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Unit I – An Industrial Nation Chapter 5


Unit I An Industrial Nation Chapter 5 Section 3 Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century New Immigrants A Nation of Immigrants 1800-1880- more that 10 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit I – An Industrial Nation Chapter 5

Unit I An Industrial NationChapter 5
  • Section 3 Life at the Turn of the Twentieth

New Immigrants A Nation of Immigrants
  • 1800-1880- more that 10 million immigrants- Old
    Immigrants- from Northern and Western Europe.
  • 1880-1910- some 18 million immigrants- New
    Comers- from Southern and Eastern Europe,
    including Catholics, Orthodox and Jewish faiths.
  • Severe immigration laws limited East Asia.
  • 1910- one out of every seven Americans was
    foreign born.

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Coming to America
  • Reasons to immigrate- Political, Economic and
  • Ellis Island, New York Harbor- in 62 years over
    12 million came through
  • Angel Island, San Francisco Bay- newcomers from
  • Hardships in America- crowded tenements, low
    paying unskilled jobs, ghettos.
  • Ethnic neighborhoods tried to keep their cultures
    alive and build communities.
  • Prejudice-
  • Nativists- American Natives who blamed immigrants
    for increases in crime and poverty. Stealing
    American jobs.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act- 1882- banned Chineses
    immigration for 10 years.
  • Some Nativists wanted literacy tests to determine
    the ability to read. This Act was approved over
    President Wilsons veto.

Reasons and Realities
  • Coming to America
  • All came for a better life
  • Jews in particular fled eastern Europe to escape
    religious persecution.
  • Southern and eastern Europeans also fled from
    severe poverty.
  • In 1892 the government opened an immigration
    station at Ellis Island in New York Harbor.
  • Over the years, some 12 million people passed
    through Ellis Island. Doctors checked them for
    diseases or disabilities.
  • After 1910, Asians passed through Angel Island in
    San Francisco Bay, but many were held like
    prisoners for weeks.
  • Prejudice Against Immigrants
  • Immigrants faced crowding and low pay, but
    settled near others from their country and
    started communities and organizations to help
  • Some native-born Americans, known as nativists,
    saw immigrants as a threat to their jobs and safe
  • On the West Coast, prejudice was directed against
    Asians Chinese immigrants were restricted from
    jobs and neighborhoods, and immigration was
    halted by Congress through the Chinese Exclusion
  • Nativists wanted immigrants to pass a literacy
    test, and Congress approved the bill.

Reasons to Come to America
  • 1830-1890
  • The reason for immigration in the period from
    1830-1890 is quite clear. Land remained
    plentiful, and fairly cheap. Jobs were abundant,
    and labor was scarce and relatively dear. A
    decline in the birthrate as well as an increase
    in industry and urbanization reinforced this
  • The United States, in the 19th Century, remained
    a strong magnet to immigrants, with offers of
    jobs and land for farms. Glowing reports from
    earlier arrivals who made good reinforced the
    notion that in America, the streets were, "paved
    with gold," as well as offerings of religious and
    political freedom.
  • 1890-1924
  • Jews came for religious freedom
  • Italians and Asians came for Work
  • Russians came to escape persecution
  • America had jobs
  • America had religious freedom
  • America was hyped up in many countries as "Land
    of Opportunity
  • 1968- Present
  • The main reason why everybody wants to go to US
    is because if they would go somewhere like France
    of Japan although they would get higher wages,
    there is a much greater chance of getting
    harassed, arrested or deported in those countries
    as opposed to US.

Immigrants 106
Irish Potato Famine and Immigration to America
Ellis Island
Angel Island
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Urban Life in America
Local and National Political Corruption
  • Local
  • Urban problems such as crime and poor sanitation
    led people to give control of local governments
    to political machines, or organizations of
    professional politicians.
  • Machine bosses were often corrupt, asking for
    votes in exchange for jobs and housing, taking
    bribes, and using fraud to win elections.
  • William Marcy Tweed, or Boss Tweed, led a
    political machine called Tammany Hall in New York
    City and made himself and his friends very rich.
  • Eight years later his corruption was made public,
    when he was sent to prison for fraud.

Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall 135
Local and National Political Corruption
  • Federal
  • Ulysses S. Grants presidency was caught up in
    scandals, such as
  • Crédit Mobilier, scheme to funnel federal
    railroad money to stockholders.
  • Attempts at reform split the republican party.
  • In 1880 the party chose a reformer, James A.
    Garfield, who was assassinated shortly after his
  • His successor, Chester A. Arthur, supported
    reforms, and helped pass the Pendleton Civil
    Service Act, which required that promotions be
    based on merit, not politics.

James A. Garfield (Republican)
  • 1881- 20th President
  • Election of 1880- opponent- James G. Blaine
    Plumed Knight and a half breed republicans.
  • Assassination
  • Charles Guiteau - crazed lawyer and disgruntled
    party loyalist who failed to get a government

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Death of Garfield
  • It is commonly believed that Guiteau's outrage
    was responsible for the Garfield's assassination.
    In actuality, it only played a small role.
  • Guiteau was a deeply religious man and believed
    that God had ordered him to kill the President.
    One bullet grazed his arm but the other one had
    lodged itself somewhere inside the President's
  • Garfield was rushed to the White House, having
    never lost consciousness. For the next eighty
    days, sixteen doctors were consulted regarding
    the President's condition. At least 3 surgeons
    probed the wound with unwashed fingers and non
    sterile probes and could not find the bullet. A
    naval surgeon actually punctured the liver while
    probing and caused the damage the bullet did not.
    But, Garfield didn't die the next day.
  • His fever rose and he was put on a diet of milk
    spiked with brandy. And the surgeons continued to
    probe with unwashed fingers.
  • Alexander Graham Bell rigged up a crude metal
    detector to help find the bullet. With Garfield's
    condition growing steadily worse, doctors decided
    to cut him open to remove the slug. It was not
    found. What Bell had actually located so deep in
    the body was the metal spring under the mattress!
    No wonder they couldn't find the bullet.
  • In the end, they managed to take a 3 inch wound
    and turn it into a twenty inch canal that was
    heavily infected and oozed more and more pus with
    each passing day. The deep wound with its massive
    infection, coupled with possible blood poisoning
    from the bullet, caused the President's heart to
    weaken. Garfield had a massive heart attack
    several days later, but these well trained
    physicians botched this diagnosis also. They
    attributed it to the rupturing of a blood vessel
    in his stomach!
  • At the autopsy, examiners determined that the
    bullet had lodged itself some four inches from
    the spine in a protective cyst. Their
    conclusion -Garfield would have survived if the
    doctors had left him alone.
  • The physicians had the nerve to submit a bill for
    their services of 85,000 to the Senate. The
    federal government paid 10,000 (a ripoff) and
    good old Doctor Bliss was forced to make a public

Settlement House Movement
  • Settlement House- volunteers offer immigrants
    services- language instruction, job training,
    social activities, clubs and sports.
  • Over 400 settlement house in America by 1910
  • Social Gospel- faith is expressed through good
    works. Churches had moral duty to help solve
    social problems.

Jane Addams
  • There is an old saying that says, Behind every
    good man there stands a good woman. But
    throughout history, was that man just standing in
    the way of the woman?

Jane Addams
  • Birth 1860, Cedarville, Illinois
  • Death 1935, Chicago, Illinois
  • Founder of the Settlement House Movement.
  • She and her friend Ellen Starr founded Hull House
    in the slums of Chicago in 1889.
  • She wrote 11 books, numerous articles and headed
    various organizations.
  • She participated in the International Congress of
    Women at the Hague in 1915
  • First American Woman to receive the Nobel Peace

Hull House, founded 1889
  • By 1893, Hull-House had become a center for a
    wide variety of clubs, functions, classes and
    activities for the neighborhood. Addams and her
    associates championed the protection of
    immigrants, child labor laws and recreation
    facilities for children, industrial safety,
    juvenile courts, recognition of labor unions,
    woman suffrage, and world peace.
  • Addams never drew a salary from Hull-House, but
    instead used her inheritance and the proceeds
    from her many books and articles to live on as
    well as to underwrite these causes.

