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Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section V: Concept 1

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Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section V: Concept 14 Nutrition The amount and kinds of food you eat affect your health and wellness. MyPyramid.gov More personalized ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section V: Concept 1


1
Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical
Fitness 14e
  • Section V Concept 14
  • Nutrition

The amount and kinds of food you eat affect your
health and wellness.
2
MyPyramid.gov
Click icon forinfo on Lab 14b
  • More personalized, behavioral approach to
    nutrition.
  • Web-based assessment tool called MyPyramid
    Tracker was also released to help consumers
    monitor their diet and activity behaviors.
  • Also emphasizes the importance of physical
    activity.

Click here to view MyPyramid Animationhttp//www.
mypyramid.gov/global_nav/media_animation-presentat
ion_eng_pc.html
3
Guidelines for Healthy Eating
  • Make half your grains whole.
  • Vary your veggies.
  • Focus on fruits.
  • Know your fats.
  • Get your calcium-rich foods.
  • Go lean with protein.

4
Does the Healthy Eating Pyramid more effectively
capture the elements of a healthy diet?
See the Harvard Nutrition Source website
5
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6
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7
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8
General Nutrition Concepts
  • Influences of Nutrition
  • Health
  • Appearance
  • Behavior
  • Mood
  • Role of Nutrients in Diet
  • Growth and development
  • Provide energy
  • Regulate metabolism

See Web14-1 for info on general nutrition
guidelines AND links to the 2005 Dietary
Guidelines
9
Classes of Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

Subsequent slides will provide basic information
about each nutrient.
10
Types of Carbohydrates (2 types)
  • Simple
  • Soda, candy, sweets, fruit
  • Individual glucose, sucrose, or fructose
    molecules
  • Increase blood sugar
  • Promote fat deposition
  • Complex
  • Pasta, rice, breads, potatoes
  • Contribute nutrients and fiber
  • Chains of glucose molecules

11
Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption
See Web14-4 for distinctions between complex and
simple.
12
Low Carb Mania(What is the basis?)
Click icon for info on fiber
  • Proponents of low carb diets blame carbohydrates
    on the obesity epidemic, but this is not well
    supported by research.
  • The quality of carbohydrates is the real issue
    and it is still wise to consume quality whole
    grains with adequate fiber.

13
Carbohydrate Recommendations
  • Eat at least 3 ounces of whole-grain cereals,
    breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day. Look
    to see that grains such as wheat, rice, oats, and
    corn are referred to as whole in the list of
    ingredients.
  • Eat more dark green vegetables, such as broccoli,
    kale, and other dark, leafy greens orange
    veggies, such as carrots, sweet potatoes,
    pumpkin, and winter squash and beans and peas,
    such as pinto beans, kidney beans, black beans,
    garbanzo beans, split peas, and lentils.
  • Eat a variety of fruitswhether fresh, frozen,
    canned, or driedrather than fruit juice for most
    of your fruit choices.

14
Types of Fats
  • Saturated
  • Animal sources
  • Solid at room temperature
  • Unsaturated (poly- or mono-)
  • Vegetable sources
  • Liquid at room temperature

Click icon for info on fat content of oils
H H H H H H H H H H H H H O
HC-C-C-C-C-CC-C-C-CC-C-C-C-C-C-OH H H H H H
H H H H H
Web14-06 Web14-07
15
Types of Fats continued
Click icon for info on hydrogenationprocess
  • The hydrogenation process used to convert oils
    into solids produce trans fat, which is just as
    harmful as saturated fats, if not more so.
  • Trans fats are known to cause increases in LDL
    cholesterol and have been shown to contribute to
    the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque.

