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Best Practices in Writing Instruction

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Title: Best Practices in Writing Instruction


1
Best Practices in Writing Instruction
Discovering the Gem in Every Child
Presented by Sharon Spencer
2
Agenda
Introductions Preparing for the New ELA Grade
Level Assessments The New Model for Fall of 2005
for Grades 3-8 Four Types of Writing All About
Writing From Knowledge and Experience (Narrative
Writing) Responding to Student Samples Revising
and Editing Multiple Choice Questions Answering
a Direct Question About The Student Writing
Sample Writing About Reading Transitioning from
MEAP to ACT/MME Persuasive Writing Grammar in
Context
Discovering the Gem in Every Child
3
Basic Changes to Test Design Grade Level ELA
Test 3 through 8 Multiple Choice Format Peer
Responses Shifting from MEAP to ACT Persuasive
Writing Grammar in Context
4
Great Results Standish Sterling 76 of Third
Graders were proficient in Writing in 2005 Sault
Ste Marie 66 of third grade students
proficient in writing in 2005 State Average in
2005 was 51 Hoppin Elementary in Three Rivers
2002 to 2003, 28 student proficient in
writing In 2004, 53 were proficient.
5
HIGH PERFORMANCE IN HIGH POVERTY SCHOOLS
90/90/90 AND BEYOND COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
HIGH ACHIEVEMENT SCHOOLS
1. A focus on academic achievement 2. Clear
curriculum choices 3. Frequent assessment of
student progress and multiple opportunities for
improvement 4. An emphasis on nonfictional
writing 5. Collaborative scoring of student work
What this means 1. A focus on improvement 2. More
time on reading, writing, and math 3. Weekly
assessments of student progress constructed and
administered by classroom teachers 4. Better
writing provides better diagnostic information
demonstrates the thinking process 5. Regular
exchanges of student papers among teachers,
principals, and other schools
Consistent Techniques Used 1. Writing - students
write frequently in a variety of
subjects. 2. Performance Assessment - the
predominant method of assessment is performance
assessment. This does not mean that these
schools never use multiple-choice items.
However, it is performance assessment in several
different disciplines that local observers have
associated with student progress. 3. Collaboration
- teachers routinely collaborate, using real
student work as the focus of their
discussion. 4. Focus - teachers in these schools
do not try to do it all but are highly focused
in learning.
6
BluePrints Writing Chants ? Writing is not a
subject. Writing is a way of thinking. ? We
read, write, speak, and listen in every
subject. ? Writing is talk written down. ? If I
can talk a lot, I can write a lot! ? We can
demonstrate our knowledge in all subjects with
our written responses. ? Writing in the content
areas prepares us for the writing that the world
of work requires.
Writing Terms Constructed Responses ? Short,
clear, concise ? Require a few sentences Extended
Responses ? Somewhat longer ? Require more
detail ? Options include ? three to four
sentences ? a paragraph ? a bullet list ?
multiple paragraphs Our Tip Use Power Verbs!
7
BLUEPRINTS EARLY ELEMENTARY POWER VERBS FOR
CONTENT AREA WRITING
explain show tell help list prove find draw use ma
ke check demand explore lead force
We can use these verbs to help us write in all
content areas.
8
BluePrints Expanded Power Verbs The following
verbs can help students write in every
subject explain observe justify interpre
t demonstrate analyze compare summarize co
ntrast conclude describe limit gather m
easure solve list count draw add infor
m multiply construct subtract report divi
de formulate calculate identify change
generalize examine represent show collect
clarify explore point out design present
9
Strategy One All About Narrative
Writing Brainstorming for the Big Idea
Kindness ? No act of kindness, no matter how
small, is ever wasted. ---Aesop ? A persons
true worth is the good he or she does in the
world. --- Mohammed ? One of the most
difficult things to give away is kindness, for it
is usually returned. --- Mark Ortman ? Kind
words can be short and easy to speak, but their
echoes are endless. --- Mother Teresa
Courage ? Courage is doing whats right. ?
Courage is telling the truth when it would be
easier to lie. ? Courage sometimes includes
helping others who are in danger. ? Life shrinks
or expands in proportion to ones courage. ---
Anais Nin ? A hero is an ordinary individual who
finds the strength to perservere and endure in
spite of overwhelming obstacles. ---
Christopher Reeve
10
1 Generating Ideas for Writing
from my life doer receiver from
history from my imagination (story-teller)
make-believe realistic fiction
narrator/observer from a book,
television or movies others
11
2 Brainstorming for the Big Idea Writing Ideas
doer I can be the doer of ______ in the story I
will tell.
receiver I can be the person who receives the
______ in the story I will tell.
narrator/reporter I dont have to be a character
in the story I write. I can write about someone
else doing something ______. (from history, from
a book, from the news)
storyteller I can write a make-believe story
about ______. (realistic fiction)
12
3 Lets Describe It/Key Words
My topic is______________________________________
_______________
Nouns that I could use (people, places, things)
Verbs that I could use (show action)
Adjectives that I could use (strong descriptive
words)
Adverbs that I could use (modify verbs time,
place, etc.)
13
4 The Beginning
In each box, draw a picture and write a sentence
or two about the beginning of the story you read
or heard.
__________________________________________________
____________ _____________________________________
_________________________ ________________________
______________________________________ ___________
__________________________________________________
_ ________________________________________________
