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Introduction to Psychology

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Chapter 6 States of Consciousness States of Consciousness Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment Selective Attention our awareness focuses on ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Psychology


1
Chapter 6 States of Consciousness
2
States of Consciousness
  • Consciousness
  • our awareness of ourselves and our environment
  • Selective Attention
  • our awareness focuses on only a limited portion
    of what we experience
  • cocktail party effect

3
Attention
  • Inattentional blindness
  • failure to see visible objects when we are
    attending to another task
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vAhg6qcgoay4
  • Conscious attention
  • can only be in one place at a time

4
Sleep and Dreams
  • Circadian rhythm
  • the biological clock
  • roughly corresponds to 24-hour day/night cycle
  • cyclical bodily rhythms
  • wakefulness
  • body temperature

5
Measuring Sleep Activity
6
Sleep Stages
  • Cycle through 5 sleep stages every 90 minutes
  • Stage 1 Sleep
  • brief stage sensation of falling
  • Stage 2 Sleep
  • 20 minutes spindles (bursts of brain activity)
  • Stage 3 Sleep
  • brief transitioning to deeper sleep
  • Stage 4 Sleep
  • 30 min. delta (large, slow) brain waves deep
    sleep
  • REM Sleep
  • 10 minutes vivid dreams

7
Sleep Stages
  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
  • recurring
  • becomes longer as night goes on
  • vivid dreams
  • paradoxical sleep
  • externally calm (muscles)
  • internally aroused (heart rate)

8
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • Alpha Waves
  • slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
  • Delta Waves
  • large, slow waves of deep sleep
  • stage 3 and stage 4
  • Hallucinations
  • false sensory experiences
  • stage 1 may experience hallucination-like images

9
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • Sleep
  • loss of consciousness that is
  • periodic
  • natural
  • reversible

10
Typical Nightly Sleep Stages
11
Typical Nightly Sleep Stages
12
Sleep Deprivation
Are You Sleep Deprived? 1. Need an alarm clock in
order to wake up at the appropriate time. 2. Its
a struggle for me to get out of bed in the
morning. 3. Weekday mornings I hit the snooze bar
several times to get more sleep. 4. I feel tired,
irritable, and stressed out during the week. 5. I
have trouble concentrating and remembering. 6. I
feel slow with critical thinking, problem
solving, and being creative. 7. I often fall
asleep watching TV. 8. I often fall asleep in
boring meetings or lectures or in warm rooms. 9.
I often fall asleep after heavy meals or after a
low dose of alcohol. 10. I often fall asleep
while relaxing after dinner. 11. I often fall
asleep within five minutes of getting into
bed. 12. I often feel drowsy while driving. 13. I
often sleep extra hours on weekend mornings. 14.
I often need a nap to get through the day. 15. I
have dark circles around my eyes.
13
Sleep Deprivation
  • Effects of Sleep Loss
  • fatigue
  • impaired concentration
  • immune suppression
  • irritability
  • slowed performance
  • increased accidents
  • planes
  • autos and trucks

14
Sleep Deprivation
15
Why do we need sleep?
  • Protective
  • kept our early ancestors from navigating at night
  • Recuperation
  • restore and repair brain tissue
  • Remembering
  • restore rebuild memories from the day
  • Growth
  • growth hormone released during deep sleep

16
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
  • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
  • Natural Remedies
  • Exercise
  • Avoid caffeine (including chocolate)
  • Dimmer lights
  • Avoid naps
  • Wake at same time each day
  • Turn clock away

17
Sleep Disorders
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vX2yfUL8uct0feature
    channel
  • Narcolepsy
  • uncontrollable sleep attacks
  • may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at
    inopportune times
  • Hypersomnia
  • 12-14 hours per day plus nap
  • Fatigue, stressed out feeling
  • Rule out medical

18
Sleep Disorders
  • Sleep Apnea
  • intermittently stop breathing during sleep
  • frequent momentary awakenings
  • usually unaware of these episodes
  • Night Terrors
  • mostly seen in children
  • appearance of being terrified (fast heart rate)
  • occur during Stage 4
  • not the same as nightmares (which occur during
    REM)

