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Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood


Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chapter 7 Body Growth Slower growth rate than during infancy 2 to 3 inches in height and about 5 pounds in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early
  • Chapter 7

Body Growth
  • Slower growth rate than during infancy
  • 2 to 3 inches in height and about 5 pounds in
    weight each year
  • Boys slightly larger than girls
  • Baby fat drops
  • By end of preschool years children begin to lose
    primary baby teeth
  • Important to care for teeth
  • Childhood tooth decay is high for low SES
    children (poor diet, lack of flouridation and
    inadequate health and dental care

Children and High Fat Foods
  • 34 of energy in Americas diet is derived from
  • In course of school day, most eaten foods (candy,
    potato chips, cheese, peanut butter) contains at
    least 50 of fat
  • Childrens food preferences are influenced by
    what adults eat
  • Certain foods (high in fat) should be discouraged
    as a means for rewards with children
  • Health foods as rewards may be viewed as
    something to endure not to enjoy

Brain Development
  • Between 2 and 6 years the brain increases from 70
    to 90 percent of its adult weight
  • Left hemisphere- growth between 3 to 6 years and
    levels off-language skills
  • Right hemisphere- spatial skills (drawing,
    recognizing shapes) develops gradually over
    childhood and adolescence

Lateralization and Handedness
  • Dominant cerebral hemisphere- an individuals
    strong hand preference reflecting the greater
    capacity of one side of the brain
  • Right handers- 90 of population- language and
    hand control in left side of brain
  • Lefties- 10 of population- language shared in
    both hemispheres
  • Ambidextrous- let preferred but can be skillful
    with right hand
  • Hand preference of twins relate to body position
    during prenatal period
  • Small number of lefties show developmental

Emotional Well-being
  • Preschoolers with very stressful home lives
    suffer more respiratory and intestinal illnesses
    and injuries do to accidents
  • Deprivation dwarfism- growth disorder that
    appears between 2 and 15 years of age and is
    caused by the interference with the production of
    the growth hormone due to emotional deprivation-
    short stature, low weight in relation to height,
    decrease hormone production (GH)
  • Removal from emotionally inadequate environment
    GH levels return to normal delay in treatment
    can cause permanent dwarfism

  • Picky eaters and unpredictable eating pattern are
    not uncommon in preschool years
  • Decline in appetite is normal-slower growth
  • Wariness to new foods- adaptive skill in learning
    safety of foods
  • Preschoolers need high quality diet- fats, oils,
    sugars to a minimum
  • Common dietary deficiencies in preschool years-
    iron (anemia, calcium-bones and teeth Vitamin
    A-eyes, skin and internal organs Vitamin C-
    immune system, iron absorption and wound healing

Nutrition contd
  • Encouraging Good Nutrition in Children
  • Page 215

  • Childhood immunizations- polio, measles, mumps,
    rubella (German measles) pertussis (DTP)
    (whooping cough) diphteria, tetanus, hepatitis B,
    and chicken pox.
  • Infants- first 5 diphteria, tetanus, and DTP
    injections at 2 months
  • Polio vaccine in 3 injection series starting at 2
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) given at 15
    months- single shot
  • Hep B 3 shots starting at birth
  • Chicken pox as early as 12 months
  • Irritable, less energetic, low grade fever not
    beyond 24 hrs
  • 1 chance of serious side effects
  • 4 out of 10 people who get tetanus die 1 out of
    100 babies under 6 months who get pertussis dies

Cognitive Development Preoperational Stage-Piaget
  • Piagets preoperational stage- children are not
    capable of mental actions that obey logical rules

Make Believe Play
  • Increases in early childhood
  • Becomes increasing detached form real life
    situations associated with it
  • Less directed on self and begins to focus on
  • Gradually contains more complex scheme
  • Sociodramatic play- combines scheme and includes
    role playing of childrenn

  • Inability to imagine the perspectives of others
    and reflect on their own thinking
  • Leads to illogical features of thought
  • Animistic thinking- belief that inanimate objects
    have lifelike qualities
  • Magical thinking
  • Rigid thinking and illogical nature of young
    childrens thinking

  • Certain physical characteristics of objects
    remain the same even when their outward
    appearance changes
  • Preschoolers have not yet developed this concept
  • Understanding is centered (one aspect of
  • Perception- bound ( easily distracted by the
    appearance of objects)
  • Focus on states rather than transformations
    (focus on beginning and end states
  • Irreversibility- can not revise steps in a
    problem to get to the beginning

