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Welding and Cutting Safety

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Title: Welding and Cutting Safety


1
Welding and Cutting Safety
  • Its your responsibility

2
Safety Topics
  • Welding safety
  • Arc rays
  • PPEs
  • Machines
  • Ventilation
  • Oxyfuel cutting safety
  • Cylinders
  • Oxygen
  • Fuels
  • Equipment
  • Flame types
  • Grinding safety
  • Pedestal grinders
  • Portable grinders
  • General shop safety
  • Fire extiguishers
  • Burn treatment
  • First aid
  • MSDSs
  • General safety

3
Arc Rays
  • Welding arcs are intensely brilliant lights.
  • They contain a proportion of ultraviolet light
    which may cause eye damage. For this reason, the
    arc should never be viewed with the naked eye
    within a distance of 50.0 ft (15.2 m).
  • The spectrum of the welding arc is similar to
    that of the sun. Exposure of the skin and eyes to
    the arc is the same as exposure to the sun.
  • Due to the close proximity, the arc is more
    dangerous than sun exposure.
  • A burn to the eyes is known as flash burn

4
Personal Clothing Requirements
  • 100 cotton or wool clothing.
  • To assess UV protection of materials, simply hold
    the the material up to a light or window and see
    how much light gets through. Less light filtering
    through means greater protection. In addition,
    darker colors provide more protection than
    fabrics of the same material in light colors.
  • Clothing must not be frayed or torn or it can
    catch fire.
  • No exposed open pockets.
  • No synthetic (flammable) materials are to be
    worn, such as nylon, polyester or rayon.
  • Safety glasses are required at all times while
    working.
  • High top, all leather boots.
  • DO NOT carry matchers or lighter while welding,
    cutting or grinding.

5
Personal Protective Equipment
  • A welding hood with the proper filter shade.
  • A welding cap, optional, but recommended.
  • A welding jacket.
  • Apron, optional.
  • Leather welding gloves.

6
Recommended Welding Filter shades
7
Recommended Welding Filter Shades
  • A 10 shade lens is typically the recommended
    shade for most arc welding.

8
Reflected Arc Radiation
  • Reflected UV light can cause the same burs as
    direct exposure.
  • Where the work permits, the welder should be
    enclosed in an individual booth painted with a
    finish of low reflectivity such as zinc oxide (an
    important factor for absorbing ultraviolet
    radiations) and lamp black, or must be enclosed
    with noncombustible screens similarly painted.
    Booths and screens must permit circulation of air
    at floor level. Workers or other persons adjacent
    to the welding areas must be protected from the
    rays by noncombustible or flameproof screens or
    shields or must be required to wear appropriate
    goggles.

9
Electric Shock
  • The hazard of electric shock is one of the the
    most serious and immediate risks facing a welder.
  • To avoid being shocked
  • The maximum open circuit voltage for a welder is
    80 volts.
  • Wear dry gloves in good condition for welding.
  • Do not touch the electrode or metal parts with
    skin or wet clothing while the machine is turned
    on.
  • Keep dry insulation between the body and any
    grounded metal.
  • Do not stand in water while welding.
  • Do not place liquids on or above
    welders/electrical equipment.
  • Keep welding cables and electrode holders in good
    condition.
  • Remember water conducts electricity. You are
    mostly water!

10
Welding Safety
  • Never weld or flame cut directly on concrete, it
    could explode from the heat.
  • Be cautious when picking up metal, it could be
    hot.
  • Do not leave hot metal in areas other than those
    designated or clearly mark the piece HOT
  • Never pass current through a gas cylinder.
  • Use screens to protect others from the arc light.

11
Welding Machine Care
  • Welding machines should be cleaned and maintained
    on a regular schedule.
  • Never exceed the rated duty cycle of the machine.
  • The duty cycle is the of time the machine can
    be operated within a ten minute period.