16
Fat Substitutes
  • Olestra
  • Simplesse
  • Benecol
  • Take Control

What are the dietary implications of these new
food products?
17
Recommendations for Fat Consumption
  • Dietary Fat Recommendations
  • Less than 10 of calories in diet from saturated
    fat
  • Total dietary fat between 20-35 of calories
  • Ways to Decrease Intake of Fat
  • Substitute lean meat, fish, poultry, nonfat milk,
    and other low-fat dairy products for high-fat
    foods
  • Reduce fried foods foods high in cholesterol

18
Types of Protein
  • Sources of Protein
  • Animal (complete)
  • meats, dairy
  • Vegetable (incomplete)
  • beans, nuts, legumes, grains
  • Types of Amino Acids
  • Nonessential (11) can be made by body
  • Essential (9) must be obtained from diet
  • Complete proteins contain all of the essential
    amino acids

Amino acids linked together
19
Protein Requirements
  • RDA average .8 g/kg/day
  • RDA athlete 1.2-1.6 g/kg/day

High levels of protein intake above 2 g/kg/day
can be harmful to the body
20
Protein Guidelines
  • Consume at least 2 servings/day of lean meat,
    fish, poultry, and dairy products or adequate
    combination of foods, such as beans, nuts,
    grains, and rice.
  • Dietary supplements of protein, such as tablets
    and powders, are NOT recommended.

21
Dietary Recommendations (2 different sets)
Lab 14a
Questions 1. Why do theguidelines differ? 2.
What is a healthy diet? 3. How do you
calculate these percentages?
U.S.D.A.
Institute of Medicine
calorie calculations
22
Vitamins
  • Organic substances that regulate numerous and
    diverse physiological processes in the body
  • Do not contain calories
  • Two types
  • Fat soluble
  • Water soluble

23
Vitamin Guidelines
Click for info onanti-oxidants
  • A balanced diet containing recommended servings
    of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the
    RDA standards.
  • Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables
    may be beneficial.
  • Extra consumption of citrus and other fruits may
    be beneficial.

24
Vitamin Supplementation?
  • Not necessary if diet is healthy
  • Multivitamins are safe (100 RDA)
  • Not all vitamins are pure
  • Can be toxic at high doses

25
Minerals
  • Inorganic elements found in food that are
    essential to life processes
  • About 25 are essential
  • Classified as major or trace minerals
  • RDAs have only been determined for 7 minerals

26
Mineral Guidelines
Click for more info on minerals
  • A diet containing recommended servings of
    carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the
    RDA standards
  • Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables may
    be beneficial
  • Dietary supplementation of Calcium is beneficial
    for post-menopausal women
  • Salt should be limited in the diet

27
Populations Who May Benefit from Supplementation
  • Pregnant/lactating women
  • Alcoholics
  • Elderly
  • Women with severe menstrual losses
  • Individuals on VLCDs
  • Strict vegetarians
  • Individuals taking medications or with diseases
    which inhibit nutrient absorption

28
Water
Click for more info on water
  • Vital to life
  • Drink at least 8 glasses a day
  • Coffee, tea, and soft drinks should not be
    substituted for sources of key nutrients, such as
    low-fat milk, fruit juices, or foods rich in
    calcium.
  • Limit daily servings of beverages containing
    caffeine to no more than three.
  • Limit sugared soft drinks they contain empty
    calories.
  • If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in
    moderation.

29
Sound Eating Practices
  • Consistency (with variety) is a good general rule
    of nutrition.
  • Moderation
  • Minimize reliance on fast foods
  • Minimize your consumption of overly processed
    foods and foods high in saturated fat or
    hydrogenated fats.
  • Healthy snacks

30
Nutrition Physical Performance
  • Complex carbohydrates should constitute as much
    as 70 of total caloric intake.
  • A higher amount of protein is generally
    recommended for active individuals (1.2 g/kg of
    body weight) because some protein is used as an
    energy source during exercise.
  • Protein levels above 15 of the diet are
    typically not necessary.
  • Carbohydrate loading and carbohydrate replacement
    during exercise can enhance sustained aerobic
    performances.

31
Nutrition Quackery
  • Ergogenic aids
  • Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act
    (1994)
  • Responsible for an explosion in the sales of
    products that have not been proven to be
    effective.

32
Nutrition Summary
  • Nutrition is important to health and wellness.
  • Moderation and variety are recommended.
  • Some individuals may have additional nutritional
    needs based on activity level, pregnancy, etc.
  • Fruits and veggies are critical!!

