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  • Conditions Leading to the Emergence of
    Universities in the West

Tentative Discussion Outline
  • Modern University Rankings
  • Early Concepts for Universities
  • Universities in the Late Middle Ages
  • Medieval / Pre-Midieval University Precursors
  • Forces Leading to Emergence of University
  • The Development and Convergence of
  • Society, Culture, Warfare and Demographics
  • Information and Communications Technologies
  • The Key Role of Government and Geography
  • Characteristics of the Emergent University
  • Concepts for Authority, Organization and
  • State / Institutional Funding
  • Study and Research Disciplinarity

Roots of the Modern UniversityUseful Additional
  • Hailman, W. N. (1874). Twelve lectures on the
    history of pedagogy Delivered before the
    Cincinnati Teachers' Association. New York Van
    Antwerp, Bragg and Co.
  • Makdisi, G. (1989). Scholasticism and Humanism in
    Classical Islam and the Christian West. Journal
    of the American Oriental Society, 109 (2),
  • Marginson, S. (2007). Global university rankings
    where to from here? Asia-Pacific Association for
    International Education. Singapore National
    University of Singapore.

  • Per the World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2005.
    Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.
  • university   Institution of higher learning.
  • Universities grew from the studia generalia of
    the 12th century, which provided education for
    priests and monks and were attended by students
    from all parts of Europe. In the 11th century,
    Bologna became an important centre of legal
    studies. Other great studia generalia were
    founded in the mid-12th century at Paris, Oxford,
    and Cambridge.
  • From the latin "universitas" a corporation of
  • Given this, universities would be a medieval
    European phenomenon with the oldest university
    being the University of Magnaura in
    Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey), founded in
    849 by the regent Bardas of emperor Michael III.
  • All of those listed survive in some form to this

Comparison of University Rating Criteria
Cited in Marginson, 2007, pg 6, 7.
ARWU Top 100 Ratings
  • 116 Total Universities achieved Top 100 ratings
    Since 2003

Japan (6(-1) Univs) high rank 14 Netherlands
(2(-1) Univs) high rank 39 Norway high
rank 63 Russia high rank 66 Sweden (4 Univs)
high rank 39 Switzerland (2 Univs) high
rank 45 UK (10 Univs) high rank 2 US (67(-8)
Univs) high rank 1
Austria high rank 84 Belgium (-1) high rank
90 Canada (3 Univs) high rank 90 Denmark (-1)
high rank 97 Australia (3(-1) Univs) high
rank 49 France (4(-1) Univs) high rank
39 Germany (8(-2) Univs) high rank 45 Israel
high rank 60 Italy (-1) high rank 70
Bold / Italics indicates achievement of ranking
15 or better in at least one report. (-X)
indicates number of non-perennial Top 100
universities achieving a Top 100 ranking 3 or
less times in 8 years.. NOTE This is not an
endorsement of ARWU Rating Standards. These data
were selected because they are a non-western
source of authoritative University rankings.
A Sampling of THES 2010 Rankings
Early Universities
  • Oxford University (1096/1167)
  • Oldest university in the English-speaking world
  • Rapid growth when Henry II banned English
    students from Univ of Paris. (1167)
  • Masters were recognized as a universitas in 1231.
  • Set back by Anglican break with Catholic Church
    and the Reformation.
  • University of Bologna (1088)
  • Chartered by Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158
  • Notable for teaching of canon and civil law.
  • The only degree granted (until modern times) was
    the doctorate.
  • Alma mater for Dante, Petrarch and Copernicus
  • University of Paris (1231)
  • The first clearly established university through
    Papal Bull.
  • Intended to resolve tensions between church
    students and local governors.
  • Played an important part in the function of the
    Church, during the Great Schism and political
    power use until the French Revolution.
  • Charles University (1347)
  • The first university in Central Europe -opened in
  • Modeled on Univ of Paris Established by Papal
  • Provided privileges and immunities from the
    secular authorities.
  • Alma mater for Tesla, Albert I, Einstein

More on Early Universities
  • University studies took six years for a
    Bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional
    years for a master's degree and doctorate.
  • The first six years were organized by the faculty
    of arts, where the seven liberal arts were
    taught arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music
    theory, grammar, logic, and rhetoric. The primary
    emphasis was on logic.
  • Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been
    conferred, the student could leave the university
    or pursue further studies, in one of the three
    other faculties law, medicine, or theology in
    which to pursue the master's degree and doctorate
    degree. Theology was the most prestigious area of
  • Courses were offered according to books, not by
    subject or theme. For example a course might be
    on a book by Aristotle, or a book from the Bible.
    Courses were not elective the course offerings
    were set, and everyone had to take the same
    courses. There were, however, occasional choices
    as to which teacher to use.
  • Students entered the University at fourteen to
    fifteen years of age.
  • Most universities of international excellence in
    Europe were registered by the Holy Roman Empire
    as a Studium Generale. Members of these
    institutions were encouraged to disseminate their
    knowledge across Europe, often giving lecture
    courses at a different Studium Generale.

The University of Bologna
  • The University of is the oldest continually
    operating university in the world, the word
    'universitas' being first used by this
    institution at its foundation.
  • The true date of its founding is uncertain, but
    believed by most accounts to have been 1088.
  • The university received a charter from Frederick
    I Barbarossa in 1158.
  • The university is historically notable for its
    teaching of canon and civil law. Until modern
    times, the only degree granted at that
    university was the doctorate.

Oxford University
  • the masters were recognized as a universitas or
    corporation in 1231
  • With the Reformation and the breaking of ties
    with the Roman Catholic Church, Catholic Recusant
    scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe,
    settling especially at the university of Douai.
    The method of teaching at the university was
    transformed from the medieval Scholastic method
    to Renaissance education, although institutions
    associated with the university suffered loss of
    land and revenues.

