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Youth Programs and Contemporary Issues in Policing


Youth Programs and Contemporary Issues in Policing William L. Mizner Chief of Police Norfolk, Nebraska Introduction Maintaining Awareness Youth Programs Need Types ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Youth Programs and Contemporary Issues in Policing

Youth Programs and Contemporary Issues in Policing
  • William L. Mizner
  • Chief of Police
  • Norfolk, Nebraska

  • Maintaining Awareness
  • Youth Programs
  • Need
  • Types
  • Contemporary Issues in Law Enforcement

Understanding Current Problems
  • Must prioritize use of limited resources
  • Must be responsive to issues of concern in
  • Must help educate the community on issues

Keeping Current
  • Publications
  • Association Publications
  • Police Chief magazine
  • Sheriff magazine
  • Trade Journals
  • FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
  • Law and Order
  • Law Enforcement News
  • Law Enforcement Technology

Keeping Current
  • Internet Sources
  • IACP Net
  • Department of Justice
  • Regional Community Policing Training Institute

Assessing the Future
  • Plan ahead
  • Tactical Planning
  • Immediate or short-term
  • Strategic Planning
  • Long-range
  • Sources
  • Police Futurists International
  • World Future Society
  • Crime and Criminal Justice in the 21st Century

Reviewing Programs
  • Determine the goals
  • Determine necessary resources
  • Manpower
  • Support
  • Examine recurring costs
  • Evaluate reviews and studies
  • Assess if right for your agency and community

Need for Youth Programs
  • Significant amount of crime is committed by youth
  • 1997 Uniform Crime Report juvenile stats
  • Third straight decrease in juvenile crime
  • First decrease in seven years in drug arrests
  • Violent crime arrests still 49 above 1988 rate
  • Total crime arrests still 35 above 1988 rate
  • Drug arrests still 125 above 1988 rate

Need for Youth Programs
  • Most gang members are juveniles
  • There is a chance behavior can be changed before
    the individual reaches adulthood

Types of Youth Programs
  • D.A.R.E.
  • Possibly the most popular youth program
  • 25,000 trained officers in 44 countries
  • Estimated 80 of U.S. classrooms
  • 700 - 750 million spent annually
  • Studies vary on programs effectiveness
  • 1997 University of Maryland report to Congress
    identified D.A.R.E. as one of the programs which
    dont work

Types of Youth Programs
  • School Resource Officer Program
  • Officer is an educator, counselor and law
  • Major goal is to build rapport between law
    enforcement and youth

Types of Youth Programs
  • G.R.E.A.T.
  • 2200 officers from more than 900 agencies
  • 9-week middle school curriculum
  • 4-week fifth or sixth grade curriculum
  • Summer project focusing on recreational
    activities, outings and community service
  • Initial reviews indicate positive impact

Types of Youth Programs
  • Law Enforcement Explorers Post
  • Joint effort between agency and Boy Scouts
  • Police Athletic League
  • Serves 1.5 million boys and girls in 1600
  • Emphasizes sports and activities as a crime
    prevention effort

Types of Youth Programs
  • Mentoring Programs
  • Best-known mentoring organization is Big Brothers
    / Big Sisters of America
  • National operating standards provide a level of
    uniformity in recruitment, screening, training,
    matching, and supervision of adult volunteers and
  • The mentor and youth meet for about four hours,
    two to four times a month, for at least a year

Types of Youth Programs
  • 1995 18-month study of eight local BB/BS programs
    found mentored youth were
  • 46 less-likely to initiate drug use
  • 27 less-likely to initiate alcohol use
  • Almost 1/3 less-likely to hit someone
  • Skipped half as many school days
  • Showed modest gains in grade point averages
  • Had improved relationships w/ parents peers

Ten Model Programs
  • Center for the Study and Prevention of
    Violence University of Colorado, Boulder
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences Campus
    Box 442 Boulder,
    CO 80309-0442

Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America
  • Targets youth from single parent homes
  • Volunteers interact regularly with youth in a
    one-to-one relationship
  • 1000 per year average cost of making and
    supporting a relationship

Bullying Prevention Program
  • Targets elementary, middle and junior high
  • Program outcomes
  • Substantial reduction of bullying
  • Significant reduction in antisocial behavior
  • Significant improvement in class social climate
  • More positive attitude toward school

Midwestern Prevention Project
  • Comprehensive, community-based, multi-faceted
    program for adolescent drug abuse prevention
  • Targets early adolescent through late adolescent
  • Outcomes
  • Up to 40 reduction in daily smoking
  • Similar reductions in marijuana use

Midwestern Prevention Project
  • Smaller reductions in alcohol use through 12th
  • Increased parent/child communication about drug
  • 175,000 minimal cost over a 3-year period

Quantum Opportunities Program
  • Serves disadvantaged adolescents by providing
    education, service, and development activities,
    as well as financial incentives, over a 4-year
    period from 9th to 12th grade
  • Outcomes
  • 21 more likely to graduate from high school
  • 26 more likely to receive honor or award

Quantum Opportunities Program
  • 26 more likely to attend post-secondary schools
  • 14 less likely to become teen parents
  • 2,650 per participant per year

