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Multicultural Psychology Chapter 1

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Title: Multicultural Psychology Chapter 1


1
Multicultural PsychologyChapter 1
  • What is Multicultural Psychology?

2
  • Define multicultural psychology
  • Introduce key concepts in the field of
    multicultural psychology
  • Define other key terms, including culture, race,
    ethnicity, and worldview
  • Provide a historical context for the field of
    multicultural psychology
  • Explain the key assumptions and theoretical
    propositions of multicultural psychology
  • Encourage students to reflect on the effect of
    culture on their own behavior, cognitions, and
    affect

Chapter 1 Objectives Please Note All Concepts,
Terms, Definitions etc. in Gold font throughout
our PowerPoints refer specifically to the APA
Multicultural Guidelines online
3
  • What is Multicultural Psychology?
  • Narrow and Broad Definitions of Culture
  • Culture and Worldview
  • What is Race?
  • Multicultural Psychology versus Cross-cultural
    Psychology

4
  • Experimental science is characterized by
  • measurement
  • testable hypotheses
  • Psychology
  • The science of psychology studies people using
    three categories
  • Cognition (Thinking, Thoughts, Beliefs)
  • Emotion (Feelings, Affect)
  • Behavior (Acts, Action)
  • So, scientific (or academic or research)
    psychology is concerned with studying how people
    Think, Feel, and Behave
  • However, more specifically, scientific (or
    academic or research) psychology is concerned
    with studying what influences and causes people
    to Think, Feel, and Act the specific and
    particular ways they do
  • Multicultural (or Cultural or
    Cross-Cultural) psychology is concerned with
    studying how culture influences and causes people
    to Think, Feel, and Act the specific and
    particular ways they do

5
  • Culture
  • There are many definitions of culture. Our
    textbook authors suggest
  • Culture reflects the unique and specific
    values, beliefs, and practices of a specific
    group of people. Note that culture is a
    characteristic of a group, but is reflected in
    the influence it has on individual members of
    that group.
  • Culture APA Definition
  • "Culture" is defined as the belief systems and
    value orientations that influence customs, norms,
    practices, and social institutions, including
    psychological processes, language, care taking
    practices, media, educational systems, and
    organizations (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus,
    Nisbett, 1998).

6
  • Worldview
  • Our textbook defines worldview as a psychological
    perception of the world that determines how we
    think, behave, and feel.
  • Worldview APA Definition
  • The Definitions subsection of the Guidelines
    does not contain a specific entry for worldview
    at this time. However, throughout the six
    numbered Guidelines brief references are made to
    the influence that cultural worldviews have on
    thinking, feeling, and behaving.

7
  • Race (also see Appendix I at the end of this
    slideshow)
  • Our textbook authors suggest that most people use
    the terms culture, race, and ethnicity
    interchangeably, although technically they have
    different and distinct meanings
  • Our authors suggest that the term race is used in
    two main ways as a biological concept and as a
    sociocultural concept.
  • Biological Concept of Race
  • The perspective that a race is a group of people
    who share a a specific combination of physical,
    genetically inherited characteristics that
    distinguish them from other groups.
  • Sociocultural Concept of Race
  • The perspective that characteristics, values, and
    behaviors that have been associated with groups
    of different physical characteristics serve the
    social purpose of providing a way for outsiders
    to view another group and for members of a group
    to perceive themselves.

8
  • Race APA Definition
  • In the Guidelines, the definition of race is
    considered to be socially constructed, rather
    than biologically determined. Race, then, is the
    category to which others assign individuals on
    the basis of physical characteristics, such as
    skin color or hair type, and the generalizations
    and stereotypes made as a result. Thus, "people
    are treated or studied as though they belong to
    biologically defined racial groups on the basis
    of such characteristics" (Helms Talleyrand,
    1997).
  • Ethnicity
  • Our textbook defines ethnicity, in general, as
    simply a combination of race and culture
  • Ethnicity APA Definition
  • The Guidelines refer to ethnicity as the
    acceptance of the group mores and practices of
    one's culture of origin and the concomitant sense
    of belonging. We also note that, consistent with
    Brewer (1999), Sedikides and Brewer (2001), and
    Hornsey and Hogg (2000), individuals may have
    multiple ethnic identities that operate with
    different salience at different times.