University of Paris
Charles University
  • the first university in Central Europe
  • Modeled on Univ of Paris Established by Papal
  • privileges and immunities from the secular power
    in a Golden Bull4 and on 14 January 1349 he
    repeated that as the King of the Romans.
  • The university was actually opened in 1349.

Medieval Universities
Even Earlier Institutions
Nalanda, India, (5th Century B.C.)
al-Qarawiyin University, Morocco - 859
Platonic Academy, Athens, 387B.C.)
Ancient Greece
South Asia
Far East
Ancient Persia
  • In Persia (Iran), the Academy of Gundishapur was
    an important medical centre of the 6th and 7th
    centuries AD.
  • The Academy of Gundishapur (in Persian ???????
    ??????????, Dânešgâh e Gondišâpur), also
    Jondishapur, was a renowned academy of learning
    in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity,
    the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire.
    It offered training in medicine, philosophy,
    theology and science. The faculty were versed not
    only in the Zoroastrian and Persian traditions,
    but in Greek and Indian learning as well.
    According to The Cambridge History of Iran, it
    was the most important medical center of the
    ancient world (defined as Europe, the
    Mediterranean, and the Near East) during the 6th
    and 7th centuries.
  • However, it was under the rule of the Sassanid
    emperor Khosrau I (531-579 AD), called
    Anushiravan literally "Immortal Soul" and known
    to the Greeks and Romans as Chosroes, that
    Gondeshapur became known for medicine and
    erudition. Khosrau I gave refuge to various Greek
    philosophers, Syriac-speaking Christians and
    Nestorians fleeing religious persecution by the
    Byzantine empire.
  • The king commissioned the refugees to translate
    Greek and Syriac texts into Pahlavi. They
    translated various works on medicine, astronomy,
    philosophy, and useful crafts.
  • Anushiravan also turned towards the east, and
    sent the famous physician Borzouye to invite
    Indian and Chinese scholars to Gondeshapur. These
    visitors translated Indian texts on astronomy,
    astrology, mathematics and medicine and Chinese
    texts on herbal medicine and religion. Borzouye
    is said to have himself translated the
    Pañcatantra from Sanskrit into Persian as Kalila
    u Dimana.
  • In addition to systemizing medical treatment and
    knowledge, the scholars of the academy also
    transformed medical education rather than
    apprenticing with just one physician, medical
    students were required to work in the hospital
    under the supervision of the whole medical
    faculty. There is even evidence that graduates
    had to pass exams in order to practice as
    accredited Gondeshapur physicians (as recorded in
    an Arabic text, the Tarikhu l-Hikama).
  • Still in operation recently renamed again as
    Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
  • http//
  • http//

  • Islamic world
  • The cultured Christian layman is aware of his re-
    ligious debt to Judaism, and of his intellectual
    debt to Greco-Roman antiquity but, generally
    speaking, he is not aware of any debt to
    classical Islam. The very idea may cause him to
    smile indulgently, or to dismiss the suggestion
    as unworthy of his attention. Others may be aware
    of some legacy from Islam, but seem to remember
    that it was Greek, or something else, in origin,
    and that the West was able, subsequently, to
    recover the item in question directly from its
    source. Thus there is nothing that our historical
    studies have brought to our attention of a
    significant legacy of purely Islamic origin.
  • Could it be that all we have from that great
    civilization are things of little consequence,
    some words that passed into Western vernaculars,
    some trivia of no great importance?
  • I would like to entertain you with a brief
    description of some phenomena, whose origins, I
    believe, can be adequately explained only on
    purely Islamic-Arabic grounds. Two major
    intellectual move- ments, which we have long
    considered as of exclusively .
  • Western origin, have their roots deep down in
    Islamic soil. The first movement, appropriately
    called scho- lasticism, is that of the school
    guilds in the Middle Ages the second is that of
    humanism in the Italian Renaissance.
  • both had their origins in Islam
  • the doctorate ("license to issue legal
    opinions." )
  • the prerogative of the doctor of the law
    exclusively. There was no other doctorate in any
    other field, no license to teach a field, except
    that of the religious law. To obtain a doctorate,
    one had to study in a guild school of law,
    usually four years for the basic undergraduate
    course, some ten or more for the graduate.
  • obtained after an oral examina- tion to determine
    the originality of the candidate's theses, and to
    test his ability to defend them against all
    objections, in disputations set up for the
  • With the successful conclusion of his legal
    studies, the dignity of the doctorate bestowed
    upon him a triple status (1) he was recognized
    as a faqTh, i.e., a master of law (2) he was
    recognized as a mufti, i.e., a professor of legal
    opinions solicited by the faithful and (3) he
    was recognized as eligible for the teaching post
    of mudarris, i.e., a doctor ("teacher") of the
    law. This triple status later appeared in the
    guild schools of the Christian West faqTh, muftT
    and mudar- ris, the Latin equivalents of which
    were magister, professor and doctor.
  • The doctorate came into existence after the
    ninth- century Inquisition in Islam. It had not
    existed before, in Islam or anywhere else.
  • The guilds of law in Islam, called madhhabs,
    were, before the Inquisition, identified by the
    name of a city or region They were thus
    transformed from a loose and informal entity, to
    an autonomous, exclusivist unit, a professional
    guild, with rules and regulations to be adhered
    to by those who wished to become members. The
    purpose of these guilds was to place, in the
    hands of the juris- consults exclusively, the
    machinery to determine orthodoxy in Islam.
  • To be considered authorita- tive, he had to
    practice original scholarship. In this process
    two freedoms were involved the freedom of the
    professor to profess his own personal opinions
    independently of all forces, both within and
    without the guild in which he was a member no
    power could compel him to give a predetermined
    opinion. The second freedom was that of the
    layman, who was free to ask the same question of
    a number of professors of the law, and to make
    his own choice from among the answers received.
  • This tradition includes the academic freedom of
    the professor to profess his opinions, and the
    same freedom of the student to learn, and to pass
    judgment on what he is learning,
  • It also includes the process of university
    education, with its defense of the doctoral
    thesis, and the dignity of the academic degree,
    the doctorate.
  • and for the movement of humanism, I shall speak
    of the art of dictation
  • Islamic literary humanism aimed at preserving the
    classical language of prose and poetry of the
    ancient Arabians, as well as of the Koran, and of
    the Prophetic Traditions its purpose was to use
    this language as the vehicle of a literature of
    poetry and artistic prose. The object was to use
    classical writings as models to imitate and
    emulate, to create literature as eloquent as that
    of the ancient models, and, if possible, to go as
    far beyond those models as the writers' talents
    could carry them. ,
  • The characteristics of classical Arabic required
    dic- tation, rather than copying the already
    written word. The word had to be heard from an
    authoritative speaker, not merely seen already
  • The speaker breathes life into the inert con-
    sonants, resurrecting them by vocalizing as he