______________ ___________________________________
___________________________ ______________________
________________________________________ _________
__________________________________________________
___ ______________________________________________
________________ _________________________________
_____________________________ ____________________
__________________________________________ _______
__________________________________________________
_____ ____________________________________________
__________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ __________________
____________________________________________
14
4 The Middle
In each box, draw a picture and write a sentence
or two about the middle of the story you read or
heard.
__________________________________________________
____________ _____________________________________
_________________________ ________________________
______________________________________ ___________
__________________________________________________
_ ________________________________________________
______________ ___________________________________
___________________________ ______________________
________________________________________ _________
__________________________________________________
___ ______________________________________________
________________ _________________________________
_____________________________ ____________________
__________________________________________ _______
__________________________________________________
_____ ____________________________________________
__________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ __________________
____________________________________________
15
4 The End
In each box, draw a picture and write a sentence
or two about the end of the story you read or
heard.
__________________________________________________
____________ _____________________________________
_________________________ ________________________
______________________________________ ___________
__________________________________________________
_ ________________________________________________
______________ ___________________________________
___________________________ ______________________
________________________________________ _________
__________________________________________________
___ ______________________________________________
________________ _________________________________
_____________________________ ____________________
__________________________________________ _______
__________________________________________________
_____ ____________________________________________
__________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ __________________
____________________________________________
16
Strategy Two Ideas About Reflective
Writing Rubric Used for Reporting and
Reflecting Michigan Educational Assessment
Program High School Test Part 1 Writing -
Session 2 Reporting and Reflecting Holistic
Scorepoint Descriptions Here is an explanation
of what readers think about as they score your
writing. 4 The written response demonstrates the
ability to reflect critically on a provided piece
of writing, Ideas are supported by specific
examples or details from the provided piece.
Organization and form enhance the central ideas
and move the reader through the text. The voice
and tone are authentic and compelling. There may
be surface errors, but they do not interfere
with meaning. 3 The written response
demonstrates the ability to reflect on a provided
piece of writing. Ideas are somewhat supported
by examples or details from the provided piece.
Organization and form are appropriate and present
the ideas coherently. The voice and tone
support the ideas conveyed. Surface feature
errors may be noticeable. 2 The written
response demonstrates limited ability to reflect
on a provided piece of writing. Ideas are
supported with limited details and examples from
the provided piece. The voice and tone may be
inappropriate or uneven. Surface feature errors
may make the writing awkward to read. 1 The
written response demonstrates the attempt to
reflect on a provided piece of writing. Ideas
may be presented in generalizations about the
writing sample. There is little discernible
shape or direction. There is little control
over voice and tone. Surface feature errors may
make the writing difficult to read.
17
BluePrints Four Point Rubric for Reflection
4 I answered the question about the student
writing sample clearly. I supported my answer
with specific details and examples from the
student writing sample. I proofread my work for
basic punctuation and spelling errors. 3 I
answered the question about the student writing
sample. I have supported my answer with some
specific details and examples. I proofread my
work. 2 I tried to answer the question about the
student writing sample. I did not include
specific examples and details from the student
writing sample. 1 I wrote something about the
student piece of writing. I did not include any
details with my answer.
18
Reflective Power Verbs Early Elementary write
describe explain show tell list help
use make answer compare edit fix
correct change
19
Expanded Power Verbs for Reflective Writing
Grades 3-8 shows combines begins demonstra
tes cuts explains pastes informs expresse
s engages illustrates compares lists provide
s contrasts understands analyzes concludes
describes presents writes creates supports
provides answers quotes helps composes d
evelops needs changes edits fixes
20
Peer Response Questions From MDE/MEAP Released
Items 2005
  • Third Grade Released Items 2005
  • What is a good title for this story? Explain why
    you think it is a good title. Use details from
    the student writing sample to
  • support your answer.
  • Fourth Grade Released Items 2005
  • Did the writer organize this piece of writing by
    comparing and contrasting or by telling a story
    in the order it happened
  • from beginning to end? Use details from the
    student writing sample to support your answer.
  • Fifth Grade Released Items 2005
  • What would be a good title for this piece? Use
    details from the student writing sample to
    support your answer.
  • Sixth Grade Released Items 2005
  • How does the writer let readers know how Tom is
    feeling? Use details from the student writing
    sample to support your
  • answer.
  • Seventh Grade Released Items 2005
  • Has the writer developed this piece so the
    audience can easily read it and understand it?
    Use details from the student
  • writing sample to support your answer.