Conservation contd
  • Recently 2 year old Brookes father shaved off
    his thick beard and mustache. When Brooke saw him
    she was very upset. Using Piagets theory,
    explain why Brooke was upset by her fathers

Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory
  • Social context of cognitive development
  • Rapid growth in language in early childhood
  • Paritcipation in culturally meaningful tasks

Private Speech
  • Piaget called childrens utterances to
    themselves- egocentric speech
  • Vygotsky- children speak to themselves for
    self-guidance and self-direction (private speech)
  • Private speech is used more often when tasks are
    difficult or when a child is confused about how
    to proceed

Zone of Proximal Development
  • A range of tasks too difficult for the child to
    do alone but that can be accomplished with the
    help of others
  • Adults and more skilled peers can assist with
    development through dialogue

Zone of Proximal Development contd
  • Tanisha sees her 5 year old son Toby talking to
    himself when he plays. Should she discourage this
    behavior? Use Vygoskys theory to support your

  • Preschoolers spend short time on activities
  • Average time for single activity in preschool- 7
  • Attention more planful by end of preschool years

  • Age 2 recall is 1 to 2 items
  • Age 4 recall is 3 or 4 items
  • Recall is poorer than recognition
  • Young children are less able to use memory
    strategies- mental activities that improve
    chances of remembering
  • Children remember in terms of scripts
  • Childrens memory can be assisted by discussing
    past events, asking questions, and providing
    elaborate information

Language Affects Memory
  • First verbs in childrens vocabulary
  • Think, remember, and pretend
  • By age 4 children understand that beliefs and
    reality can differ- people can hold false beliefs
  • Young children believe that all events must be
    directly observed to be known

  • Preschoolers understand a great deal about
    written language long before they learn to read
    or write in conventional ways
  • Preschoolers are aware of some ideas about
    symbols but may revise these ideas as their
    perceptual and cognitive capacities improve and
    as they encounter writing in many different

Mathematical Reasoning
  • Built on foundation of informally acquired
  • Early years- big, little, small, lots
  • Between 2 yrs and 3 yrs they begin to count-
  • 3 yrs to 4 yrs- one to one correspondence
  • 4 yrs and 5 yrs- cardinality- last number in a
    counting sequence indicates the quantity of items
    in a set
  • By end of preschool- count on concept
  • Eventually later develop count down concept

Preschool and Daycare
  • Over 30 years the number of young children in
    preschool has increased steadily
  • Due to large number of women in workforce
  • Types of preschools- child centered preschools,
    academic programs

Early Intervention
  • Project Head Start- 1965 for children with Low
  • Encourages parental involvement
  • Children in Head Start scored higher in IQ and
    school achievement than controls during first 2
    to 3 years of elementary school
  • Less likely to be placed in special education or
    retained a grade and a greater number graduated
    from high school
  • Good child care can reduce negative impact of an
    underprivileged home life

Important Factor For Good Childcare
  • Group size
  • Caregiver to child ratio
  • Caregivers educational preparation
  • Caregivers personal commitment to learning about
    and caring for children

  • Sesame Street works as an academic tutor
  • TV can support cognitive development as long as
    childrens viewing is not excessive and programs
    meet developmental needs

  • By age 2, 200 words
  • BY age 6, 10,000 words
  • Fast-mapping- connecting a new word with an
    underlying concept after only a brier encounter
  • Preschoolers extend language meanings through

  • The way we combine meaningful phrases and
  • 2 and 3 yrs old English speakers use simple
    sentences- subject verb order
  • Overregularization- by about 3.5 children learn
    many grammar rules and may use them in error
  • Difficulty with passive form

  • Preschoolers are learning how to use appropriate
    communication tools effectively
  • By age 4 children know culturally accepted ways
    of adjusting speech to fit age, sex, and social
    status role of persons

Pragmatics contd
  • One day Sammys mother explained to him that the
    family would take a vacation in Miami. The next
    morning Sammy emerged from his room with his
    belongings spilled out of a suitcase and
    remarked, I gotted my bag packed. When are we
    going to Your-ami? What do Sammys errors
    reveal about his approach to language?