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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) General Requirements Eye & Face Protection Respiratory Protection Head, Hand & Foot Protection Hearing Protection – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • General Requirements
  • Eye Face Protection
  • Respiratory Protection
  • Head, Hand Foot
  • Protection
  • Hearing Protection
  • Other Questions Answers

Subpart I - Personal Protective Equip(OSHA 29
CFR 1910.132-140)
  • Types of PPE
  • Hard hats
  • Goggles
  • Face Shields
  • Steel-toed Shoes
  • Respirators
  • Aprons
  • Gloves

CFR is the Code of Federal Regulations 1910 is
Part 1910, Occupational Safety Health Standards
for General Industry .132 is the Section on
Personal Protective Equipment
Other Types of PPE
Personal protective equipment can also
include clothing...
and accessories that put a barrier against
workplace hazards.
Selecting the Proper PPE For A Particular Job
Should Include
  • An in-depth evaluation of the equipment needed to
    protect employees against workplace hazards
  • Use of this information by management to set
    standard procedures for proper use of PPE
  • Development of employee training programs in the
    use and limitations of PPE
  • Procedures for the maintenance of PPE

  • Personal protective equipment should NOT
  • be used as a substitute for the use of
  • engineering,
  • work practice, and
  • administrative control
  • of a process to ensure safety.

Wearing PPE doesnt eliminate the hazard
If equipment fails exposure will occur.
Equipment must be properly fitted and maintained
in a clean and serviceable condition to reduce
the possibility of failure.
Employers and employees must understand the
equipments purpose and its limitations.
Equipment must not be altered or removed
even though it may be uncomfortable.
It may simply not fit properly.
PPE - General Requirements (1910.132)
  • Employers must ensure that PPE is
  • provided,
  • used, and
  • maintained
  • in a sanitary and reliable condition
  • wherever it is necessary to prevent
  • The body must be protected from hazards caused by
    absorption, inhalation or physical contact.

PPE - General Requirements (1910.132)
Many hazards can threaten the torso Heat
Splashes (from hot metals liquids)
Impacts Cuts Acids Radiation A
variety of protective clothing is available
Vests, Jackets, Aprons, Coveralls and Full
Body Suits.
PPE - General Requirements (1910.132)
  • Employers must assure employee-owned equipment is
    adequate, maintained and sanitized
  • PPE must be of safe design and construction for
    the work performed
  • Employers will do a hazard assessment of the
    workplace and determine types of PPE needed for
    the job
  • Employers must certify in writing that a
    workplace hazard assessment was performed

PPE - General Requirements (1910.132)
  • Defective or damaged PPE shall not be used
  • Employees who use PPE must be trained to know
  • what types of PPE are necessary,
  • when it must be used,
  • how it is to be worn,
  • what its limitations are, and
  • how to properly care for, maintain, and
  • of it. (And know how long it can be

PPE - General Requirements (1910.132)
  • Employers are required to certify in writing that
    employees have received PPE training - and that
    employees understand the training
  • Each written certification shall contain
  • -- Name of employee trained
  • -- Date(s) of training
  • -- Subject trained

PPE - General Requirements (1910.132)
  • PPE retraining is required when
  • Changes in the workplace make previous training
  • Changes in the types of PPE to be used make
    previous training obsolete
  • Employees do not understand the training
  • Employees do not retain the training
  • Once again, written certification is required

Eye Face Protection (1910.133)
Required where there is reasonable probability
of preventing injury when such equipment is used.
  • Must be provided by employers
  • Must also be worn by supervisors, management,
  • visitors, etc.
  • Must be a type of protection suitable for the
  • work to be performed
  • Protectors must be marked to distinctly identify
  • the manufacturer

Eye Face Protection (1910.133)
Protectors must meet the following minimum
  • Provide adequate protection against a particular
  • Be reasonably comfortable when worn under
  • the designated conditions
  • Fit snugly without interfering with movement or
  • vision of the wearer
  • Be durable
  • Be capable of being disinfected
  • Be easy to clean - and kept clean
  • Be in good repair