33
Web Resources
Online Learning Center
"On the Web pages for Concept
34
Supplemental Graphics
  • Lab Information
  • Detail on BMI calculations
  • Graphics on Obesity Trends

35
Lab 14a InformationNutrition Analysis
  • Purpose Compare quality of favorite diet with
    your ideal healthy diet
  • Procedure Select foods from food list (Appendix
    D or other diet tables) and calculate calories
    from carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

36
Lab 14a InformationNutrition Analysis - cont.
Return to presentation
Making calorie calculations
Calories of Total
Calories
  • Protein 350
  • Fat 800
  • Carbohydrate 1400
  • Totals 2550

13.7 31.4 54.9 100.0
37
Lab 14b InformationSelecting Nutritious Foods
Return to presentation
  • Purpose Evaluate the nutritional quality of your
    diet
  • Procedure Record foods consumed for two days on
    the Daily Diet Record. Calculate calorie intake
    from list in Appendix C
  • Implications Rate the quality of the diet
    according to the Rating Scale.

Click icon to see other food tables
38
Fiber
  • Soluble - decreases cholesterol levels
  • found in oat bran, fruits and veggies
  • Insoluble - reduces risk of colon cancer
  • found in wheat bran and grains

Recommendation 25-40g per dayAre you getting
enough?
39
Ways to Get More Fiber
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables
  • Eat whole grain foods

40
A Grain of Wheat
Return to presentation
BRAN

- B vitamins

- minerals

ENDOSPERM

- dietary fiber
- starch

- protein

- some iron and

GERM

B vitamins

- essential fats

- minerals

- vitamins

(B's , E and folacin)
41
Composition of Oils ()
Return to presentation
  • Type Sat Poly Mono
  • safflower 9 75 16
  • sunflower 10 66 24
  • corn 13 59 28
  • soybean 14 58 28
  • sesame 14 42 44
  • peanut 17 32 51
  • palm 49 9 42
  • olive 14 8 78
  • canola 7 35 58

42
Hydrogenation Process
Return to presentation
43
Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K
  • Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence
    of bile (a fatty substance)
  • Overdoses can be toxic (A and D)

44
Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Consist of B complex and vitamin C
  • Excesses will be excreted in the urine, however,
    B-6 and Niacin can be toxic when ingested in
    unusually large amounts

45
Water Soluble Vitamins
Return to presentation
  • B-1 (thiamine)
  • B-2 (riboflavin)
  • B-6 (pyridoxine)
  • B-12 (cobalamin)
  • Niacin (nicotinic acid)
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • Folic Acid (folacin)
  • Biotin
  • C

46
Antioxidant All-Stars
  • Broccoli
  • Cantaloupe
  • Carrot
  • Kale
  • Mango
  • Pumpkin
  • Red Pepper
  • Spinach
  • Strawberries
  • Sweet potato

47
Minerals with established RDA guidelines
Return to presentation
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Iodine
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc
  • Selenium

48
Calcium
Return to presentation
  • Important for preventing osteoporosis
  • RDA 800-1000 mg/day
  • Found in dairy products and vegetablesHigh
    protein diets leach calcium from bones and
    promote osteoporosis

49
Iron
Return to presentation
  • Important component of hemoglobin
  • Iron deficiency is known as anemia(Symptoms
    shortness of breath, fatigue)

50
Functions of Water
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  • Comprises about 60 of body weight
  • Chief component of blood plasma
  • Aids in temperature regulation
  • Lubricates joints
  • Shock absorber in eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic
    sac (during pregnancy)
  • Active participant in many chemical reactions

51
Caloric Content of Foods
  • Carbohydrates 4 cal/g
  • Protein 4 cal/g
  • Fats 9 cal/g
  • Alcohol 7 cal/g

52
Calorie Calculation (Example)
  • Heather consumes 2000 calories per day and wishes
    to obtain 20 of her calories from fat2000
    calories x 20 400 calories from fat per
    day400 calories from fat 44 grams of fat/day

53
What is Baloney?
54
What about Sliced Turkey?
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