12
Duty Cycle Chart Example
  • The duty cycle is the percentage of time a
    welding machine can be used.
  • The use time is based on a ten minute time
    period.
  • Example a 60 duty cycle means that it can be
    used for six minutes and needs four minutes of
    cool down time.
  • If the duty cycle is exceeded, the internal heat
    will damage the machine.

13
Ventilation Safety
  • Consider proper ventilation your most important
    safety factor. Prior to welding or cutting, make
    sure you have clean air to breath or wear the
    proper respirator.
  • "CAUTION! Welding may produce fumes and gases
    hazardous to health. Avoid breathing these fumes
    and gases. Use adequate ventilation. See ANSI
    Z49.1 1967 Safety in Welding and Cutting
    published by the American Welding Society.
  • If there is smoke on your welding hood after
    welding, then your head is in the wrong place.

14
Proper Ventilation Requirements
  • Mechanical ventilation must be provided when
    welding or cutting is done in a space of less
    than 1 0,000 cubic feet (284 m(3)) per welder-,
    in a room having a ceiling height of less than 16
    feet (5 m) or in confined spaces or where the
    welding space contains partitions, balconies, or
    other structural barriers to the extent that they
    significantly obstruct cross ventilation.
  • Ventilation must be provided be at the minimum
    rate of 2,000 cubic feet (57 m(3)) per minute per
    welder, except where appropriate local exhaust
    hoods and booths a, or airline respirators
  • Natural ventilation is considered sufficient for
    welding or cutting operations where the
    restrictions listed in the preceding paragraphs
    are not present.
  • Respiratory protective equipment shall be used
    when the methods above are not feasible.
  • Improper Use of Welding Gases. Compressed gases
    used for welding and cutting shall not be used
    for ventilation purposes, comfort cooling,
    blowing dust from clothing, or cleaning the work
    area.

15
Ventilation Requirements
  • Minimum air flow/Duct diameter inches
  • Welding Zone Cubic f/m Duct Dia. inches
  • 4 to 6 inches from arc to torch 150 cfm 3
  • 6 to 8 inches from arc or torch 275 cfm 3
    ½
  • 8 to 10 inches from arc or torch 425 cfm 4
    ½
  • 10 to 12 inches from arc or torch 600 cfm 5 ½

16
Toxic Materials
  • Local exhaust ventilation shall be used when
    potentially hazardous materials are employed as
    base metals, fluxes, coatings, platings or filler
    metals. These include, but are not limited to,
    the following materials
  • Beryllium Lead
  • Cadmium Mercury
  • Chromium Zinc
  • Fluorides
  • Inert-gas metal-arc welding or oxygen cutting of
    stainless steel
  • Except for operations involving beryllium,
    cadmium, lead, or mercury, respiratory protective
    equipment is not required when natural or
    mechanical ventilation is sufficient to remove
    welding fumes from the breathing zone of the
    workers.

17
Solvents/Cleaning Agents
  • Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Degreasing or other
    operations involving chlorinated hydrocarbons
    shall be located or controlled such that vapors
    from these operations will not enter the
    atmosphere surrounding any welding or cutting
    operations to prevent the degradation of such
    chlorinated hydrocarbon vapors to more highly
    toxic gases by the action of heat or ultraviolet
    radiation.
  • These types of solvents shall be no closer than
    200 feet from welding activities.

18
Oxyfuel Cutting (OFC)
  • The oxyfuel cutting process uses a combination of
    oxygen and a fuel to provide a high temperature
    flame.

19
General Cutting Safety
  • The light from cutting can be dangerous, a 5
    shade filter lens is recommended for most cutting
    applications.
  • There is not enough UV light created by the flame
    to burn your skin.
  • Sparks, molten metal and the flame can burn you,
    wear protective clothing.

20
Oxyfuel Cutting (OFC)
  • OFC can be a manual process in which the welder
    must control the the torch movement or a machine
    can control the movement.
  • The term oxyfuel gas cutting outfit refers to all
    the equipment needed to cut.
  • Cylinders contain oxygen at extremely high
    pressure and a fuel gas at a low pressure.