What Changes Led to Universities as an Innovation?
  • Demography
  • Culture
  • Religion ( Philosophy)
  • Politics
  • War
  • Economy ?
  • Science / Technology

The High Middle Ages - Demography
  • http//
  • The key historical trend of the High Middle Ages
    was the rapidly increasing population of Europe,
    which brought about great social and political
    change from the preceding era. By 1250 the robust
    population increase greatly benefited the
    economy, reaching levels it would not see again
    in some areas until the 19th century. This trend
    was checked in the Late Middle Ages by a series
    of calamities, notably the Black Death but also
    including numerous wars and economic stagnation.
  • In the 11th century, populations north of the
    Alps began to settle new lands, some of which had
    reverted to wilderness after the end of the Roman
    Empire. In what is known as the "great
    clearances", vast forests and marshes of Europe
    were cleared and cultivated. At the same time
    settlements moved beyond the traditional
    boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new
    frontiers in eastern Europe, beyond the Elbe
    River, tripling the size of Germany in the
  • The still-powerful Catholic Church called armies
    from across Europe to a series of Crusades
    against the Seljuk Turks, who occupied the Holy
    Land, thereby founding the Crusader States in the
    Levant. Other wars led to the colonization of the
    Baltic, while Christian kingdoms conquered the
    Iberian Peninsula from the Moors, and the Normans
    colonized southern Italy, all part of the major
    population increase and resettlement pattern.
  • http//
  • With the increasing growth and urbanization of
    European society during the 12th and 13th
    centuries, a demand grew for professional clergy.
    Before the 12th century, the intellectual life of
    Western Europe had been largely relegated to
    monasteries, which were mostly concerned with the
    performing the liturgy and prayer relatively few
    monasteries could boast true intellectuals.
    Following the Gregorian Reform's emphasis on
    canon law and the study of the sacraments,
    bishops formed cathedral schools to train the
    clergy in Canon law, but also in the more secular
    aspects of religious administration, including
    logic and disputation for use in preaching and
    theological discussion, and accounting to more
    effectively control finances. Learning became
    essential to advancing in the ecclesiastical
    hierarchy, and teachers also gained prestige.
    However, demand quickly outstripped the capacity
    of cathedral schools, each of which was
    essentially run by one teacher.
  • tensions rose between the students of cathedral
    schools and burghers in smaller towns. As a
    result cathedral schools migrated to large
    cities, like Paris and Bologna

Black Death
Population Growth and Literacy
  • http//
  • This population growth is connected with literacy
    in two ways 1) The population growth is attested
    in a society through urbanization, a process that
    relates to literacy. 2) Even without any special
    knowledge in regard to urbanization, population
    growth always reflects a growth in the rate of
  • That is, population growth led to urbanization,
    and according to the former analysis, this is
    connected with literacy. Indeed, this phenomenon
    which is known from three countries is known from
    other places, such as India, Argentina and
    others. These tables show that during population
    growth the total number of the illiterate remains
    almost steady which means that the literacy rate
    was increasing as a result of a population growth
    (table no. 5).20

  • http//
  • Citing 8 World Illiteracy at Mid-Century,
    UNESCO, Switzerland 1957, p. 179.

  • (3) National and linguistic diversity English is
    one of two languages spoken by one billion
    people. The other is Putonghua (Mandarin
    Chinese). In addition two pairings of related and
    mutually intelligible languages are spoken by
    more than half a billion people Hindi/ Urdu, and
    Spanish/ Portuguese. Another three languages are
    spoken over 200 million people Russian, Bengali
    and Arabic. A further four languages have more
    than 100 million speakers (Table 6). These
    languages are unlikely to disappear.
  • Marginson, p. 11

The Renaissance
  • A cultural movement that spanned roughly the
    14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence
    in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to
    the rest of Europe.
  • Included a resurgence of learning based on
    classical sources.
  • Its influence affected literature, philosophy,
    art, politics, science, religion, and other
    aspects of intellectual inquiry.
  • Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method
    in study, and searched for realism and human
    emotion in art.

  • A method of learning - humanists would study
    ancient texts in the original, and appraise them
    through a combination of reasoning and empirical
  • Based on the of the five humanities poetry,
    grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.