21
Student Writing Sample from Standish
i was brave when my mom put a bowl of brown,
slimy, disgusting sludge in front of me. That she
called Food. I thought that it was going two jump
of the bowl and eat me? Then I eat the oatmeal. i
was brave because I eat it instead of letting it
eat me! 1. Which of the following has been
fixed or edited correctly? i was brave when my
mom put a bowl of brown, slimy, disgusting sludge
in front of me. A. i were brave..... B. I was
brave....... C. I is brave.......
22
2. Which of the following group of words is not
a complete sentence? A. I thought it was going
to jump out of the bowl and eat me. B. Then I
ate the oatmeal. C. That she called Food. 3.
Which of the following has been fixed or edited
correctly? I was brave because I eat it instead
of letting it eat me! A. I was brave because I
eating it........ B. I was brave because I eats
it..... C. I was brave because I ate it.......
23
4. Read the following group of words from this
piece I thought it was going two jump out of
the bowl...... Which word in the above sentence
is not spelled correctly? A. was B. jump C.
two 5. What did the writer do to make the end
of this piece exciting? A. He used a sound
effect. B. He made the end of his piece
funny. C. He made the end of this piece
sad. 6. The writer of this piece did a great
job describing A. oatmeal B. his mom C. his
favorite meal
24
Grade 2 Selection One Our Peer Response 1.
What would be a good title for this piece?
Explain your answer with details from the
story. 2. Did the writer do a good job
describing his feelings about eating oatmeal?
Include examples from the story in your answer.
25
Student Writing Sample from Dearborn My Fever
(1) One day I had a really, really bad fever.
My mom and dad (2) called the doctor. The doctor
came to our house because I couldnt get (3) up.
He showed my mom and dad what to give me so I
can feel better. (4) It took almost three or
four days. I couldnt go to school. My (5)
mom, dad, and doctor was taking care of me. They
were being (6) helpful so I wouldnt get hurt. I
stayed at home the hole time. I had (7) to stay
on the couch.
26
The writer decided to make a word web of some of
the details she could use in her story. Here is
her word web
got some medicine
mom and dad called the doctor
A bad fever
had to take a cold bath
couldnt go to school
won spelling bee
27
1. Which idea should the writer remove from
this word web? A mom and dad called the
doctor B got some medicine C had to take a cold
bath D won spelling bee 2. Read the sentence
below. My mom, dad, and doctor was taking care
of me. What shows the best way to fix or edit
this sentence? A My Mom, Dad and doctor was
taking care of me. B My mom, dad, and doctor
were taking care of me. C my mom, dad and doctor
were taking care of me? D My mom, dad, and
doctor is taking care of me.
28
7. Read the sentence below. I stayed at home
the hole time. What needs to be fixed or edited
in the sentence above? A Change stayed to
stay. B Change at to to C Change I to me. D
Change hole to whole. 9. Read the sentence
below. I was very thankfull that my mom and dad
were kind to me. What is the correct spelling of
thankfull? A. thinkful B. tankful C. thankful D.
tankfull
29
Our Peer Responses 1. Did the writer make the
main idea clear to the reader? Yes or no?
Include details or examples from the student
writing sample in your written response. 2.
The writer made her story sound real by using
her own voice to tell her story. List some
examples of how she used voice to tell her story.
30
Grade 4 Student Sample One Pontiac Arts and
Technology Academy My Lifesaver
This is my story about kindness. My step mom
saved me from dying! Here is how it happened. I
was five years old. I was outside playing in my
pool. I got out to go to the restroom when it
happened. I walked past the trailer and all of a
sudden it collapsed when I walked past. I was
ther for two minutes, screaming Help Help Ahhh
help. I am lucky I didnt die. I was
frightened that nobody would here me. My stepmom
Rachel Burns came to the rescue. She hitched the
trailer and picked me up. Rachel called my mom
and dad after she called the hospital. When we
arrived I got a catt scan and had to get an
exray. Im delighted I didnt die! That same
night I went home with a cast on my neck. I had
to keep the cast on for a looong time.
31
The students in Jasmines fourth grade class
have been asked to write a story about kindness.
Jasmine decided to write about how her stepmom
saved her life. 1. All of the following would
be good strategies to help Jasmine get some ideas
on paper EXCEPT a. Jasmine could make a list of
the important details in her story. b. Jasmine
could look up kindness in the dictionary. c.
Jasmine could use a word web to help describe
her stepmoms actions. d. Jasmine could make a
list of some verbs and some describing words
(adjectives and adverbs) that she could use in
her story.
32
Here is the first paragraph of Jasmines
story My Lifesaver This is my story about
kindness. My step mom saved me from dying!
Here is how it happened. I was five years old.
I was outside playing in my pool. I got out to
go to the restroom when it happened. 2. Which
sentence could be removed from Jasmines first
paragraph? a. This is my story about
kindness. b. My step mom saved me from
dying! c. I was five years old. d. I got out to
go to the restroom when it happened.
33
3. Read the following sentences. I was five
years old. I was outside playing in my pool.
What is the best way to combine these two
sentences into one sentence? a. Since I was five
years old, I loved play in my pool. b. I was five
years old and outside. c. I was five years old
because I was playing in my pool. d. When I was
five years old, I was outside playing in my pool.
34
5. Read the sentence below. I was ther for two
minutes, screaming Help Help Ahhh help. What
is the best way to fix or edit this
sentence? a. I was their for two minutes,
Screaming help help ahhh help. b. I was there for
two minutes screaming, Help! Help! Ahhh
Help! c. I was theyre for too minutes
screaming, help help ahh help. d. It is correct
as it is.
35
Grade 5 Student Writing Sample Oakman Elementary
in Dearborn
  • Going to School
  • 1) Oh come on, do I have to do have to go? Im
    only 4 years old,
  • 2) cant I stay home? It was August 25, the
    first day of school. My twin
  • 3) sister Nevein thinks its going to be fun,
    but I think its a waste of
  • 4) time.
  • 5) I was as scared as an ant almost going to be
    stepped on. My
  • 6) mom told me I have to go, I was hoping she
    wouldnt say that. But
  • just as she did, my heart started to pop out of
    my chest. Suddenly my
  • big brother Sam came in the room. I was thinking
    what if Sam came
  • 9) to defend me but instead he told me it takes
    courage to go to school
  • 10) even for your first time. Just as my brother
    got out of the room I
  • 11) thought about what my brother said, you know
    about courage.