21
Oxygen Cylinders
  • Oxygen is stored within cylinders of various
    sizes and pressures ranging from 2000- 2640 PSI.
    (Pounds Per square inch)
  • Oxygen cylinders are forged from solid armor
    plate steel. No part of the cylinder may be less
    than 1/4 thick.
  • Cylinders are then tested to over 3,300 PSI
    using a (NDE) hydrostatic pressure test.

22
Oxygen Cylinders
  • Cylinders are regularly re-tested using
    hydrostatic (NDE) while in service
  • Cylinders are regularly chemically cleaned and
    annealed to relieve jobsite stresses created by
    handling .

23
Oxygen Cylinder Storage Requirements
  • Oxygen cylinders shall not be stored near highly
    combustable material (especially oil or grease)
    near reserve stocks of carbide, acetylene, or
    other gas cylinders near any other substance
    likely to cause or accelerate fire or in an
    acetylene generator compartment.
  • Oxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated
    from fuel gas cylinders or combustable materials
    a minimum of 20 feet or by a noncombustable
    barrier at least 5 feet high having a
    fire-resistance rating of at least one-half hour.
  • Inside buildings, cylinders shall be stored in
    well protected, well ventilated areas and shall
    be stored away from elevators, stairs, or
    gangways. Assigned storage spaces shall be
    located where cylinders will not be knocked over
    or damaged by passing or falling objects.
  • Valve protection caps, where cylinders are
    designed to accept a cap, shall always be in
    place, hand-tight, except where cylinders are in
    use or connected for use.

24
Cylinder Transportation
  • Never transport cylinders without the safety caps
    in place.
  • Never transport with the regulators in place.
  • Never allow bottles to stand freely. Always chain
    them to a secure cart or some other object that
    cannot be toppled easily.
  • Never use cylinders as rollers or supports.

25
Oxygen Cylinders
  • Oxygen cylinders incorporate a thin metal
    pressure safety disk made from stainless steel
    and are designed to rupture prior to the cylinder
    becoming damaged by pressure.
  • The cylinder valve should be turned on all the
    way for any high pressure cylinder.

26
Pressure Regulators for Cylinders
  • Reduce high storage cylinder pressure to lower
    working pressure.
  • Most regulators have a gauge for cylinder
    pressure and working pressure.

27
Pressure Regulators for Cylinders
  • Regulators are shut off when the adjusting screw
    is turn out completely.
  • Regulators maintain a constant torch pressure
    although cylinder pressure may vary.
  • Regulator diaphragms are made of stainless steel.

28
Regulator Hoses
  • Hoses are are fabricated from rubber.
  • Oxygen hoses are green in color and have right
    hand thread.
  • Acetylene hoses are red in color with left hand
    thread.
  • Left hand threads can be identified by a grove in
    the body of the nut and it may have ACET
    stamped on it.

29
Check Valves Flashback Arrestors
  • Check valves allow gas to flow in one direction
    only.
  • Flashback arrestors are designed to eliminate the
    possibility of an explosion at the cylinder.
  • Combination Check/ Flashback Valves can be placed
    at the torch or regulator.

30
Fuel Gas Types
  • Acetylene
  • Gasoline
  • Hydrogen
  • Mapp gas
  • Butane and Propane
  • Propylene

31
Acetylene Gas
  • Virtually all the acetylene distributed for
    welding and cutting use is created by allowing
    calcium carbide (a man made product) to react
    with water.
  • The nice thing about the calcium carbide method
    of producing acetylene is that it can be done on
    almost any scale desired. Placed in
    tightly-sealed cans, calcium carbide keeps
    indefinitely. For years, miners lamps produced
    acetylene by adding water, a drop at a time, to
    lumps of carbide.
  • Before acetylene in cylinders became available in
    almost every community of appreciable size
    produced their own gas from calcium carbide.