Eye Face Protection (1910.133)
Equipment shall be used with filter lenses
that have a shade number appropriate for the
work being performed (to protect against light
radiation injuries).
OSHA and the National Society to Prevent
Blindness recommend emergency eyewash stations be
placed in all hazardous locations.
First-aid instructions should be posted close to
potential danger spots (and delay can result
in lasting eye damage).
Eye Face Protection - Selection
  • Persons wearing corrective
  • eyewear must wear face shields,
  • goggles or spectacles of one of
  • the following types
  • Spectacles with protective lenses
  • providing optical correction
  • Goggles worn over corrective
  • spectacles without disturbing
  • the adjustment of the spectacles
  • Goggles that incorporate corrective
  • lenses mounted behind the
  • protective lenses

Eye Face Protection - Selection
  • Eyewear limitations
  • precautions specified by
  • the manufacturer should
  • be
  • -- strictly observed
  • -- communicated to the
  • user

Eye Face Protection
  • The fitting of goggles safety spectacles should
    be done by a person skilled in the procedure.
  • Lenses of eye protectors must be kept clean.
  • Daily inspection and cleaning of eye protectors
    is recommended.
  • Pitted lenses reduce vision and should be
  • Headbands should be checked for elasticity and
    replaced if worn-out or torn.
  • Goggles spectacles should be kept in a case
    when not worn.

Employees who are assigned personal protective
equipment for extended periods of time should
keep that equipment cleaned and disinfected
PPE that has been previously used should be
disinfected before it is issued to
another employee.
Respiratory Protection - 1910.134
OSHA standards require employers to establish and
maintain a respiratory protective program
whenever respirators are necessary to protect
the health of employees.
  • Three classes of respiratory protective devices
  • Air-purifying
  • Atmosphere- or air-supplying
  • Combination air-purifying air-supplying

Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices
  • Clean contaminated atmosphere
  • Use chemical filters to remove specific gases
  • and vapors before they are inhaled
  • Use is limited to those environments where the
  • air contaminant level is within
  • limits of the filter (device)
  • Do not protect against oxygen deficiency (the
  • atmosphere where the percentage of
  • oxygen by volume is less than 19.5
  • oxygen)

Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices
  • Types include
  • Mechanical-filter cartridge
  • Chemical-cartridge
  • Combination mechanical-filter/
  • chemical-filter cartridge
  • Gas masks
  • Powered air-purifying respirators

Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices
Filter/cartridges provide some protection from
Airborne particulates Dust
Mist Metal fumes Smoke Low
concentrations of gases vapors
Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices
  • provide respiratory protection against certain
  • vapors and particulate matter
  • designed solely to remove specific contaminants
  • have restricted usage
  • must be used with sufficient oxygen to support
  • may be used for escape only (from atmospheres
  • are immediately dangerous to life or
    health) but
  • never for entry into such environments
  • are color-coded to specify use

Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices
  • protect against particulates, gases and vapors
  • particulates AND gases AND vapors (all of
  • use filters, chemical cartridge, both, or a
  • uses a powered source to blow air across the
  • element (supplying purified air to the

Class 2 - Atmosphere- or Air-Supplying Devices
  • Provide atmosphere independent of
  • ambient air
  • Three groups
  • Supplied-air respirators
  • Self-contained breathing apparatus
  • Combination SCBA supplied-air

Class 3 - Combination Air-Purifying
Atmosphere-Supplying Devices
  • Provides protection if air
  • supply fails.
  • Available in continuous-flow or pressure-demand
  • Most often used with high-efficiency filter as
  • air purifying element
  • Use in the filtering mode is allowed for escape
  • These respirators recommended for asbestos work

Respiratory Protection - 1910.134
  • Standard operating procedures must be written for
    the selection, use and care of respirators
  • Respirators must be selected based on the hazards
    to which the worker is exposed
  • The individual issuing the respirator must be
    trained to insure the proper respirator is issued
  • To select the correct respirator, many factors
    must be considered type of hazard, location,
    employees health, work activity, respirator
    characteristics, capabilities and limitations