Hull House- National Historic Landmark
  • Around Hull-House, immigrants to Chicago
    crowded into a residential and industrial
    neighborhood. Italians, Russian and Polish Jews,
    Irish, Germans, Greeks and Bohemians
    predominated. Hull House provided services for
    the neighborhood, such as kindergarten and
    daycare facilities for children of working
    mothers, an employment bureau, an art gallery,
    libraries, and music and art classes. By 1900 the
    Jane Club (a cooperative residence for working
    women), the first Little Theater in America, a
    Labor Museum and a meeting place for trade union
    groups. The original Hull mansion remains, a
    national historic landmark in June of 1967

Farmers Reform Movement
Farmers Organize
  • Patrons of Husbandry 1867
  • Organized as a social and education society
  • Lodges called Granges
  • Farmers could discuss problems- absentee
    landlords, interest, railroads, elevator rates,
  • Farmers organized cooperatives- mills and
  • Granger laws, setting or authorizing maximum
    railroad rates and establishing state railroad
    commissions for administering the new
    legislation. Munn v. Illinois (later to be
  • Production soared- more farmland under
    cultivation, more machinery, and better yield.
    Farmers had to compete on an international level.
    This caused the prices to go down farther due to

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Farmers reform movements
  • Interstate Commerce Act of 1887-
  • Banned Rebates.
  • Rates must be proportional to distance traveled.
  • Rate schedules must be public and open to

Sherman Silver Purchase Act- 1890
  • Required the U.S. government to purchase nearly
    twice as much silver as before, but also added
    substantially to the amount of money already in
  • The Treasury would purchase 4.5 million ounces
    (or 281,250 pounds) of silver each month at
    market rates
  • The Treasury would issue notes redeemable in
    either gold or silver.
  • However, the increased supply of silver drove
    down the price. Many mine operators in the West
    tried to reduce expenses by cutting the miners'
    wages. Labor unrest and sporadic violence
  • As the price of silver continued to decline,
    holders of the government notes understandably
    redeemed them for gold rather than silver-Leading
    to the Panic of 1893.

The 1896 Election
  • After the election of 1892, a major railroad
    company failed, triggering the Panic of 1893.
  • Stock prices fell and millions lost their jobs.
    President Cleveland blamed the Sherman Silver
    Purchase Act, which required the government to
    buy silver with paper money redeemable in either
    gold or silver.
  • Silver was still an issue in the 1896 election,
    when Republicans nominated William McKinley, who
    favored the gold standard and Democrats chose
    William Jennings Bryan, who defended silver.
  • Bryan made a dramatic speech saying using the
    gold standard was like crucifying mankind on a
    cross of gold.
  • This speech won Bryan Populist support, but
    terrified business leaders gave money to the
    Republicans, and McKinley won the election.

  • From the start, the grange organization was
    thought of as a secret society, much like the
    Masons. Membership was supposed to be open to
    only farmers and their families, although at one
    point, lawyers, businessmen and politicians
  • There was a time in the not-too-distant past when
    the local Grange Hall was the center of community
    life in many small towns. It was a place of
    social gathering, a political rallying point, an
    economic cooperative, a fraternal order, a
    service organization and an agricultural forum.
    It instilled love of God, family and country. It
    helped farmers band together to protect their
    mutual interests. And, more than any other
    institution it embodied an American way of life.
  • The Grange is the nations oldest and second
    largest farm organization. It had its beginnings
    in Washington DC in 1867, founded by a group of
    farmers for their mutual support and to foster
    civic, moral and political responsibility. Grange
    members joined in various group ventures buying
    and selling goods legislative lobbying on behalf
    of farmers and eventually, in protecting
    themselves through insurance.

The Populists 248 min.
Populist Party
  • Farmers as a group did not share in the general
    prosperity of the latter nineteenth century, and
    believed that they had been marked out as special
    victims of the new industrial system
  • Agricultural areas in the West and South had been
    hit by economic depression years before
    industrial areas. In the 1880s, as drought hit
    the wheat-growing areas of the Great Plains and
    prices for Southern cotton sunk to new lows, many
    tenant farmers fell into deep debt. This
    exacerbated long-held grievances against
    railroads, lenders, grain-elevator owners, and
    others with whom farmers did business.
  • Party of the People- farmers and reformers- 1892
  • Governors, Senators and even a presidential
    candidate- Gen. James B. Weaver.