32
Acetylene Cylinders
  • Acetylene is stored in cylinders specially
    designed for this purpose only.
  • Acetylene is extremely unstable in its pure form
    at pressure above 15 PSI. (Pounds per Square
    Inch)
  • Acetone is also present within the cylinder to
    stabilize the acetylene.
  • Acetylene cylinders should always be stored in
    the upright position to prevent the acetone from
    escaping thus causing the acetylene to become
    unstable.

33
Acetylene Cylinders
  • Cylinders are filled with a very porous substance
    monolithic filler to help prevent large pockets
    of pure acetylene from forming.
  • Cylinders have safety (Fuse) plugs in the top and
    bottom designed to melt at 212 F (100 C).

34
Oxygen and Acetylene Regulator Pressure Settings
  • Regulator pressure may vary with different torch
    styles and tip sizes.
  • PSI (pounds per square inch) is sometimes shown
    as PSIG (pounds per square inch -gauge)
  • Common gauge settings for cutting
  • 1/4 material Oxy 30-35psi Acet 3-9 psi
  • 1/2 material Oxy 55-85psi Acet 6-12 psi
  • 1 material Oxy 110-160psi Acet 7-15 psi
  • Check the torch manufactures data for optimum
    pressure settings.

35
Regulator Pressure Settings
  • The maximum safe working pressure for acetylene
    is 15 PSI !

36
Gasoline
  • Gasoline torches have been found to perform very
    well, especially where bottled gas fuel is not
    available or difficult to transport to the
    worksite.
  • Tests showed that an oxy-gasoline torch cut steel
    plate up to 0.5 inch thick as well as
    oxyacetylene and 0.5 to 4 inches thick better 3
    times better at 4 inches thick.
  • The gasoline is fed from a pressure tank whose
    pressure can be hand-pumped or fed from a gas
    cylinder.

37
Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen has a clean flame and is good for use on
    aluminum.
  • It can be used at a higher pressure than
    acetylene and is therefore useful for underwater
    welding and cutting.
  • It is a good type of flame to use when heating
    large amounts of material.

38
Mapp Gas
  • MAPP gas is a registered product of the Dow
    Chemical Company.
  • It is liquefied petroleum gas mixed with
    methylacetylene-propadiene.
  • It has a heat value a little less than acetylene.
  • It can be used at much higher pressures than
    acetylene.
  • It does not polymerize at high pressures - above
    15 psi or so (as acetylene does) and is therefore
    much less dangerous than acetylene.

39
Butane and Propane
  • Butane, like propane, is a saturated hydrocarbon.
  • Both are mixed together to attain the vapor
    pressure that is required by the end user and
    depending on the ambient conditions.
  • Propane, however, has a very high number of BTUs
    per cubic foot in its outer cone, and so with the
    right torch (injector style) can make a faster
    and cleaner cut than acetylene, and is much more
    useful for heating and bending than acetylene.
  • Propane is cheaper than acetylene and easier to
    transport.

40
Propylene
  • Propylene cuts similarly to propane.
  • When propylene is used, the torch rarely needs
    tip cleaning.
  • There is often a substantial advantage to cutting
    with an injector torch.

41
Fuel Gas Cylinder Valves
  • Fuel gas cylinder shut off valves should only be
    opened 1/4 to 1/2 turn
  • This will allow the cylinder to be closed quickly
    in case of fire.
  • Cylinder valve wrenches should be left in place
    on cylinders that do not have a hand wheel.

42
Typical torch styles
  • A small welding torch, with throttle valves
    located at the front end of the handle. Ideally
    suited to sheet metal welding. Can be fitted for
    cutting.
  • attachment in place of the welding head shown.
    Welding torches of this general design are by far
    the most widely used. They will handle any
    oxyacetylene welding job, can be fitted with
    multi-flame (Rosebud) heads for heating
    applications, and accommodate cutting attachments
    that will cut steel 6 in. thick.
  • A full-size oxygen cutting torch which has all
    valves located in its rear body. Another style of
    cutting torch, with oxygen valves located at the
    front end of its handle.