36
1. What technique does the writer use to make
his first paragraph engaging? A He cleverly
conveys what he was thinking about his first day
of school. B He tells a funny story. C He uses
lots of sound effects. D He describes his twin
sister. 2. Read the sentence. I was scared as
an ant about to be stepped on. The sentence
above is an example of A a rhyme B a
metaphor C a simile D dialogue
37
3. What is the most effective way to fix or edit
the following sentence? I was thinking what if
he came to defend me but instead he told me it
takes courage to go to school even for your first
time. A I was thinking what if he came to
defend me. But instead he told me it takes
courage. to go to school. even for the first
time. B I was thinking what he came to defend
me. Since he told me it takes courage to go to
school even for the first time. C I was
thinking how he came to defend me. Because he
told me it takes courage to go to school even for
the first time. D I was thinking that he came to
defend me. Instead, he told me it takes courage
to go to school even for the first time. 5.
Read the following sentence. After I thought
about it I went to tell my sister that Im going
to school. What is the mistake in the sentence
above? A Change thought to think. B Place a
comma after it. C Change went to want. D Change
to to too.
38
7. What can be done to correct an error in the
sentence below? After a while the bell rings,
and I went inside and just as I got in the
teacher came my way. A Change After to
Before. B Change I to me. C Change rings to
rang. D It is correct as it is. 9. What kind
of graphic organizer did the writer probably use
before writing this piece? A A Venn Diagram
comparing the writer and his brother. B A web
describing the writers family. C An outline of
what was taught in kindergarten the first day of
school. D A story map showing what happened the
first day of school.
39
Our Peer Response
1. How does the writer share his feelings about
his first day in school? Include specific
examples from this student writing sample in your
answer. 2. Did the writer remain focused
on his central idea? Yes or no? Support your
answer with details or examples from this student
writing sample. 3. Was there a variety in
sentence structure in this piece? Support your
answer with examples from this student writing
sample. 4. Did the writer use dialogue
effectively in this piece? Include examples from
the student writing sample to support your answer.
40
From Our Third Grade Test-Taking Strategies Unit
Reading for Understanding
Selection One Harriet Tubman Courage in
Action Selection Two How To Become A
Dragon Making Connections Writing About
Reading Selection Three The Littlest Storm
Cloud Selection Four The Donkey - a
poem Selection Five Causes of Home Fires 2001
chart Selection Six An Intersection in Delta
Township - a map
41
Making Connections Writing About Reading
Directions You have read the story Harriet
Tubman Courage in Action and How To Become A
Dragon. Think about how both of these selections
teach us about how important it is take a risk
for what we believe. What kind of risk did both
Harriet and Charlene take? What lesson can we
learn from both Harriet and Charlene? Do you
agree that courage often involves taking a risk?
YES or NO? Explain your answer using examples
from BOTH Harriet Tubman Courage in Action and
How To Become A Dragon. Be sure to show how the
two reading selections are connected or alike.
42
BluePrints Five Steps for Making Connections
Step One Answer the question directly. For
example I agree ___________________ I
disagree ___________________ Step Two Explain
how the main characters in the two stories are
connected or alike. You must provide a
connection that is more than copying the theme.
Using the word BOTH will help you write this
connecting idea. Both of these stories
__________________ Step Three Use a specific
example from Selection One to support your
position. In Selection One (the name of a
character) Step Four Use a specific example
from Selection Two to support your
position. Step Five Write a good concluding
sentence or two Both of these
selections... Both of these characters... The
most important lesson... We should remember...
43
Selection Four The Donkey I saw a donkey One
day old, His head was too big For his neck to
hold His legs were shaky And long and
loose, They rocked and staggered And werent much
use. He tried to gambol And frisk a bit, But he
wasnt quite sure Of the trick of it. His queer
little coat Was soft and gray And curled at his