19
Sleep Walking/Talking
  • occur during Stage 4 (non-REM) Sleep
  • runs in families
  • more common in childhood
  • usually harmless
  • not remembered the next morning

20
Dreams
  • Dreams (REM)
  • images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a
    sleeping persons mind
  • hallucinatory imagery
  • discontinuities
  • incongruities
  • vivid recall if we are awakened during REM sleep
    (or right after)

21
Dreams - Freud
  • Sigmund Freud-The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
  • dreams viewed as wish fulfillment
  • outlet for otherwise unacceptable feelings

22
Dreams - Freud
  • Manifest Content
  • remembered story line of a dream
  • includes real experiences from the day
  • Tetris experiment
  • Latent (Hidden) Content
  • underlying meaning of a dream
  • Freud uncovering this hidden meaning can help
    people resolve personal issues

23
Dreams
  • REM Rebound
  • tendency for REM sleep increases following REM
    sleep deprivation
  • Why do we dream?
  • Freud outlet for unacceptable feelings
  • Not supported by research
  • Information processing to help file memories
  • Link between REM memory confirmed by brain
    scans

24
Hypnosis
  • Hypnosis
  • one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another
    (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings,
    thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur
  • Depends on the subjects openness to suggestion

25
Hypnosis
  • Posthypnotic Amnesia
  • supposed inability to recall what one experienced
    during hypnosis
  • induced by the hypnotists suggestion
  • Memory Recovery
  • Research has not supported the claim that
    hypnosis recovers memories that are always
    accurate
  • Testimony based on hypnosis is often banned

26
Hypnosis
  • Acid Study (Orne Evans, 1965)
  • hypnotized subjects told to plunge hand into
    acid throw it in researchers face
  • Next day denied they would follow such commands
  • control group told to pretend they were
    hypnotized
  • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as
    the hypnotized ones

27
Hypnosis
  • Unhypnotized persons can also do this

28
Hypnosis
  • Posthypnotic Suggestion
  • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is
    no longer hypnotized
  • used by some clinicians to control undesired
    symptoms and behaviors
  • has been found to be helpful for treatment of
    obesity
  • addictions (drug, alcohol, smoking) do not
    respond as well

29
Hypnotic Pain Relief
  • 2 Theories
  • Dissociation
  • a split between different levels of consciousness
  • example ice bath study - dissociate the
    sensation of cold from the emotional suffering we
    define as painful
  • Selective Attention
  • hypnosis doesnt block sensory input, but it may
    block our attention to painful stimuli

30
Hypnosis
  • Hypnosis as a social phenomenon
  • normal state of consciousness
  • subjects feel and behave in ways appropriate for
    good hypnotic subjects
  • Hypnosis as divided consciousness
  • most researchers believe there is more to it than
    just being a good subject
  • sometimes subjects carry out behaviors even if
    they think no one is watching
  • brain activity areas light up as though
    subjects are really seeing a color

31
Hypnosis
  • Divided Consciousness or Social Phenomenon?

32
Drugs Consciousness
  • Psychoactive Drugs
  • chemicals that change perceptions moods
  • Tolerance
  • brain adapts chemistry to offset drug effects
  • increasingly larger doses are needed to get the
    effect
  • Withdrawal
  • discomfort following the discontinuation of a drug

33
Drug Tolerance
34
Dependence Addiction
  • Physical Dependence
  • indicated by physical pain and craving when the
    drug is absent
  • Psychological Dependence
  • not physically addictive, but user has a
    psychological need to use the drug
  • stress-relieving drugs
  • Addiction
  • compulsive drug craving and use

35
Addiction Myths
  • Addictive drugs quickly corrupt (False)
  • In most cases addiction does not occur when drugs
    are used medically
  • Example Those given morphine to control pain do
    not crave the drug like addicts who use morphine
    to change their mood
  • Even with highly addictive drugs (cocaine) only
    some people (about 15) become addicted
  • Therapy is required to overcome addictions
    (False)
  • Therapy group support is helpful, but people do
    also recover on their own