Populist Party- The goal was not just to relieve
economic pressure on agriculture, but also to
restore democracy by eliminating what the
Populists saw as the corrupt and corrupting
alliance between business and government.
  • Platform Omaha 1892
  • Support Labor Unions
  • Wealth belongs to those who make it
  • Government ownership of Railroads, telephone and
  • Free Silver
  • Graduated Income Tax
  • Secret Ballot
  • Shorten work hours.
  • Initiative and Referendum
  • Direct election of Senators
  • Restriction of Immigration

Mary Lease
William Jennings Bryan 232
Wilson-Gorman Tariff- 1894
  • It added a number of items to the free list,
    including sugar, lumber, coal and wool. Further,
    the duties on imported manufactured goods would
    be reduced while maintaining their protective
  • To compensate for the revenue shortfall that
    tariff reform would create, Wilsons bill called
    for the imposition of a two percent income tax,
    an idea recently heralded by the Populists.
  • In the end it was not an example of tariff reform
    and most was declared unconstitutional

Labor Discontent
  • Panic of 1893- Depression- 500 banks and 16,000
    businesses declared bankruptcy, millions out of
    work, winter brought suffering.
  • Coxeys Army- 1894- 500 workers (the Industrial
    Army) who marched from Ohio to Washington to
    protest the plight of the poor unemployed
    workers. He favored federally funded community
    public works and building programs as a solution
    to the panic.
  • Coxey wanted to increase the amount of currency
    in circulation, which would allow more money to
    be spend on public works, thus providing jobs for
    the unemployed. He and the other leaders were
    arrested in D.C. for trespassing (police arrested
    him for walking on the grass.)

Election of 1892
  • Republicans- William Henry Harrison
  • Democrats- Grover Cleveland.
  • Populists- Gen. James B. Weaver.
  • Campaign- nation torn up by labor strife.
    Homestead Strike, miners, and federal troops
  • Outcome Cleveland wins, Weaver got 1 million
    votes and Populist got 3 Senators and eleven
    congressmen elected.
  • One of the goals of the Populists in the South
    was to politically unite poor African Americans
    and poor whites.

Populist Party
  • Election of 1896
  • Republican William McKinley- supports gold
  • Democrat/Populist William Jennings Bryant-
    supports free coinage of silver. Cross of Gold
    Speech scared business leaders who helped
    McKinley win.

Segregation and Discrimination
  • After Reconstruction, southern legislatures
    passed laws that restricted African Americans
    rights, but prejudice existed nationwide.
  • Some white southerners tried to restrict African
    Americans right to vote by requiring voters to
    pay a poll tax and pass a literacy test.
  • Southern legislatures passed the Jim Crow Laws to
    create and enforce segregation in public places.
  • One law requiring separate railway cars for
    African Americans and whites was tested by Homer
    Plessy, an African American. His case went to the
    Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson. They upheld
    segregation, saying separate but equal
    facilities didnt violate the Fourteenth
  • In addition to legalized discrimination, strict
    rules governed social and business interactions
    between black and white Americans.
  • The worst outcome of discrimination was lynching,
    or murder by a mob. Nearly 900 African Americans
    were murdered between 1882 and 1892 by lynch mobs.

Opposing Discrimination
  • Two approaches to fighting racism emerged. Some
    advocated accepting segregation and learning
    skills to rise up, others believed African
    American should strive for full rights
  • Two leaders represented these groups.
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Believed that African Americans should strive for
    full rights immediately
  • Helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to
    fight for equal rights
  • Members of the Niagara Movement later founded the
    National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People (NAACP)
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Born into slavery
  • Believed African Americans had to accept
    segregation for the moment
  • Believed they could improve their condition by
    learning farming and vocational skills
  • Founded the Tuskegee Institute to teach African
    Americans practical skills

Other Groups Face Discrimination
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