neck In a lovely way. His face was wistful And
left no doubt That he felt life needed Some
thinking about. So he blundered round In
venturesome quest, And then lay flat On the
ground to rest. He looked so little And weak and
slim, I prayed the world Might be good to
him. Author Unknown
44
All About Scoring Writing From Knowledge and
Experience 6 points Revising and Editing
Multiple Choice Questions 10 points Responding
to Student Writing Sample 4 points Total 20
points Writing About Reading 6 points This
score is added to the Reading Score
45
Constructed Response The Way I See It
It is important to use pictures, tables, charts,
or graphs to help illustrate our experiments.
Use this page to record this kind of information.
Title of this picture ____________________________
__________________________________________________
___ _____________________________________________
__________________________________________________
_ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ _
__________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ ____
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________ _______
__________________________________________________
_______________________________________
46
3 Lets Describe It/Key Words
My topic is______________________________________
_______________
Nouns that I could use (people, places, things)
Verbs that I could use (show action)
Adjectives that I could use (strong descriptive
words)
Adverbs that I could use (modify verbs time,
place, etc.)
47
Constructed and Extended Response Main
Ideas/Details
As you read your story or biography, list some
of the important details you learn. All details
should add up to the main idea.
Detail 2 Detail 4 Detail 6
Detail 1 Detail 3 Detail 5
These add up to the main idea
48
Becoming ProACTive Everything You Need to Know
About Preparing For ACT English and Writing
Discovering the Gem in Every Child
Presented by Sharon Spencer
49
Preparing For The ACT English Exam Teaching
Grammar in Context
50
Habitat For Humanity
1. A NO CHANGE B have C have all ways D
has been 2. A NO CHANGE B theyre bills C
their bills D thare bill 3. A NO CHANGE B
Fuller, a couple C. Fuller a couple D Fuller,
A couple 4. A NO CHANGE B Its one C Its
one D Its won 5. A NO CHANGE B great and C
great, but D great, since
A decent home and a safe neighborhood has
always been part of the American Dream. Yet,
for many families, this dream seems impossible.
These are families in need who struggle to pay
there bills and to save money. They cannot
afford to buy a house. Such families might lose
hope. They may feel that the American Dream is
out of reach or that it has passed them by. A
Helping Hand For more than 20 years, a group
has helped needy families reach this dream. The
group is called Habitat for Humanity. Millard
and Linda Fuller a couple from Georgia, founded
the group in 1976. Habitat for Humanity is a
nonprofit group. Its one goal is to get rid of
poverty-level housing and homelessness around the
world. The goal is greatly but Habitat for
Humanity moves toward it step-by-step. Since
1976, the group has built or fixed up more than
50,000 homes. These homes shelter about 250,000
people around the world.
1
2
3
4
5
51
Keep the Pop Machines in the School
Cafeteria Can you believe that our school is
actually considering removing the pop machines
from our high school cafeteria? The thought
of not drinking a coke at lunch is a
possibility I dont even want too imagine. Our
parents has began to talk about this
ridiculous idea. I heard my mom talking to
Mrs. Walker, our gym teacher, last week. The
adults might think that taking out the pop
machines is acceptable, but we shouldnt be the
ones to make this decision.
1. A. NO CHANGE B. I doesnt even
want to C. I does not never want to D.
I dont even want to 2. A. NO
CHANGE B. is beginning C. was beginning D.
have begun 3. A. NO CHANGE B. I hears C.
Me heard D. I will hear 4. A. NO CHANGE B.
they shouldnt C. them shouldnt D. they
shouldnt
1
2
3
4
52
Teaching Testing Format is Essential! No more
debate about Test-Prep even MDE is encouraging
us to know the format and teach it.
53
All About ACT Writing Test
  • What Students Need to Do
  • Express judgments by taking a position on the
    issue in the writing prompt.
  • Maintain a focus on the topic throughout the
    essay.
  • Develop a position by using logical reasoning
    and by supporting your ideas.
  • Organize ideas in a logical way.
  • Use language clearly and effectively according
    to the rules of standard written English.