36
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Three Categories
  • Depressants
  • Stimulants
  • Hallucinogens
  • All work at the brains synapses
  • Stimulate, inhibit, or mimic neurotransmitter
    activity
  • Our expectations also play a role

37
Depressants
  • Reduce neural activity
  • Slow body functions
  • Examples
  • Alcohol
  • Barbiturates (tranquilizers)
  • Opiates

38
Depressants - Alcohol
  • Slows reaction times
  • Speech slurs
  • Lowers inhibitions
  • Feelings of invincibility
  • Disrupts processing of recent experiences into
    long-term memories
  • Blackouts result partly from the suppression of
    REM sleep
  • Prolonged excessive drinking can affect
    cognition (brain shrinking)

39
Depressants - Barbiturates
  • Tranquilizers
  • Mimic the effects of alcohol
  • Depress nervous system activity
  • Prescription barbiturates used to induce sleep or
    reduce anxiety
  • Can be lethal if taken with alcohol or in large
    doses

40
Depressants - Opiates
  • Opium and its derivatives
  • Morphine Heroin
  • Depress (slow down) neural activity
  • Lessen pain and anxiety by creating a sense of
    pleasure
  • Pleasure is short term and another dose may be
    craved
  • Larger and larger doses are needed
  • Withdrawal symptoms can be extreme
  • Increasing dose can lead to overdose death

41
Stimulants
  • Excite neural activity
  • Speed up body functions
  • Examples
  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine
  • Amphetamines
  • Methamphetamine (speed)
  • Cocaine
  • Ecstasy

42
Stimulants - Cocaine
  • Enters bloodstream quickly
  • Rush of euphoria
  • Brains supply of dopamine, serotonin,
    norepinephrine are depleted
  • Crash 15-30 minutes later as drug wears off
  • Many regular users do become addicted
  • May lead to emotional disturbances,
    suspiciousness, convulsions, cardiac arrest

43
Stimulants - Ecstasy
  • A synthetic stimulant
  • Also a mild hallucinogen
  • Triggers release of serotonin and blocks its
    reabsorption
  • Prolonged feeling of euphoria
  • Risks dehydration, overheating, death
  • Long-term damages neurons that make serotonin
    (permanent depressed mood)

44
Hallucinogens
  • Hallucinogens
  • distort perceptions
  • evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory
    input
  • can be natural substances (marijuana) or
    synthetic (LSD or Ecstasy)

45
Hallucinogens - LSD
  • lysergic acid diethylamide
  • created accidentally ingested by a chemist
  • perceived striking images and intense patterns of
    colors
  • chemically similar to serotonin
  • produces a variety of emotions
  • panic
  • detachment
  • euphoria

46
Hallucinogens - Marijuana
  • THC major active ingredient
  • Mix of effects (difficult to classify drug type)
  • Relaxes, disinhibits, euphoric feelings
  • Mild hallucinogen increased sensitivity to
    colors, sounds, tastes, and smells
  • By-products stay in body for 1 month
  • regular users need lower doses for same effect
  • Amplifies current state (e.g., anxiety or
    depression)

47
Hallucinogens - Marijuana
  • Impairs
  • motor coordination
  • reaction time (makes machine operation unsafe)
  • formation of memories
  • information recall
  • Marijuana smoke
  • Can be toxic
  • Lung damage

48
Drug Use Influences
  • Biological Factors
  • Adopted individuals more susceptible to
    alcoholism if one or both parents have history
  • Genes identified that are more common among
    people predisposed to alcoholism
  • Psychological Factors
  • Feeling that life is meaningless
  • Stress
  • Psychological disorders (e.g., depression)

49
Drug Use Influences
  • Social-cultural influences
  • peer influence
  • cultural attitude toward drug use
  • urban environment
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