Product of the Early RenaissanceJagiellonian
University (1364)
Religion ( Philosophy)
  • The Rise of Christianity in Europe
  • Constantine - Edict of Milan in (313) / Council
    of Nicea (325).
  • The Christian religion received imperial
  • Charlemagne (800) Central and Western Europe
    re-united under Rome as an Empire.
  • His rule is also associated with the Carolingian
    Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and
    culture through the medium of the Catholic
  • Later Religious Transitions
  • The Inquisition (12th through 16th Centuries).
  • The Reformation (1517 1648)

Constantine / Charlemagne
The Baptism of Constantine, as imagined by
students of Raphael
  • Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint
    Constantine,45 was Roman Emperor from 306 to
    337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor
    to convert to Christianity,notes 4 Constantine
    reversed the persecutions of his predecessor,
    Diocletian, and issued the Edict of Milan in 313,
    which proclaimed religious tolerance of
    Christians throughout the empire.
  • The foremost general of his time, Constantine
    defeated the emperors Maxentius and Licinius
    during civil wars. He also fought successfully
    against the Franks, Alamanni, Visigoths, and
    Sarmatians during his reign even resettling
    parts of Dacia which had been abandoned during
    the previous century
  • http//
  • With the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine
    to Christianity and the Council of Nicea, the
    Christian religion received imperial sanction.
  • At the time of the Council (325), Rome was still
    seen as the capital of the empire, although the
    emperor rarely lived there. With the
    establishment of a new fixed capital in
    Constantinople (330), there arose a new center,
    which quickly grew in prominence, rivaling those
    in Rome, Alexandria and Antioch, which previously
    had been the most important centers of
  • http//
  • Charlemagne (pronounced /'??rl?me?n/ Latin
    Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles
    the Great possibly 742  28 January 814) was
    King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the
    Romans (Imperator Romanorum) from 800 to his
    death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom
    into an empire that incorporated much of Western
    and Central Europe. During his reign, he
    conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator
    Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800. This
    temporarily made him a rival of the Byzantine
    Emperor in Constantinople. His rule is also
    associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a
    revival of art, religion, and culture through the
    medium of the Catholic Church. Through his
    foreign conquests and internal reforms,
    Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and
    the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in
    the regnal lists of Germany (where he is known as
    Karl der Große), the Holy Roman Empire, and
  • http//

Christian Europe
The Inquisition Three Forms
  • The inquisition was created through papal bull,
    Ad Abolendam, issued at the end of the 12th
    century by Pope Lucius III as a way to combat the
    Albigensian heresy in southern France.
  • in some parts of Spain towards the end of the
    14th century, there was a wave of violent
    anti-Judaism The Tribunal of the Holy Office of
    the Inquisition, commonly known as the Spanish
    Inquisition, was a tribunal established in 1478
    by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and
    Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to
    maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms,
    and to replace the Medieval Inquisition which was
    under Papal control.
  • The Roman inquisition was a system of tribunals
    developed by the Holy See during the second half
    of the 16th century, responsible for prosecuting
    individuals accused of a wide array of crimes
    related to heresy, including sorcery, immorality,
    blasphemy, Judaizing and witchcraft, as well for
    censorship of printed literature.

The Reformation
Puritan migration (1620 -1640)
Politics and War
  • Edict of Milan (Constatine, 313)
  • The Role of the Papacy (Charlemagne, 800)
  • Magna Carta (John I, 1215)
  • Key Wars in Europe
  • Barbarian invasions (Huns - 370 to 400)
  • 100 Years War (1337-1453)
  • 30 Years War (16181648)
  • All Leading Toward the Age of Enlightenment

The Magna Carta
Wars in Europe
  • 600-793 Frisian-Frankish Wars
  • 1208-1227 Conquest of Estonia
  • 1209-1229 Albigensian Crusade
  • 1220-1264 The Age of the Sturlungs
  • 1282-1302 War of the Sicilian Vespers
  • 1296-1357 Wars of Scottish Independence
  • 1337-1453 Hundred Years' War
  • 1419-1434 Hussite Wars
  • 1455-1487 Wars of the Roses
  • 1499 Swabian War
  • 15221559 Habsburg-Valois Wars
  • 1558-1583 Livonian War
  • 1562-1598 French Wars of Religion
  • 15681648 Eighty Years' War
  • 1580-1583 War of the Portuguese Succession
  • 1585-1604 Anglo-Spanish War (1585)
  • 1594-1603 Nine Years War (Ireland)
  • 16181648 Thirty Years' War
  • 1640-1688 Portuguese Restoration War
  • 16421651 English Civil War
  • 1652-1674 Anglo-Dutch Wars
  • 16671668 War of Devolution
  • 16671683 Great Turkish War
  • 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War
  • 1688-1697 War of the League of Augsburg
  • 17001721 Great Northern War
  • 17011713 War of the Spanish Succession
  • 1718-1720 War of the Quadruple Alliance
  • 17401748 War of the Austrian Succession
  • 17561763 Seven Years' War
  • 17891799 French Revolution

100 Years War (1337 to 1463)
  • New technologies empowered soldiery at the
    expense of lords and noble knights gave rise to
    mercenary/bandit armies.
  • Frances population reduced by two-thirds due to
    the invasion, civil wars, deadly epidemics,
    famines and marauding mercenary armies.
  • Ended with Englands isolation as an Island
  • Also resulted in the emergence of standing armies
    in England and France along with concepts for

30 Years War
  • The last major religious war in mainland
    Europereligious bloodshed accompanying the
    Reformation, in 1648.
  • Initially fought between Protestants and
    Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire.
  • German states reduced by about 15 to 30 and
    caused serious dislocations to both the economies
    and populations of central Europe
  • Formally ended by the Peace of Westphalia
  • Established the basic tenets of the sovereign
  • Provided that the citizenry of a respective
    nation were subjected first and foremost to the
    laws and whims of their own respective government
    rather than to those of neighboring powers, be
    they religious or secular.

