resistance to
    nematodes, viruses, and fungal diseases in lines
    preferred by consumers
  • Gender considerations poorly represented
  • Only 4 papers disaggregate information by gender
  • Few if any projects described explicit research
    linkages to the private sector particularly
    processors, retailers or exporters
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