Respiratory Protection - 1910.134
  • The user must be trained in selection, use and
    maintenance of the respirator
  • Every respirator user shall receive instructions
    and demonstrations - with practice - in wearing,
    adjusting and fitting the respirator properly
  • Respirators will be cleaned and disinfected
    regularly (each day, or more often, if necessary)
  • Respirators will be stored in a convenient,
    clean, and sanitary location (to assure it
    functions properly when used)

Respiratory Protection - 1910.134
  • Routinely inspect respirators during cleaning and
    replace worn and/or deteriorated parts
  • Respirators for emergency uses shall be
    thoroughly inspected at least once a month and
    after each use
  • Work area surveillance to determine the degree of
    employee exposure or stress will be performed
  • The respirator program will be regularly
    inspected and evaluated for effectiveness

Respiratory Protection - 1910.134
  • Approved or accepted respirators shall be used
    when they are available
  • Respirators are approved as a whole unit with
    specific components
  • OSHA recognizes a respirator as approved if it
    has been jointly approved by
  • -- NIOSH
  • -- Mine Safety Health
  • (MSHA)

Respiratory Protection - 1910.134
  • Finally
  • Employees will not be assigned to tasks requiring
    respirators unless they are physically able to
    perform the work and use the equipment
  • A physician shall determine the employees health
    and physical conditions pertinent to wearing
    respirators (Medical status will be reviewed

Head Protection - 1910.135
Head injuries are caused by falling or flying
objects, or by bumping the head
Head Protection - protective hats - must do 2
things -- Resist penetration -- Absorb
the shock of a blow Protective hats are also
used to protect against electrical shock.
Head Protection - 1910.135
Types and classes Type 1 - Helmets, full brim,
not less than 1 and 1/4 inches wide Type 2
- Helmets, no brim, with a peak extending
forward from the crown Class A - General
Service, limited voltage protection
Head Protection - 1910.135
Types and classes Class B - Utility Service,
high- voltage helmets Class C - Special
Service, no- voltage protection Firefighte
rs must have head protection with ear flaps
chin strap meeting 1910.156(e)(5)
Class A Helmets
Intended to protect against impact hazards. Used
in Mining Construction
Shipbuilding Tunneling
Lumbering and
Class B Helmets
Protect the wearers head from impact and
penetration by falling or flying objects and from
high-voltage shock and burn. Used extensively by
electrical workers.
Class C Helmets
Designed for lightweight comfort impact
protection. Usually made from aluminum and
offers no dielectric protection. Used in
Construction Manufacturing
Oil fields Refineries
Chemical plants
Head Protection - 1910.135
  • Materials used in helmets should be
  • -- Water-resistant
  • -- Slow burning
  • Each helmet consists of a shell and suspension
  • Ventilation is provided by a space between the
  • headband and shell

Head Protection - 1910.135
  • Helmets should come with instructions explaining
  • the proper method of adjusting and
  • the suspension and headband
  • The manufacturers name, ANSI designation, and
  • class type should be inside the helmets
  • The shell should be one-piece, seamless, and
  • to resist the impact of falling material
  • Headband/sweatband material must not irritate
  • All components should be visually inspected
    daily (for
  • dents, cracks, penetration, etc.)

Hand Protection - 1910.138
Employers shall select and require employees to
use appropriate hand protection when employees
hands are exposed to hazards - such as
Skin absorption of harmful substances
Severe cuts or lacerations
Severe abrasions Punctures
Chemical burns Thermal burns
Harmful temperature extremes
Employers need to determine what hand
protection their employees need.
  • How? Study work
  • activities to determine
  • Dexterity required
  • Duration,
  • Frequency
  • Degree of exposure
  • to hazards
  • and
  • Physical stresses applied
  • Also, know the performance characteristics of
    gloves to a
  • specific hazard