43
Typical startup procedures
  • Verify that equipment visually appears safe IE
    Hose condition, visibility of gauges.
  • Clean torch orifices with a tip cleaners (a
    small wire gauge file set used to clean slag and
    dirt form the torch tip).
  • Crack (or open) cylinder valves slightly allowing
    pressure to enter the regulators slowly.
  • Opening the cylinder valve quickly will Slam
    the regulator and will cause failure.

44
Typical startup procedures
  • Never stand directly in the path of a regulator
    when opening the cylinder.
  • Check for leaks by setting the regulators to the
    working pressure and closing the cylinders for a
    short time. When opening the cylinder valves,
    watch for the regulators to increase in pressure,
    if they do, there is a leak in the system.
  • Using a soapy (non-petroleum based) Bubble
    solution can reveal the leak location.

45
Typical startup procedures
  • Always use a flint and steel spark lighter to
    light the oxygen fuel flame.
  • Never use a butane lighter or matches to light
    the flame.

46
Flame Settings
  • There are three distinct types of oxy-fuel
    flames, usually termed
  • Neutral
  • Carburizing (or excess fuel)
  • Oxidizing (or excess oxygen )
  • The type of flame produced depends upon the ratio
    of oxygen to acetylene in the gas mixture which
    leaves the torch tip.

47
Pure Acetylene and Carburizing Flame profiles
48
Neutral and Oxidizing Flame Profiles
49
Flame definition
  • The neutral flame (Fig. 4-1) is produced when the
    ratio of oxygen to acetylene, in the mixture
    leaving the torch, is almost exactly one-to-one.
    Its termed neutral because it will usually
    have no chemical effect on the metal being
    welded. It will not oxidize the weld metal it
    will not cause an increase in the carbon content
    of the weld metal.
  • The excess acetylene flame (Fig. 4-2), as its
    name implies, is created when the proportion of
    acetylene in the mixture is higher than that
    required to produce the neutral flame. Used on
    steel, it will cause an increase in the carbon
    content of the weld metal.
  • The oxidizing flame (Fig. 4-3) results from
    burning a mixture which contains more oxygen than
    required for a neutral flame. It will oxidize or
    burn some of the metal being welded.

50
Pedestal or Bench Grinder Safety
  • Safety glasses with side shields and a face
    shield must be worn. Hearing protection should be
    worn.
  • Remove loose fitting clothing, jewelry, and tie
    back long hair.
  • Gloves should not be placed near the grinding
    stone.
  • Never grind aluminum with a wheel designed for
    steel. The wheel will overheat and could explode.

51
Pedestal or Bench Grinder Care
  • Before working with a bench grinder, make sure
    the tool and its accessories are in the proper
    working order.
  • Ring Test grinding wheels before mounting.
    Suspend the wheel on a pencil held horizontally
    through the center of the hole. Tap the wheel
    lightly with a plastic screwdriver handle, in
    spots 45 degrees from vertical. If it produces a
    clear ringing tone it is in good condition. If it
    sounds dull, REPLACE it.
  • Inspect the wheels for a hairline crack before
    using. DO NOT USE A CRACKED WHEEL.
  • Make sure the wheel housing guards are in place.
  • Dont operate a grinder unless it is securely
    mounted to the solid surface.
  • Do not heavy grind on the side of the wheel.
  • Adjustments need to be made when the grinder is
    unplugged stopped. Adjust tool rests 1/8 from
    the wheels and slightly below center and spark or
    shatter guards (at the top of the wheel housing
    guards) 1/16away from the wheels. Re-adjust
    these as the wheels wear down to a smaller
    diameter.