9
  • Multicultural or Cross-Cultural ?
  • Our textbook authors note that the terms
    Multicultural, Cross-cultural, Cultural,
    and Ethnic Minority Psychology are used by
    different authors, and they suggest that these
    terms often refer to the same general area of
    study namely, how culture influences cognitions,
    emotions, and behaviors
  • However, they nonetheless suggest that
    Cross-cultural psychology studies the effects of
    differences in culture between different
    countries or nations of the world for example,
    the value placed on friendship by people brought
    up in Canada versus people brought up in the
    United States
  • Multicultural psychology studies the effects of
    differences in culture which exist in the same
    country or nation of the world for example, the
    value placed on friendship by Asian-Americans
    brought up in the United States versus
    Euro-Americans brought up in the United States

10
  • Why Do We Need the Field of Multicultural
    Psychology?
  • We need multicultural psychology because, quite
    simply, the United States is a multicultural
    society. It is in fact a setting where people of
    different backgrounds encounter one another.
  • All individuals exist in social, political,
    historical, and economic contexts, and
    psychologists are increasingly called upon to
    understand the influence of these contexts on
    individuals behavior.
  • The Guidelines on Multicultural Education,
    Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational
    Change for Psychologists reflect the continuing
    evolution of the study of psychology, changes in
    society-at-large, and emerging data about the
    different needs for particular individuals and
    groups historically marginalized or
    disenfranchised within and by psychology based on
    their ethnic/racial heritage and social group
    identity or membership.
  • http//www.census.gov
  • http//www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/race/
    racefactcb.html
  • http//www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-1.pdf
  • NM Census Data
  • DSM V

11
  • Multiculturalism as the Fourth Force
  • Multiculturalism as the fourth force is the idea
    that multicultural psychology is so important
    that it will fundamentally change the direction
    of the field of psychology, as psychoanalysis,
    behaviorism, and humanism have.
  • Paradigm Shift a major change in the way people
    think about a field.

12
  • Understanding the Cultural Context of Behavior
    The Biopsychosocial Model
  • Biopsychosocial Model a model of human behavior
    that takes into consideration biological,
    cognitive-affective, social interpersonal, social
    institutional, and cultural factors
  • http//hsc.unm.edu/library/ebooks.shtml

13
  • The Basic Tenets of Multicultural Theory
  • See text
  • See Key Assumptions and Theoretical Propositions
    According to the APA Multicultural Guidelines

14
  • Historical Background
  • Dubious Beginnings
  • The work of early psychologists on racial group
    differences and the response of ethnic minority
    psychology ethnical psychology the study of
    the minds of other races and peoples to their
    racist conclusions can be considered the early
    roots of multicultural psychology.
  • (cf. Overview Slideshows)

15
  • We Begin to Define Ourselves
  • Some ethnic minority psychological research in
    the 1930s turned to the effects of forces such
    as racism, discrimination, and poverty on
    individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds.
  • This required, and led to, determining more
    precise definitions of what racial and ethnic
    identity and terms mean

16
  • Gender Differences
  • Psychological research was traditionally
    dominated by white male psychologists, studying
    groups of white male undergraduates in research.
    Psychological theories about all people
    (regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender) were
    based on these studies.
  • Our authors note that psychologist Carol Gilligan
    was influential in bringing issues of including
    equal gender representation in research studies
    and theory-building to the forefront of
    psychology.
  • Note that some psychologists refer to the
    categories male and female as sex (which is
    considered a biological term) rather than
    gender which is considered a sociocultural
    role term (like males are expected to play
    with trucks and grow up to be lawyers, and
    females are expected to play with dolls and
    grow up to be the wives of lawyers and houses)

17
  • Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual and Transgender
    Issues
  • Our textbook authors suggest there have been 3
    historical trends in psychological research with
    and theorizing about lesbian, gay, and bisexual
    (LGB) and transgender individuals
  • Examining the extent that homosexuality was a
    psychological disorder (cf. DSM history)
  • A reaction to this, and examining the extent that
    homosexuality (sexual orientation) was not a
    psychological disorder
  • A current focus on presumed biological (rather
    than psychological) determinants of sexual
    orientation, and differences and similarities
    with exclusively heterosexual individuals

18
  • Historical Background
  • Dubious Beginnings
  • We Begin to Define Ourselves
  • Gender Differences
  • Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues
  • What is current NIH policy on group inclusion for
    funding psychological research?

19
  • The Rise of Multiculturalism
  • APA Divisions
  • APA Guidelines ...

20
  • Appendix I Race
  • (Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca. "Race." Microsoft
    Encarta 2008 DVD. Redmond, WA Microsoft
    Corporation, 2007.)
  • Most scientists have discredited race as a
    biological concept, and see race as a
    sociological concept.