Hand Protection - 1910.138
  • Before purchasing gloves, employers should
  • documentation from the manufacturer that
  • meet appropriate test standards for the
  • hazard
  • (Example Chemical hazard, determine toxic
  • properties of the chemical and the
  • of the chemical to pass through the
  • Protective devices should be selected to fit the
  • Employees should know the limitations of the
  • type they use

Gloves should be the RIGHT TYPE for the
job you are doing RIGHT FIT - not too
loose, not too tight
allow for quick removal IN GOOD
CONDITION (always check for cracks,
holes, good flexibility and grip.
Keep gloves clean and in good
Foot Protection - 1910.136
Foot guards, safety shoes, boots or leggings
protect from -- Falling or rolling objects --
Sharp objects -- Molten metal -- Hot surfaces
and -- Wet, slippery surfaces Safety
shoes should be sturdy and have an
impact-resistant toe.
Foot Protection - 1910.136
  • Leggings protect the lower leg and feet from
    molten metal
  • or welding sparks
  • Heat-resistant soled shoes protect against hot
  • Foot guards (Aluminum alloy, fiberglass, or
    galvanized steel)
  • can be worn over work shoes, BUT may
    catch on
  • something and cause workers to trip
  • In some shoes, metal insoles protect against
    puncture wounds
  • Safety shoes and boots come in a variety of
    styles and materials

The SAFETY SHOE has protective features you need
to do your job safely
Ankle Snug (to prevent sparks from
getting inside shoe)
Instep Protection (Made of Aluminum, Steel,
Fiber or Plastic)
Steel Toe
Insulation (against heat or cold,
waterproof chemical-resistant)
Special Materials (Soles made of either
leather, rubber, cord or wood)
Puncture Protection (With spring steel in sole)
Foot Protection - 1910.136
  • Safety footwear is classified by ability to meet
  • minimum requirements for compression
  • impact tests.
  • Protective footwear purchased prior to July 5,
  • must comply with ANSI Z41.1-1967, USA
  • Standard for Mens Safety-Toe Footwear
  • Protective footwear purchased after July 5, 1994
  • must comply with ANSI Z41-1991, American
  • National Standard for Personal
  • Protective Footwear

Hearing Protection - 1910.95
Exposure to high levels of noise can cause
  • Hearing loss
  • Impairment
  • Physical stress
  • Psychological stress
  • Permanent hearing damage

There is no cure for noise-induced hearing loss
-- prevention is the only way to avoid
hearing damage.
Hearing Protection - 1910.95
Types of ear protection available include
-- Preformed or molded ear plugs --
Cotton, Foam or
Fiberglass earplugs -- Earmuffs Plain
cotton earplugs are ineffective as protection
against hazardous noise. Non-disposable
earplugs should be cleaned after each use.
Earmuffs need a perfect seal around the ear to be
sideburns, long hair,
facial movements, such as chewing all can
reduce hearing protection.
For extremely noisy situations...
earplugs and earmuffs should be worn.
When used together, earplugs earmuffs change
the nature of sounds reducing all of them.
PPE - Other Questions Answers
4. Electrical workers use this Class of 1.
Eye and face protectors must meet
helmet extensively all but one of the
following requirements
a. Class A a. Be durable

b. Class B b. Be comfortable in all
conditions c.
Class C c. Be in good repair
Class D d. Provide adequate protection
against e. Almost
any class can be used a particular
hazard e. Be easy to clean
5. Gloves
should be

a. Right type, right fit, and in 2.
First aid instructions should be posted
good condition close to
potential danger spots.
b. Right type, right fit, and
True________ False________
worn in well to do
the work

safely 3. Goggles and spectacles
should be c.
Custom made for the user kept in a case when not
d. Be capable of meeting True________
manufacturers test standards

the anticipated hazard

e. Both a and b above

f. Both
a and d above
Hour 5 Quiz - Answers
  • 1. B.
  • 2. True.
  • 3. True.
  • 4. B.
  • 5. F. (Both A and D are correct)