54
All About ACT Scoring
  • Six Point Rubric
  • Two Trained Readers
  • Total of 12 Points
  • Combined English/Writing Score
  • The English Test is Two-Thirds
  • The Writing Test is One-Third
  • Michigan Specifics
  • Social Studies writing will be scored
  • - total of 12 points
  • Grand Total 24 points

55
All About ACT Testing
  • About ACT Writing
  • Shifting from the MEAP to the ACT
  • Writing From Knowledge and Experience is
    essentially Narrative Writing.
  • ACT Requires a persuasive essay.
  • Persuasive essay will be double scored (English
    and Social Studies).
  • 12 points for ACT English and another 12 points
    for social studies.
  • (A total of 24 points is awarded - This is
    probably the single most important part of the
    new test.)
  • We must teach persuasive writing in both social
    studies and Language Arts.

56
Pro and Con Power Verb List
Con disagree reject oppose do not
support dismiss negate refuse deny protest
Pro agree accept favor support defend justify prom
ote uphold
57
BluePrints Power Adverbs
to place in time afterward now eventually soon im
mediately suddenly gradually currently recently t
o conclude consequently therefore furthermore mor
eover finally
to make a point strongly firmly thoroughly totall
y wholeheartedly absolutely entirely certainly esp
ecially to compare and contrast similarily never
theless however yet although
58
  • All About Persuasive Writing
  • The How-To
  • Beginning with the persuasive paragraph as the
    foundation for the persuasive essay.
  • Our need to understand the rubrics, and what
    this means for instructional practice.
  • The need for Cooperative Learning and Direct
    Instruction
  • A Multi-sensory five-step process for writing
    persuasive paragraphs.
  • Shifting from the paragraph to the persuasive
    essay.

59
Persuasive Paragraph
  • Transitional Expressions
  • ? For Giving Reasons another, next, last,
    finally, first (second, third), although, on
    the other hand
  • ? For Drawing Conclusions hence, therefore,
    thus, consequently
  • ? Methods of Persuasion referring to an
    authority, providing facts, giving examples,
    predicting consequences, answering the
    opposition, using powerful quotes
  • ? To Answer the Opposition of course,
    nevertheless, some may say, because, since, for

60
Persuasive Paragraph
Suggested Topics ? Should all junk food be
eliminated from high school cafeterias? ?
Should there be restrictions on cell phone usage
while driving? ? Should high school students be
allowed to leave school at lunch time?
61
The BluePrint Three Stage Process for Writing
Persuasive Paragraphs
Our Five Step Beginning Process Step 1. Play the
game (Use Definition Page) Step 2. Students put
the sentences in correct order in small
groups Step 3. Teacher leads students through
writing the rough draft. Using different colors
for each sentence makes this process much
easier Step 4. Students engage in some type of
editing Step 5. Students write their final copy
in small groups
62
The BluePrint Three Stage Process for Writing
Persuasive Paragraphs
Stage Two Writing Group Paragraphs 1. Teacher
chooses another topic from those listed on the
definition page. 2. Students write a rough draft
of the topic chosen in small groups. 3. Each
group shares their paragraph with the entire
class. 4. Students engage in revising and
editing in their small groups. 5. Students
produce a final copy in their group.
63
The BluePrint Three Stage Process for Writing
Persuasive Paragraphs
Independent Writing Once students have
successfully engaged in Stage Two writing, they
should be ready to write a paragraph
independently with active guidance from the
teacher.
64
Power Words for Persuasive Essays
Adverbs blue
Nouns purple
Verbs green
65
Defending A Position
My position statement My counter-argument Sup
porting ideas, examples or details (list at least
three) 1. 2. 3. 4. Concluding Thought
66
Different Writing Plans
  • ? Five day or longer formats
  • ? Two day formats
  • ? Quick Writes Test-taking practice
  • Do and Dont

67
Social Studies Connections Raising the Drop-Out
Age in Michigan
In some states minors are required to attend
school until the age of 18. Currently, in
Michigan, the legal drop out age is 16. The
results of a recent community survey indicate
that there would be support to raise the drop out
age in Michigan to 18.
The Focus Question What should be done in our
community to raise awareness about required
attendance in high school in Michigan?
The Public Issue Question Should Michigan raise
its legal drop out age to 18?
68
Social Studies Connections Required Community
Service
Your school district has decided that a new
school policy would encourage all students to
practice acts of kindness by supporting
charitable causes in your local community. Your
school district is considering the possibility of
making some kind of volunteer work a requirement
for graduation from 8th grade.
The Focus Question Would you agree with a new
school policy that requires all middle school
students to participate in a local charity?
The Public Issue Question Should your school
district require every student to participate in
at least 10 hours of volunteer work as a
condition for graduation from middle school?
69
All About ACT Testing
  • About ACT English
  • A Return to Grammar
  • This is brand new for all of us.
  • 75 multiple choice questions requiring students
    to understand grammatical concepts in context.
  • It will be essential to expose students to the
    test-taking format.
  • We need to understand the grammatical concepts
    that our students will need to master long
    before the test occurs.

70
ACT ENGLISH
  • There are 75 questions
  • Time Limit 45 minutes.
  • There will be passages
  • (4 to 5) - grammar in context.
  • Two types of questions

71
ACT ENGLISH
  • Type One Questions (the easier ones)
  • certain words and phrases underlined and
    numbered.
  • in the right hand column are alternatives for
    the underlined part.
  • students must choose the one best answer for
    standard written English, or fits the tone and
    style of the passage as a whole.
  • one choice is NO CHANGE.
  • (NO CHANGE is appropriate about 20 of the
    time.)