Elderly Lakota (Sioux) Woman The Lakota, also
called Sioux, are a Native American people
whose members live mainly in North Dakota and
South Dakota in the United States.
Young Woman from Central Africa Most peoples of
sub-Saharan Africa have dark skin and tightly
curled hair. Many scientists believe these
physical characteristics evolved as forms of
protection from the intense solar radiation of
tropical Africa. This woman is from the
Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Race, term historically used to describe a human
population distinguishable from others based on
shared biological traits. All living human beings
belong to one species, Homo sapiens. The concept
of race stems from the idea that the human
species can be naturally subdivided into
biologically distinct groups. In practice,
however, scientists have found it impossible to
separate humans into clearly defined races.
21
Quechua The Quechua-speaking peoples of the
Andes Mountains live in hundreds of villages
stretching from Ecuador through Peru and into
Bolivia.
Most scientists today reject the concept of
biological race and instead see human biological
variation as falling along a continuum.
Nevertheless, race persists as a powerful social
and cultural concept used to categorize people
based on perceived differences in physical
appearance and behavior.
22
Aboriginal Australians The blond hair of some
Aboriginal Australians posed a problem for early
racial classifiers, who thought blond hair was
restricted to the so-called Caucasian races.
Anthropologists now know that all human
populations have significant physical and
biological variability, making it difficult to
classify individuals into racial groups.
Interest in defining races came from the
recognition of easily visible differences among
human groups. Around the world, human populations
differ in their skin color, eye color and shape,
hair color and texture, body shape, stature, limb
proportions, and other physical characteristics.
However, most anthropologists and biologists
regard these differences between populations as
largely superficial, resulting from adaptations
to local climatic conditions during the most
recent period of human evolution. Genetic
analysis, which provides a deeper and more
reliable measure of biological differences
between people, reveals that overall, people are
remarkably similar in their genetic makeup. Of
the genetic differences that do exist, more
variation occurs within so-called racial groups
than between them. That is, two people from the
same race are, on average, almost as
biologically different from each other as any two
people in the world chosen at random.
23
Black or White? In the United States, the
children of a black person and a white person are
usually regarded as black. The racial designation
is arbitrary because the children share in each
parents genetic heritage equally.
This high degree of genetic diversity exists
within populations because individuals from
different populations have always intermingled
and mated with each other. Given that populations
have interbred for most of human history, most
anthropologists reject the idea that pure races
existed at some time in the distant past. Today,
genetic analysis has replaced earlier methods of
comparing color, shape, and size to establish
degrees of relationship or common ancestry among
human populations.
24
Young Miao (Hmong) Girl The Miao, or Hmong, are
an ethnic group living in the Guizhou region of
southern China.
Young Englishman Many European peoples have
light skin and hair. Researchers believe that
light skin evolved as an environmental adaptation
that allowed people to thrive in northern
latitudes.
Huli Wigman from Papua New Guinea The Huli
people, who live in the southern highlands of
Papua New Guinea, are known for their elaborate
wigs. The ceremonial wigs are made of human hair
and adorned with flowers, bird feathers, and fur.
The term race is often misunderstood and misused.
It is often confused with ethnicity, an ambiguous
term that refers mostly, though not exclusively,
to cultural (non-biological) differences between
groups. An ethnic group derives its identity from
its distinctive customs, language, ancestry,
place of origin, or style of dress. For example,
the Hispanic ethnic group comprises people who
trace their ancestry to Spanish-speaking
countries in the Western Hemisphere. Although
some people assume Hispanics have a common
genetic heritage, in reality they share only a
language. Members of an ethnic group with a
common geographic origin often do share similar
physical features. But people of the same ethnic
group may also have very different physical
appearances, and conversely, people of different
ethnic groups may look quite similar.
25
Egyptian Bedouins Bedouins are nomadic Arabs who
live in the desert areas of Egypt. Their clothing
keeps them cool in the hot climate and is in
keeping with their Muslim faith.
People may also mistakenly use the term race to
refer to a religion, culture, or nationalityas
in the Jewish race or the Italian racewhose
members may or may not share a common ancestry.
The term race is also sometimes used to refer to
the entire human species, as in the human race.
In everyday language, the distinction between
race and ethnicity has become blurred, and many
people use the terms to mean the same thing.
26
Measurement of Head Shape Scientists in the
1800s and early 1900s used craniometry, the
measurement of head dimensions, in an attempt to
document uniform differences among human races.
Researchers proposed that each human race had a
particular head shape, measured as a ratio of the
length to the width of the skull. By the 1930s,
anthropological research had instead demonstrated
that this measurement could also vary widely
among people who shared a common heritage.
Carolus Linnaeus Swedish physician Carolus
Linnaeus was among the first to attempt to
classify people into races, although he did not
use that term. In the mid-1700s he divided humans
into four main subspecies and two minor
subspecies. He also ascribed temperaments and
cultural traits to each subspecies that reflected
his own social prejudices.
Many people believe, falsely, that differences in
physical appearance have something to do with
differences in the behavior, attitude,
intelligence, or intrinsic worth of people. These
beliefs promote racism, prejudice or animosity
against people perceived to belong to other
races.
27
At its worst, racism has inspired the abuse and
extermination of enormous numbers of people.
Recent historical examples included the
near-extermination of Native Americans by
European settlers of the Americas between the
16th and 20th centuries, the capture and export
of Africans for use as slaves in the Americas
from the early 17th to the mid-19th century, the
extermination of Jews in Europe by German Nazis
during World War II (1939-1945), and the system
of apartheid perpetrated by Afrikaners against
all nonwhite peoples in South Africa.
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