52
Portable Grinder Safety
  • Safety glasses with side shields and a face
    shield must be worn. Hearing protection should be
    worn.
  • Never use a portable grinder without the guard in
    place and correctly adjusted.
  • Always have the auxiliary handle fitted hold the
    grinder with both hands and have a Never grind
    aluminum with a wheel designed for steel. The
    wheel will overheat and could explode.
  • stable stance.
  • Ensure the workpiece is rigidly supported and
    firmly clamped. Movement in the workpiece during
    grinding may result in disc shatter or grinder
    kickback, with the potential for operator injury.
  • Ensure the grinder is turned off before plugging
    it in.
  • Check to make sure there are no flammable
    materials that may be hit by sparks and check the
    area for any smouldering material when the work
    is completed.
  • The maximum speed in revolutions per minute (rpm)
    is marked on every wheel. Never exceed this
    limit.

53
Portable Grinder Care
  • Inspect all wheels for cracks and defects before
    mounting them.
  • Ensure that the mounting flange surfaces are
    clean and flat
  • Run nearly mounted wheels at operating speed for
    one minute before grinding.
  • Do not use a grinder that vibrates or makes
    unusual noises.
  • If a grinder is dropped, you should inspect the
    grinding wheel for cracks or defects.
  • Be aware of where your sparks are going.

54
Fire Extinguisher Requirements
  • Suitable fire extinguishing equipment must be
    maintained in a state of readiness for instant
    use. Such equipment may consist of pails of
    water, buckets of sand, hose or portable
    extinguishers depending upon the nature and
    quantity of the combustible material exposed.
  • Fire watchers are required whenever welding or
    cutting is performed in locations where other
    than a minor fire might develop, or any of the
    following conditions exist
  • Appreciable combustible material, in building
    construction or contents, closer than 35 feet (1
    0. 7 m) to the point of operation.
  • Appreciable combustibles are more than 35 feet (1
    0. 7 m) away but are easily ignited by sparks.
  • Wall or floor openings within a 35-foot (1 0. 7
    m) radius expose combustible material in adjacent
    areas including concealed spaces 'n walls or
    floors.
  • Combustible materials are adjacent to the
    opposite side of metal partitions, walls,
    ceilings, or roofs and are likely to be ignited
    by conduction or radiation.

55
Fire Watch Requirements
  • Fire watchers must have fire extinguishing
    equipment readily available and be trained in its
    use. They must be familiar with facilities for
    sounding an alarm in the event of a fire. They
    must watch for fires in all exposed areas, try to
    extinguish them only when obviously within the
    capacity of the equipment available, or otherwise
    sound the alarm. A fire watch must be maintained
    for at least a half-hour after completion of
    welding or cutting operations to detect and
    extinguish possible smoldering fires.

56
Fire Extinguisher Types
  • It is vital to know what type of extinguisher you
    are using. Using the wrong type of extinguisher
    for the wrong type of fire can be
    life-threatening.
  • Class A extinguishers are for ordinary
    combustible materials such as paper, wood,
    cardboard, and most plastics. The numerical
    rating on these types of extinguishers indicates
    the amount of water it holds and the amount of
    fire it can extinguish.
  • Class B fires involve flammable or combustible
    liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, grease and
    oil. The numerical rating for class B
    extinguishers indicates the approximate number of
    square feet of fire it can extinguish.
  • Class C fires involve electrical equipment, such
    as appliances, wiring, circuit breakers and
    outlets. Never use water to extinguish class C
    fires - the risk of electrical shock is far too
    great! Class C extinguishers do not have a
    numerical rating. The C classification means the
    extinguishing agent is non-conductive.
  • Class D fire extinguishers are commonly found in
    a chemical laboratory. They are for fires that
    involve combustible metals, such as magnesium,
    titanium, potassium and sodium. These types of
    extinguishers also have no numerical rating, nor
    are they given a multi-purpose rating - they are
    designed for class D fires only.

