Dissociative Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Dissociative Disorders PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3b2691-ZjEwN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Dissociative Disorders

Description:

Dissociative Disorders Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from painful previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Symptoms Having a sense of being ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:72
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: facultyUc7
Learn more at: http://faculty.ucc.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Dissociative Disorders


1
Dissociative Disorders
  • Conscious awareness becomes separated
    (dissociated) from painful previous memories,
    thoughts, and feelings.

Symptoms
  • Having a sense of being unreal.

2. Being separated from the body.
3. Watching yourself as if in a movie.
2
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
  • A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more
    distinct and alternating personalities, formerly
    called multiple personality disorder.

Chris Sizemore (DID)
3
DID Critics
  • Between 1930 to 1960 the diagnosis was only 2
    percent
  • Since it made it to DSM in 1980s the reported
    cases has jumped to 20,000
  • Number of personalities mushroomed from 3 to 12
    per patient
  • This disorder is unknown in Japan and India

4
DID Critics
Critics Arguments
  • Role-playing by people open to a therapists
    suggestion.

2. Learned response that reinforces reductions in
anxiety.
5
Personality Disorders
  • Personality disorders are characterized by
    inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that
    impair social functioning. They are usually
    without anxiety, depression, or delusions.

6
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • A disorder in which the person (usually men)
    exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing,
    even toward friends and family members. Formerly,
    this person was called a sociopath or psychopath
  • The pattern normally begins in late childhood
  • ½ children who show the pattern become
    sociopaths, unable to keep a job, irresponsible,
    and assaultive, or criminal.

7
Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Like mood disorders and schizophrenia, antisocial
    personality disorder has biological and
    psychological reasons. Youngsters, before
    committing a crime, respond with lower levels of
    stress hormones than others do at their age.

8
Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • PET scans of 41 murderers revealed reduced
    activity in the frontal lobes. In a follow-up
    study, repeat offenders had 11 less frontal lobe
    activity (Raine et al., 1999 2000).

Courtesy of Adrian Raine, University of Southern
California
Normal
Murderer
9
Mood Disorders
  • Emotional extremes of mood disorders come in two
    principal forms.
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Bipolar disorder

10
Major Depressive Disorder
Depression is the common cold of psychological
disorders. In a year, 5.8 of men and 9.5 of
women report depression worldwide (WHO, 2002).
Major Depressive Disorder
Blue mood
Chronic shortness of breath
Gasping for air after a hard run
11
Major Depressive Disorder
  • Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of
    depression last two weeks or more and are not
    caused by drugs or medical conditions.

Signs include
  • Lethargy and fatigue
  • Feelings of worthlessness
  • Loss of interest in family friends
  • Loss of interest in activities

12
Bipolar Disorder
  • Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An
    alternation between depression and mania signals
    bipolar disorder.

Manic Symptoms
Depressive Symptoms
Elation
Gloomy
Euphoria
Withdrawn
Desire for action
Inability to make decisions
Hyperactive
Tired
Multiple ideas
Slowness of thought
13
Bipolar Disorder
Many great writers, poets, and composers suffered
from bipolar disorder. During their manic phase
creativity surged, but not during their depressed
phase.
Earl Theissen/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library
George C. Beresford/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library
The Granger Collection
Bettmann/ Corbis
14
Theory of Depression
Depression is prevalent worldwide
Gender differences
Depression is increasing, especially in the
teens.
15
Biological Perspective
Genetic Influences Mood disorders run in
families. The rate of depression is higher in
identical (50) than fraternal twins (20).
PET scans show that brain energy consumption
rises and falls with manic and depressive
episodes.
16
The Depressed Brain
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Norepineprine Smoke releases norepinehrine
  • Serotonine
  • Drugs block the reuptake, or the chemical
    breakdown of these two neurotransmitters
  • Jogging has the same effect
  • Deep brain stimulation

17
Social-Cognitive Perspective
The social-cognitive perspective suggests that
depression arises partly from self-defeating
beliefs and negative explanatory styles.
18
Negative Thoughts and Moods
Explanatory style plays a major role in becoming
depressed.
19
Depression Cycle
  • Negative stressful events.
  • Pessimistic explanatory style.
  • Hopeless depressed state.
  • These hamper the way the individual thinks and
    acts, fueling personal rejection.
  • Break the cycle by moving to a different
    environment, reversing our self blame, turning
    our attention outward, or engage in more pleasant
    and rewarding activities

20
Schizophrenia
  • The literal translation is split mind which
    refers to a split from reality. A group of severe
    disorders characterized by the following
  • Disorganized and delusional thinking.
  • Disturbed perceptions.
  • Inappropriate emotions and actions.

21
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Positive symptoms the presence of inappropriate
behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or
delusional talking) Negative symptoms the
absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless
faces, rigid bodies)
22
Disorganized Delusional Thinking
This morning when I was at Hillside Hospital, I
was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie
stars Im Mary Poppins. Is this room painted
blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four
weeks after my eighteenth birthday.
(Sheehan, 1982)
Other forms of delusions include, delusions of
persecution (someone is following me) or
grandeur (I am a king).
This monologue illustrates fragmented, bizarre
thinking with distorted beliefs called delusions
(Im Mary Poppins).
23
Disturbed Perceptions
  • A schizophrenic person may perceive things that
    are not there (hallucinations). Frequently such
    hallucinations are auditory and lesser visual,
    somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory.

L. Berthold, Untitled. The Prinzhorn Collection,
University of Heidelberg
August Natter, Witches Head. The Prinzhorn
Collection, University of Heidelberg
Photos of paintings by Krannert Museum,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
24
Inappropriate Emotions Actions
  • A schizophrenic person may laugh at the news of
    someone dying or show no emotion at all (flat
    affect).

Patients with schizophrenia may continually rub
an arm, rock a chair, or remain motionless for
hours (catatonia).
25
Onset and Development of Schizophrenia
Nearly 1 in a 100 suffer from schizophrenia, and
throughout the world over 24 million people
suffer from this disease (WHO, 2002).
Schizophrenia strikes young people as they mature
into adults. It affects men and women equally,
but men suffer from it more severely than women.
26
Chronic and Acute Schizophrenia
  • When schizophrenia is slow to develop
    (chronic/process) recovery is doubtful. Such
    schizophrenics usually display negative symptoms.

When schizophrenia rapidly develops
(acute/reactive) recovery is better. Such
schizophrenics usually show positive symptoms.
27
Understanding Schizophrenia
Dopamine Overactivity Researchers found that
schizophrenic patients express higher levels of
dopamine D4 receptors in the brain. Drugs that
blocks dopamine receptors help with
symptoms Drugs that increase dopamine level
(amphetamines, cocaine) increase the symptoms
28
Abnormal Brain Activity
  • Brain scans show abnormal activity in the frontal
    cortex, thalamus, and amygdala of schizophrenic
    patients.

Paul Thompson and Arthur W. Toga, UCLA Laboratory
of Neuro Imaging and Judith L. Rapport, National
Institute of Mental Health
29
Abnormal Brain Morphology
  • Schizophrenia patients may exhibit morphological
    changes in the brain like enlargement of
    fluid-filled ventricles.

Both Photos Courtesy of Daniel R. Weinberger,
M.D., NIH-NIMH/ NSC
30
Genetic Factors
  • The likelihood of an individual suffering from
    schizophrenia is 50 if their identical twin has
    the disease (Gottesman, 2001).
About PowerShow.com