The Age of Enlightenment
  • The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the
    Enlightenment) is the era in Western philosophy,
    intellectual, scientific and cultural life,
    centered upon the 18th century, in which reason
    was advocated as the primary source for
    legitimacy and authority. It is also known as the
    Age of Reason.1 The enlightenment was a
    movement of science and reason.
  • Developing simultaneously in France, Great
    Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain,
    Portugal and the American colonies, the movement
    culminated in the Atlantic Revolutions,
    especially the success of the American
    Revolution, when breaking free of the British
    Empire. The authors of the American Declaration
    of Independence, the United States Bill of
    Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of
    Man and of the Citizen, and the Polish-Lithuanian
    Constitution of May 3, 1791, were motivated by
    Enlightenment principles.2
  • At its core was a critical questioning of
    traditional institutions, customs, and morals,
    and a strong belief in rationality and science.
    Thus, there was still a considerable degree of
    similarity between competing philosophies.3
    Some historians also include the late 17th
    century as part of the Enlightenment.4
    Modernity, by contrast, is used to refer to the
    period after The Enlightenment albeit generally
    emphasizing social conditions rather than
    specific philosophies.
  • Historian Peter Gay asserts the Enlightenment
    broke through "the sacred circle,"8 whose dogma
    had circumscribed thinking. The Sacred Circle is
    a term used by Peter Gay to describe the
    interdependent relationship between the
    hereditary aristocracy, the leaders of the church
    and the text of the Bible. This interrelationship
    manifests itself as kings invoking the doctrine
    "Divine Right of Kings" to rule. Thus church
    sanctioned the rule of the king and the king
    defended the church in return.
  • The Enlightenment is held to be the source of
    critical ideas, such as the centrality of
    freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values
    of society. This view argues that the
    establishment of a contractual basis of rights
    would lead to the market mechanism and
    capitalism, the scientific method, religious
    tolerance, and the organization of states into
    self-governing republics through democratic
    means. In this view, the tendency of the
    philosophes in particular to apply rationality to
    every problem is considered the essential change.
  • One of the primary elements of the cultural
    interpretation of the Enlightenment is the rise
    of the public sphere in Europe.
  • Or, more simply, the social conditions required
    for Enlightenment ideas to be spread and
    discussed. His response was the formation in the
    late 17th century and 18th century of the
    bourgeois public sphere, a realm of
    communication marked by new arenas of debate,
    more open and accessible forms of urban public
    space and sociability, and an explosion of print
    culture".12 More specifically, Habermas
    highlights three essential elements of the public
    sphere it was egalitarian it discussed the
    domain of "common concern" argument was founded
    on reason.13
  • The word public implies the highest level of
    inclusivity the public sphere by definition
    should be open to all. However, as the analysis
    of many public institutions of the
    Enlightenment will show, this sphere was only
    public to relative degrees. Indeed, as Roger
    Chartier emphasizes, Enlightenment thinkers
    frequently contrasted their conception of the
    public with that of the people Chartier cites
    Condorcet, who contrasted opinion with
    populace Marmontel with the opinion of men of
    letters versus the opinion of the multitude
    and dAlembert, who contrasted the truly
    enlightened public" with the blind and noisy
    multitude.17 As Mona Ozouf underlines, public
    opinion was defined in opposition to the opinion
    of the greater population. While the nature of
    public opinion during the Enlightenment is as
    difficult to define as it is today, it is
    nonetheless clear that the body that held it
    (i.e. the public sphere) was exclusive rather
    than inclusive. This observation will become more
    apparent during the descriptions of the
    institutions of the public sphere, most of which
    excluded both women and the lower classes.

Science and Technology
High Middle Ages - Technology
  • Inventions , innovations and European
    Acquisitions of 12th/13th century
  • Windmills
  • Watermills
  • Printing (though not yet with movable type)
  • Gunpowder
  • Spectacles
  • Scissors
  • Mechanical Clocks
  • Improved ships
  • Paper
  • Spinning Wheel
  • Magnetic Compass
  • Arabic Numeral
  • Ship Stern-mounted Rudders

Fibonnacci and Modern Numerology
  • Nine Indian figures are 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • With these nine figures, and with the sign 0 ...
    any number may be written.

Consider the Changes to the Speed of Transmission
and Thought?
  • 1440
  • M?µ '
  • 1202
  • Msß '
  • 186,282
  • ??
  • M,?tpß'

(No Transcript)
The Articulation of Numbers and Fractions
  • Fibonacci's notation for fractions
  • In reading Liber Abaci, it is helpful to
    understand Fibonacci's notation for rational
    numbers, a notation that is intermediate in form
    between the Egyptian fractions commonly used
    until that time and the vulgar fractions still in
    use today. There are three key differences
    between Fibonacci's notation and modern fraction
  • Where we generally write a fraction to the right
    of the whole number to which it is added,
    Fibonacci would write the same fraction to the
    left. That is, we write 7/3 as , while Fibonacci
    would write the same number as .
  • Fibonacci used a composite fraction notation in
    which a sequence of numerators and denominators
    shared the same fraction bar each such term
    represented an additional fraction of the given
    numerator divided by the product of all the
    denominators below and to the right of it. That
    is, , and . The notation was read from right to
    left. For example, 29/30 could be written as ,
  • representing the value .
  • This can be viewed as a form of mixed radix
    notation, and was very convenient for dealing
    with traditional systems of weights, measures,
    and currency. For instance, for units of length,
    a foot is 1/3 of a yard, and an inch is 1/12 of a
    foot, so a quantity of 5 yards, 2 feet, and
    inches could be represented as a composite
    fraction yards. However, typical notations for
    traditional measures, while similarly based on
    mixed radixes, do not write out the denominators
    explicitly the explicit denominators in
    Fibonacci's notation allow him to use different
    radixes for different problems when convenient.
    Sigler also points out an instance where
    Fibonacci uses composite fractions in which all
    denominators are 10, prefiguring modern decimal
    notation for fractions.
  • Fibonacci sometimes wrote several fractions next
    to each other, representing a sum of the given
    fractions. For instance, 1/31/4 7/12, so a
    notation like would represent the number that
    would now more commonly be written , or simply
    the vulgar fraction . Notation of this form can
    be distinguished from sequences of numerators and
    denominators sharing a fraction bar by the
    visible break in the bar. If all numerators are 1
    in a fraction written in this form, and all
    denominators are different from each other, the
    result is an Egyptian fraction representation of
    the number. This notation was also sometimes
    combined with the composite fraction notation
    two composite fractions written next to each
    other would represent the sum of the fractions.
  • The complexity of this notation allows numbers to
    be written in many different ways, and Fibonacci
    described several methods for converting from one
    style of representation to another. In
    particular, chapter II.7 contains a list of
    methods for converting a vulgar fraction to an
    Egyptian fraction, including the greedy algorithm
    for Egyptian fractions, also known as the
    FibonacciSylvester expansion.
  • Fibonacci represents the fraction by splitting
    the numerator into a sum of two numbers, each of
    which divides one plus the denominator
  • Fibonacci applies the algebraic identity above to
    each these two parts, producing the expansion
  • Fibonacci describes similar methods for
    denominators that are two or three less than a
    number with many factors.