72
ACT ENGLISH
  • Type Two Questions
  • these are the more difficult questions.
  • about a section of the passage
  • (or the passage as a whole)
  • identified by a number or a number in a box.

73
What Students Need to Know About Basic
Grammatical Concepts
Grammar and Usage Nouns Pronouns Verbs Parallel
Construction Adjectives and Adverbs Idioms Common
Errors
74
What Students Need to Know About Basic
Grammatical Concepts
Punctuation Commas Semicolons Colons Parentheses A
postrophes Periods Question Marks Exclamation
Points Quotation Marks Dashes
75
What Students Need to Know About Basic
Grammatical Concepts
Sentence Structure Run-on Sentences Comma
Splices Sentence Fragments Misplaced
Modifiers Shifts in Construction
76
What Students Need to Know About Basic
Grammatical Concepts
Rhetorical Skills Strategy Organization Style
77
Our Students Need Help!
  • They need to
  • Learn the rules for speaking and writing
  • Recognize correct structure
  • Fix errors
  • Recognize when no error is present NO CHANGE
  • Practice the test-taking format
  • Apply the rules to speaking and writing

78
Our Module - Organization
Introduction to Every Unit Rules in Simple
Terms Chants/Poems/Fun Part One See It and Say
It Correctly Part Two Choose the Correct
Form Part Three Fix the Errors Recognize and
Indicate No Change Part Four ACT Format Test
Taking Practice Part Five Application The
Writing Connection Developing Our Constructed
and Extended Responses Practicing the Rules in
Writing and Speaking ACT Prep plus Much More!!!
79
Nouns The Basics Rule One Nouns name people,
places, and things. People
Queen Elizabeth George Bush cousin grandmother de
ntist Rudy Giuliani ____________________ _________
___________
neighbor police officer firefighter Barack
Obama Mrs. Johnson John McCain __________________
__ ____________________
Chuancy Billips mom brother Uncle Tyrone Reverend
Jones Hillary Clinton ____________________ ______
______________
80
Places
Malcolm High School Lake Michigan U.S.A continent
the West
Eastland Mall Burger King Henry Ford
Hospital Europe Sault Ste. Marie
Detroit New York Iraq Denby High Midwest
Things (living things, animals, plants, trees,
foods, meals, seasons, holidays, days, months)
maple tree vegetables January Memorial Day spring
poodle macaroni winter Sunday Christmas
onions sandwiches Easter Thanksgiving
cougar tacos
81
Plurals Rule One We make most nouns plural by
adding s. boys computers tattoos
exams teachers students studios Most nouns
that end in o add s tattoos portfolios studios
rodeos Rule Two A small number of nouns
ending in o, add es. potatoes heroes mosquitoes
radios tomatoes cargoes tornadoes Rule
Three Some nouns that end in y, change the y to
i and add es. city - cities lady -
ladies country - countries library -
libraries Rule Four Some nouns that end in f
change f to v and add es. half--halves loaf-
loaves leaf-leaves Rule Five Some
nouns that end in sh, ch, f, and x add -
es. churches bushes rashes boxes couches
82
Rule Six Some nouns never change when they are
used as plurals. The letter -s or -es is never
added. deer trout fish reindeer
sheep moose Example We caught ten fish.
(not fishes) Rule Seven Some nouns change
form. child - children man - men woman -
women mouse mice goose - geese Rule Eight
Some singular nouns look like plural nouns.
They end in the letter s but are still singular
and require a singular verb. Mathematics physic
s acrobatics home economics gymnastics civics s
ocial studies statistics thesis news measles ch
eckers mumps molasses The news about the
destruction caused by the hurricane was
devastating. (was, not were) Physics is a
difficult subject for some students. (not
are) Molasses is used in that recipe. (is, not
are)
83
Rule Nine Some nouns form plurals in unusual
ways. Here is a list of those tricky nouns.
Plural attorneys general bases crises fathers-in-l
aw mothers-in-law indexes or indices millennia par
entheses theses runners-up
Singular attorney general basis crisis father-in-l
aw mother-in-law index millennium parenthesis thes
is runner-up
Rule to Remember Consult a dictionary when in
doubt. If two choices are offered, the first
plural listed in the dictionary is the preferred
choice.
Rule Ten Common Errors Never use apostrophes
with first or last names when a possessive form
is not required. Examples The Washingtons live
near me. The Sancheses own a clothing store
downtown. There are four Derricks in out
class.
84
All About Nouns Part One Underline all the common
and proper nouns in the following sentences.
Identify common nouns with the letter cn and
proper nouns with the letters pn. All these
sentences are written correctly. We thank Ruth
Ann Brimleys students at Malcolm High School in
Ste Saint Marie, MI for helping us edit our first
unit. Examples Mrs. Jackson traveled to
several cities in Europe. pn
cn pn Mathematics was his
favorite subject last semester. cn
cn cn 1. The news about the election spread
quickly. 2. The bacteria in the vegetables made
Derrick very ill. 3. Uncle Tomas caught ten
fish in Lake Michigan.
85
All About Nouns Part Two Identify and correct
the errors in the following sentences. (Look for
capitalization and plural forms). 1. My best
Friend moved to Florida last Year. 2. The
hunters captured twelve deers last
november. 3. The childrens in kindergarten are
learning to read.
86
All About Nouns Part Three Fix the mistakes in
the sentences below. If there are no mistakes,
write the words No Change on your
paper. 1. The Detroit pistons are competing for
the NBA Championship in 2007. 2. Dejuan and
Mario are planning to visit five major citys in
Mexico during the Summer. 3. Latanya, my
favorite cousin, has been accepted to study law
at Michigan State University.
87
All About Nouns Part Four Read the passage
below. Certain words are underlined and
identified with a number. If there is an error
in the underlined words, you must choose the
letter that shows the best way to fix the error.
If there is no error in the underlined words, you
must choose NO CHANGE as your answer. Wilt
Chamberlain was one of the greatest Basketball
players of all time. 1 Wilt was an amazing
seven-foot center with a dazzling career in the
NBA. Many 2 think of him as one of
basketballs true 3 heros.
  • 1.
  • NO CHANGE
  • Greatest basketball player
  • C. greatest basketball players
  • D. Greatest Basketball Player
  • 2.
  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. With a dazzling career in the nba.
  • C. with as dazzling Career In the nba.
  • D. with a Dazzling
  • Career in the nBa.
  • 3
  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. true heroes
  • C. true Heroes
  • D. True heros