Life Skills Training
  • 3-year intervention designed to prevent or reduce
    gateway drug use
  • Outcomes
  • 50 to 70 reduction in tobacco, alcohol and
    marijuana use
  • 25 reduction in pack-a-day smoking
  • Decreased use of inhalants and narcotics
  • 7 per student per year

Multisystemic Therapy
  • Intensive family- and community-based treatment
    that addresses the multiple determinants of
    serious antisocial behavior in juvenile offenders
  • Targets chronic, violent or substance-abusing
    offenders ages 12 to 17 at high risk of
    out-of-house placement, and the offenders

Multisystemic Therapy
  • Outcomes
  • 25-70 reduction in long-term rates of re-arrest
  • 47-64 reduction in out-of-home placements
  • Extensive improvements in family functioning
  • Decreased mental health problems for serious
  • 4500 per youth

Prenatal and Infancy Home Visitation by Nurses
  • Intensive and comprehensive home visits by nurses
    during a womans pregnancy and the first 2 years
    after the birth of the first child
  • Targets low-income, at-risk pregnant women
    bearing their first child
  • Outcomes
  • 79 fewer reports of child abuse or neglect
  • 31 fewer subsequent births

Prenatal and Infancy Home Visitation by Nurses
  • 30 months less receipt of Aid to Families of
    Dependent Children
  • 44 fewer maternal alcohol or drug problems
  • 69 fewer maternal arrests
  • 56 fewer arrests of the children
  • 60 fewer reports of children running away
  • 56 fewer days of alcohol use by children
  • 2800 per family per year

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care
  • Cost-effective alternative to group or
    residential treatment, incarceration, and
    hospitalization for adolescents with chronic
    antisocial behavior, emotional disturbance, and
  • Outcomes
  • 60 fewer days incarcerated
  • Significantly fewer subsequent arrests

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care
  • Ran away from programs 3 times less often
  • Significantly less hard drug use
  • Quicker community placement from more restrictive
    settings (hospitals, detention)
  • 2691 average cost per youth per month average
    length of stay is 7 months

Functional Family Therapy
  • Outcome-driven prevention/intervention program
    for youth demonstrating the entire range of
    maladaptive, acting out behaviors and related
  • Target youth age 11-18
  • Outcomes
  • Effectively treating adolescents with a variety
    of disorders

Functional Family Therapy
  • Reduces access and penetration of other social
    services by these adolescents
  • Reduces further incidents of the problem
  • Reduces penetration of the adult criminal system
    by the adolescents
  • Prevents younger children in family from
    penetrating the system of care
  • 1350 to 3750 for 12 home visits

PATHS Promoting Alternative
  • Comprehensive program promoting emotional and
    social competencies and reducing aggression and
    behavior problems
  • Targets elementary school children
  • Outcomes
  • Improved self-control
  • Increased ability to tolerate frustration
  • Use of more effective conflict-resolution plans

PATHS Promoting Alternative
  • Decreased conduct problems
  • 15 per student per year for a 3-year period

Promising Programs
  • Fast Track
  • Comprehensive and long-term prevention program
    that aims to prevent chronic and severe conduct
    problems for high-risk kids.
  • Strives to increase communication between child,
    home and school, enhance childs social,
    cognitive and problem-solving skills, improve
    peer relationships, and ultimately decrease
    disruptive behavior in the home and at school

Promising Programs
  • Perry Preschool Program
  • Provides high-quality childhood education to
    disadvantaged children to improve their later
    school and life performances
  • Parent Child Development Center
  • Designed to foster relationships between parents
    and children
  • Provides multi-dimensional help to mothers become
    more effective in child-rearing

Promising Programs
  • Syracuse Family Development Research Program
  • Bolsters child and family functioning and
    affective, interpersonal relationships through
    home visitations, parent training and
    individualized daycare.
  • YALE Child Welfare Project
  • Offers team-based, personalized family support to
    help disadvantaged parents

Promising Programs
  • Intensive Protective Supervision Project
  • Removes juvenile offenders from criminal justice
    institutions and provides them with more
    proactive and extensive community supervision
  • Preventive Treatment Program
  • Designed to prevent antisocial behavior of boys
    who display early, problem behavior by providing
    training to parents and child to decrease
    delinquency and substance abuse

Promising Programs
  • Project PATHE
  • Comprehensive program implemented in secondary
    schools that reduces school disorder and improves
    the school environment.
  • School Transitional Environmental Program
  • Seeks to reduce complexity of school
    environments, increase peer and teacher support,
    and decrease student vulnerability to academic
    and emotional difficulties

Critical Issues in Law Enforcement
  • Year 2000 Preparation
  • Internal
  • Computers
  • Contingencies
  • Personnel
  • External
  • Relationships
  • Disruptions?
  • Terrorism?

Critical Issues in Law Enforcement
  • Ethics in Law Enforcement
  • Growing Immigrant Populations
  • Drugs
  • War on drugs
  • Legalization issue
  • Police/Citizen Partnerships
  • Community policing
  • Citizen advisory boards