To represent numbers from 1,000 to 999,999 the
same letters are reused to serve as thousands,
tens of thousands, and hundreds of thousands. A
"left keraia" (Unicode U0375, Greek Lower
Numeral Sign) is put in front of thousands to
distinguish them from the standard use. For
example, 2010 is represented as ?ß?' (2000 10).
To represent greater numbers, the Greeks also
used the myriad from the old Attic numeral system
in their notation. Its value is 10,000 the
number of myriads was written above its symbol
(M'). For example (keraias replaced for technical
For large numbers (4,000 and above), a bar can be
placed above a base numeral, or parentheses
placed around it, to indicate multiplication by
1,000, although the Romans themselves often just
wrote out the "M"s
Symbols are iterated to produce multiples of the
decimal (1, 10, 100, 1,000) values, with V, L, D
substituted for a multiple of five, and the
iteration continuing I "1", II "2", III "3", V
"5", VI "6", VII "7", etc., and the same for
other bases X "10", XX "20", XXX "30", L "50",
LXXX "80" CC "200", DCC "700", etc. At the
fourth iteration, a subtractive principle may be
employed, with the base placed before the higher
base IIII or IV "4", VIIII or IX "9", XXXX or XL
"40", LXXXX or XC "90", CCCC or CD "400", DCCCC
or CM "900". For large numbers (4,000 and above),
a bar can be placed above a base numeral, or
parentheses placed around it, to indicate
multiplication by 1,000, although the Romans
themselves often just wrote out the "M"s
History of Paper
Gutenburgs Press circa 1439
British Agricultural Revolution
  • A period of development in Britain between the
    17th century and the end of the 19th century.
  • Four Key Innovations
  • Seed Drill
  • Iron plough
  • Three-field Crop Rotation
  • Selective breeding
  • Supported unprecedented population growth,
    freeing up a significant percentage of the
    workforce, and thereby helped drive the
    Industrial Revolution.

Possible Issues to Consider
  • What is a college?
  • An interrelated system of ideas (Birnbaum, R.
    (1991), preface).
  • Are they organizations, systems or inventions?
    How do they reflect characteristics of all?
    (Birnbaum, 1).
  • Organizational Aspects (Birnbaum, 3).
  • . . . among the largest industries in the nation
  • . . .least business like and well managed
  • exhibit unparalleled diversity, access and
  • . . . poorly run but highly effective
  • Birnbaums apparent paradox Does the success
    of universities occur because of or despite the
    inherent detractors?
  • Early concepts of Governance
  • Birnbaum (pp 4-5) reflects that fundamental
    authority lies with the state, is but is
    established within the institution from there
    shared among trustees, presidents, and faculty.
  • How much power should each have?
  • Division of power between administrators and
  • (Highlighted in Birnbaum, R.(1991) How Colleges

The Emerging Epicenter of Learning Potential
Questions for the Future
  • What does the increasing automation of
    mathematical manipulation portend for
    mathematical intuition and creative insight (i.e
    Fibonnacci numbers)
  • How might the gradual dissipation of civil
    authority via globalization affect sponsorship
    and governance over universities, and what if
    this gradual trend dramatically reverses itself?
  • What were the further effects of later global
    scourges on the development of higher education?
  • How does the lack of any university tradition in
    Africa confirm or refute any of the lessons from
  • What are the potential long term effects of
    global and national rankings?
  • How does the increasing accessibility of selected
    free knowledge (via Wikipedia and Gutenburg
    project as examples) suggest about the relative
    influence of protected expert knowledge and the
    role universities play in developing and
    protecting these?

Back Up Slides and Miscellanea
  • How did the idea of courses, semesters, etc.
  • What are the basic elements of learning in higher
    education (e.g., reading, labs, lectures,
    projects, etc.) and how are they assessed?
  • What aspects of student development do
    universities support in addition to education and
  • When did research get added to the mission of the
  • How was research funded and evaluated?
  • When did service get added to the mission of the
  • How was service funded and evaluated?
  • When and why did rankings of universities and
    programs emerge?
  • When and why did sports become important and
  • What has been academias relationship with
    industry and government?
  • What has been the publics attitude towards
    higher education?
  • What are the current roles of the various
    stakeholders (students, faculty, administrators,
    trustees, legislators, research funders, student
    employers, etc.) in shaping the structure and
    function of the university?
  • How will American universities be affected by the
    rise of new universities in the developing world,
    especially India and China?
  • What changes happened in this period and what
    drove these changes?
  • What was happening more broadly in society during
    this period?
  • Who was educated, how did they pay for it, and
    did it cover all costs?
  • How was access to university education
    allocated?  How should it be now?
  • How have changes in student demographics (race,
    gender, age, etc.) affected the roles and
    behavior of universities?
  • Where did academias financial resources come
    from how were they expended?
  • What was the typical business model of a
    university of this period?
  • How were teachers educated, selected and paid?
  • How were universities, programs and teachers
  • When and why did tenure emerge and how has it
  • When did endowments and gifts start to play a
    major role?
  • When and why did the notion of tuition and fees
  • What are the roles of disciplines, departments,
    and schools in academia?
  • How do new disciplines, departments, and schools
    come into existence?  How are they eliminated?
  • When and why did the constructs of majors and
    minors emerge?
  • How did the degree structure (BS, MS, PhD) come