88
All About Nouns Part Five The Writing
Connection Write a paragraph about a person you
admire. Underline all the nouns. Be sure to use a
mixture of proper nouns and common nouns in your
paragraph. Use both singular and plural nouns
correctly. Some suggestions Oprah Winfrey
Dr. Martin Luther King my father or mother
Will Smith Hilary Duff Dale Earnhart,
Jr. Kris Draper Nick Lindstrom (Captain of
Detroit Red Wings) Yao Ming (basketball player)
89
Possessives The apostrophe doesnt need to
bother me! The rules to learn are just
three. If one owner is clearly in view - s
will certainly do. (Lindas looks, Tonys
jacket, the princesss crown) Unusual plurals
like children, mice and men Also add apostrophe
s at the end. (the childrens toys, mens
clothing) When a group of people own something
too Adding an apostrophe after the s is the
rule. (the girls uniforms) Most of all,
remember this please - Simple plural words never
need apostrophes! (The Clarks live near
me.)
90
Our Pronoun Chant By Sharon Spencer In the
beginning of a sentence a subject pronoun will
do I, she, he, and we are the forms to
use. Object pronouns are used in the middle or
in the end Remember the pronouns me, him, her
and them.
91
Test-Taking Tips
Focus on the easier questions Step One Read
the whole passage first Step Two Focus on
the questions with the underlined words and
phrases, and make the best choice quickly. Step
Three Guess - there is no penalty for not
answering. Step Four Spend more time on Type
Two questions, if you have time left over. Step
Five Make a guess even on Type Two questions.
92
Instructional Implications Questions and Answers
93
  • Instructional Implications
  • For ACT Writing
  • Practice persuasive paragraphs and essays
    regularly
  • Coordinate writing activities with Language Arts
    and social studies teachers

94
  • Instructional Implications
  • For ACT English
  • Basic grammatical concepts must be taught
  • Transitions must be made to the multiple choice
  • format
  • Students must practice identifying grammatical
    errors In the context of a passage

95
New For Fall 2007!
BluePrints for Grammar A Practical Approach
for Connecting and Teaching Speaking, Writing,
and ACT Test-Taking Skills Three Blackline
Master Modules Module One Parts of Speech
Grammar and Usage Module Two All About
Punctuation Module Three Style, Clarity,
Logic, and Organization Available November
2007 Schedule a Workshop Now!!
96
BluePrints For Communication, Inc. The Perfect
Blend of Professional Development
and Custom-Created Materials for
MEAP www.blueprints2011.com ? Half-day, Full-day
Sessions and Classroom Modeling ? Blackline
Master Manuals and Journals to teach the Reading,
Writing and Listening connection in all content
areas ? We have data to show we improve MEAP
Writing Scores ? We come to your school or
district - call Sharon Spencer _at_ 517-323-4610 for
dates
97
Presenter Sharon Spencer Author/Consultant Blue
Prints for Communication, Inc 517-323-4610 Fax
517-323-1726 bluecom_at_comcast.net www.blueprints201
1.com Contact us about scheduling a workshop or
ordering products
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