57
Fire Extinguisher Symbols
58
Using an Extinguisher
  • To use an extinguisher, you pull out the safety
    pin.
  • Aim at the fuel, not the flames, and depress the
    lever.
  • Move the stream side to side with a sweeping
    motion.

59
Burn Types and Treatment
  • FIRST DEGREE BURNS
  • The first-degree burn usually produces a pink to
    reddish color on the burned skin. Mild swelling,
    tenderness and pain are also symptoms of a
    first-degree burn. This is the least serious type
    of burn and involves only the upper layer of
    skin, the epidermis. For these minor burns, the
    victim should cool with plain water and use
    non-prescription antibiotic creams. These burns
    usually heal on their own within a few days with
    little or no scarring. However, if a first-degree
    burn is over a large area of the body, seek
    emergency medical attention. Also, if an infant
    or elderly person suffers any type of burn, even
    minor, obtain medical assistance promptly.

60
Burn Types and Treatment
  • SECOND DEGREE BURNS
  • Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and the
    second skin layer, the dermis. The epidermis is
    destroyed and burned-through in a second-degree
    burn. There are the same symptoms of pain and
    swelling but the skin color is usually a bright
    red and blisters are produced. Usually
    second-degree burns produce scarring. Second
    degree burns may take from one to three weeks to
    heal but are considered minor if they cover no
    more than 15 of the total body area in adults
    and 10 body area in children. These burns
    require medical attention and medication to heal
    properly. Call for immediate medical help as soon
    as the burn occurs and do not apply any type of
    butter or greasy substance to the burn. This can
    hamper cooling of the burn area and also do
    further damage. Consult medical personnel about
    whether or not to administer fluids to victim
    before arriving at a hospital.

61
Burn Types and Treatment
  • THIRD DEGREE BURNS
  • The third-degree burn may appear charred or have
    patches which appear white, brown or black. Both
    the dermis and epidermis are destroyed and other
    organs, tissues and bones may also be involved.
    Third-degree burns are considered the most
    serious. They produce deep scars that many times
    require cosmetic or reconstructive surgery and
    skin grafts. Pain may or may not be present since
    usually nerve endings which transmit pain have
    been destroyed in this type burn.

62
What if you catch on Fire
  • Smother the flames with your welding gloves.
  • If the fire is large.
  • STOP where you are. Moving or running feeds air
    to the flames and worsens the fire.
  • DROP to the ground. If you stand up, the fire can
    burn your face. Fold your arms high on your chest
    to protect your face.
  • ROLL slowly on the floor or ground, or in a
    blanket or rug, if you can.
  • COOL off as soon as possible with water for first
    and second degree burns.

63
Material Safety Data Sheets
  • A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required
    under the U.S. OSHA Hazard Communication
    Standard.
  • They are required as a part of any compliance
    obligation to be available and displayed
    prominently in the workplace. The public has a
    right to MSDS data upon request.
  • A material safety data sheet (MSDS) is a form
    containing data regarding the properties of a
    particular substance.
  • it is intended to provide workers and emergency
    personnel with procedures for handling or working
    with that substance in a safe manner, and
    includes information such as physical data
    (melting point, boiling point, flash point,
    etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid,
    reactivity, storage, disposal, protective
    equipment, and spill-handling procedures.

64
General First Aid
  • First-aid equipment must be available at all
    times. All injuries must be reported as soon as
    possible for medical attention. First aid must be
    rendered until medical attention can be provided.
  • Report all dangerous situations immediately.
  • If you feel faint or dizzy while welding
  • Let someone know immediately. Go to a safe area
    and sit down. Drink water as soon as possible.

65
General Safety Rules
  • Do not use equipment you have not been trained to
    use. Watching someone use it is not adequate
    training.
  • If a part becomes caught in a machine, do not
    grab it until you have turned off the machine.
  • Never throw anything unless you are sure it is
    safe to do so.
  • Call out a warning prior to throwing something or
    when you drop something from a height that it
    could hit someone.
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