High Middle Ages Scholasticism.
  • Scholasticism
  • Main article Scholasticism
  • The new Christian method of learning was
    influenced by Anselm of Canterbury (10331109)
    from the rediscovery of the works of Aristotle,
    at first indirectly through Medieval Jewish and
    Muslim Philosophy (Maimonides, Avicenna, and
    Averroes) and then through Aristotle's own works
    brought back from Byzantine and Muslim libraries
    and those whom he influenced, most notably
    Albertus Magnus, Bonaventure and Abélard.
    Scholastics believed in empiricism and supporting
    Roman Catholic doctrines through secular study,
    reason, and logic. They opposed Christian
    mysticism, and the Platonist-Augustinian beliefs
    in mind dualism and the view of the world as
    inherently evil. The most famous of the
    scholastics was Thomas Aquinas (later declared a
    "Doctor of the Church"), who led the move away
    from the Platonic and Augustinian and towards
    Aristotelianism. Aquinas developed a philosophy
    of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a
    tabula rasa ("blank slate") that was given the
    ability to think and recognize forms or ideas
    through a divine spark. Other notable scholastics
    included Roscelin, Abélard, and Peter Lombard.
    One of the main questions during this time was
    the problem of universals. Prominent opponents of
    various aspects of the scholastic mainstream
    included Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Peter
    Damian, Bernard of Clairvaux, and the Victorines.

Universities as Inventions
  • the discourses they establish reflect the
    rhetoric, which surrounds self-conscious social
    inventions and their successes and failures
    reveal what lies behind pronouncements.3

Szoan citing Bruce Sinclair, Philadelphias
Philosopher Mechanics A History of the
Franklin Institute, 18241865 (Baltimore Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1974), ix, quoted
in Sally G. Kohlstedt, Institutional History,
in Sally G. Kohlstedt and Margaret Rossiter
(eds.), Historical Writing on American Science
Perspectives and Prospects (Baltimore Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1986), 1736, on 23.
Authority and Governance
  • Universities are generally established by statute
    or charter. In the United Kingdom, for instance,
    a university is instituted by Act of Parliament
    or Royal Charter in either case generally with
    the approval of Privy Council, and only such
    recognized bodies can award degrees of any kind.
  • http//
  • Similarly to the other early medieval
    universities (Bologna, Padua, Cambridge, Oxford),
    the University of Paris was already well
    established before it received a specific
    foundation act from the Church in 1200.4
  • "The papal bull of 1233, which stipulated that
    anyone admitted to be a teacher in Toulouse had
    the right to teach everywhere without further
    examinations (ius ubique docendi),
  • Under the governance of the Church, students wore
    robes and shaved the tops of their heads in
    tonsure, to signify they were under the
    protection of the church. Students operated
    according to the rules and laws of the Church and
    were not subject to the king's laws or courts.
  • Two things were necessary to be a professor
    knowledge and appointment. Knowledge was proved
    by examination, the appointment came from the
    examiner himself, who was the head of the school,
    and was known as scholasticus, capiscol, and
    chancellor. This was called the licence or
    faculty to teach. The licence had to be granted
    freely. No one could teach without it on the
    other hand, the examiner could not refuse to
    award it when the applicant deserved it.
  • In Paris - The Rector
  • The university was organized as follows at the
    head of the teaching body was a rector. The
    office was elective and of short duration at
    first it was limited to four or six weeks. Simon
    de Brion, legate of the Holy See in France,
    realizing that such frequent changes caused
    serious inconvenience, decided that the rectorate
    should last three months, and this rule was
    observed for three years. Then the term was
    lengthened to one, two, and sometimes three
    years. The right of election belonged to the
    procurators of the four nations
  • Faculties
  • To classify professors' knowledge, the schools of
    Paris gradually divided into faculties.
    Professors of the same science were brought into
    closer contact until the community of rights and
    interests cemented the union and made them
    distinct groups. The faculty of medicine seems to
    have been the last to form. But the four
    faculties were already formally established by
    1254, when the university described in a letter
    "theology, jurisprudence, medicine, and rational,
    natural, and moral philosophy". The masters of
    theology often set the example for the other
    faculties, e.g. they were the first to adopt an
    official seal.
  • The faculties of theology, canon law, and
    medicine, were called "superior faculties". The
    title of "Dean" as designating the head of a
    faculty, came into use by 1268 in the faculties
    of law and medicine, and by 1296 in the faculty
    of theology. It seems that at first the deans
    were the oldest masters.
  • http//

Pre-Modern College Governance Structures
  • Trustees were clergymen
  • Administration and faculty a president and a
    handful of tutors
  • Boards fully in charge
  • Increased complexity led to emergence of
  • (Birnbaum, 5)

  • ISyE 8803A
  • Historical Developments, Contemporary
    Perspectives and Implications for Georgia Tech
  • Spring 2011
  • The first universities in Europe -- University of
    Bologna (1088), University of Oxford (1096),
    University of Paris (1150), University of Modena
    (1175) -- began as private corporations of
    teachers and their pupils. Soon they realized
    they needed protection against local city
    authorities. They petitioned secular power for
    privileges and this became the model for
  • The organizational structure of disciplinary
    departments, schools, and colleges emerged in the
    process. The secular independence and this
    organizational structure represent the first
    major transformation of academia. These
    characteristics of academia have persisted for
    over 900 years and seem immutable. Yet, notable
    transformations of academia have occurred more

The Technology of Education
  • The history of education is the history of
    teaching and learning. Each generation, since the
    beginning of human existence, has sought to pass
    on cultural and social values, traditions,
    morality, religion and skills to the next
    generation.1 The passing on of culture is also
    known as enculturation and the learning of social
    values and behaviours is socialization. The
    history of the curricula of such education
    reflects human history itself, the history of
    knowledge, beliefs, skills and cultures of
  • In pre-literate societies, education was achieved
    orally and through observation and imitation. The
    young learned informally from their parents,
    extended family and grand parents. At later
    stages of their lives, they received instruction
    of a more structured and formal nature, imparted
    by people not necessarily related, in the context
    of initiation, religion or ritual.456
  • As the customs and knowledge of ancient
    civilizations became more complex, many skills
    would have been learned from an experienced
    person on the job, in animal husbandry,
    agriculture, fishing, preparation and
    preservation of food, construction, stone work,
    metal work, boat building, the making of weapons
    and defensis, the military skills and many other
  • With the development of writing, it became
    possible for stories, poetry, knowledge, beliefs,
    and customs to be recorded and passed on more
    accurately to people out of earshot and to future
    generations. In many societies, the spread of
    literacy was slow orality and illiteracy
    remained predominant for much of the population
    for centuries and even millennia.7 Literacy in
    preindustrial societies was associated with civil
    administration, law, long distance trade or
    commerce, and religion.8 A formal schooling in
    literacy was often only available to a small part
    of the population, either at religious
    institutions or for the wealthy who could afford
    to pay for their tutors. The earliest known
    universities, or places of higher education,
    started teaching a millennium or more ago.
  • During the Early Middle Ages, the monasteries of
    the Catholic Church were the centres of education
    and literacy, preserving the Church's selection
    from Latin learning and maintaining the art of
    writing. Prior to their formal establishment,
    many medieval universities were run for hundreds
    of years as Christian cathedral schools or
    monastic schools (Scholae monasticae), in which
    monks and nuns taught classes evidence of these
    immediate forerunners of the later university at
    many places dates back to the early 6th century
  • The first medieval institutions generally
    considered to be universities were established in
    Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and
    the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law,
    medicine, and theology.1 These universities
    evolved from much older Christian cathedral
    schools and monastic schools, and it is difficult
    to define the date at which they became true
    universities, although the lists of studia
    generalia for higher education in Europe held by
    the Vatican are a useful guide.
  • Ireland became known as the island of saints and
    scholars. Monasteries were built all over Ireland
    and these became centres of great learning (see
    Celtic Church).
  • http//

The Technology of Education Continued
  • http//
  • Modern systems of education in Europe derive
    their origins from the schools of the High Middle
    Ages. Most schools during this era were founded
    upon religious principles with the primary
    purpose of training the clergy. Many of the
    earliest universities, such as the University of
    Paris founded in 1160, had a Christian basis. In
    addition to this, a number of secular
    universities existed, such as the University of
    Bologna, founded in 1088.
  • Free education for the poor was officially
    mandated by the Church at the Third Lateran
    Council (1179), which decreed that every
    cathedral must assign a master to teach boys too
    poor to pay the regular fee parishes and
    monasteries also established free schools
    teaching at least basic literary skills. With few
    exceptions, priests and brothers taught locally,
    and their salaries were frequently subsidized by
    towns. Private, independent schools reappeared in
    medieval Europe during this time, but they, too,
    were religious in nature and mission.64
  • The curriculum of the educational institutions of
    this period was frequently based around the
    trivium and quadrivium (the seven Artes Liberales
    or Liberal arts) and was conducted in Latin, the
    lingua franca of educated Western Europe
    throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
  • In northern Europe this clerical education was
    largely superseded by forms of elementary
    schooling following the Reformation. In Scotland,
    for instance, the national Church of Scotland set
    out a programme for spiritual reform in January
    1561 setting the principle of a school teacher
    for every parish church and free education for
    the poor. This was provided for by an Act of the
    Parliament of Scotland, passed in 1633, which
    introduced a tax to pay for this programme.
    Although few countries of the period had such
    extensive systems of education, the period
    between the 16th and 18th centuries saw education
    become significantly more widespread.
  • In Central Europe, the 17th century scientist and
    educator John Amos Comenius promulgated a
    reformed system of universal education that was
    widely used in Europe.

The History of Education in the U.S.
  • The History of Higher Education in the United
    StatesBy Clare Kaufmanhttp//www.worldwidelearn.
  • Higher education in the United States has come a
    long way from its colonial roots. The first
    college undergraduates were headed for the
    clergy today's undergraduates are more likely to
    head for Goldman Sachs--or they are knee deep in
    a career already. College has evolved from an
    elite privilege into an essential career
  • Colonial Divinity Schools The first American
    colleges offered a broad liberal arts curriculum
    designed to educate young Puritan ministers.
    These early institutions were established by
    religious groups to foster the faith. One charter
  • "So that the church of Virginia may be may be
    furnished with a seminary of the Ministers of the
    Gospel, and that the youth may be piously
    educated in good letters and manners, and that
    the Christian faith may be propagated..." But
    secular life quickly took over. Harvard
    University, the oldest university in the U.S.,
    graduated about 70 clergymen in the 17th
    century, 45 in the 18th, and by the latter half
    of the 19th century, only 10. James Walker,
    Harvard's president from 1853 to 1860, lamented
    the waning influence of divinity "Now a
    professor is as much a layman as a lawyer or

French Academies
  • The history of Academies in France during the
    Enlightenment begins with the Academy of Science,
    founded in 1666 in Paris. From the beginning, the
    Academy was closely tied to the French state,
    acting as an extension of a government seriously
    lacking in scientists. Beyond serving the
    monarchy, the Academy had two primary purposes
    it helped promote and organize new disciplines,
    and it trained new scientists. It also
    contributed to the enhancement of scientists
    social status, considered them to be the most
    useful of all citizens". Academies demonstrate
    the rising interest in science along with its
    increasing secularization, as evidenced by the
    small number of clerics who were members
    (13 percent).17
  • The presence of the French academies in the
    public sphere cannot be attributed to their
    membership although the majority of their
    members were bourgeois, the exclusive institution
    was only open to elite Parisian scholars. They
    did perceive themselves to be interpreters of
    the sciences for the people. Indeed, it was with
    this in mind that academians took it upon
    themselves to disprove the popular pseudo-science
    of mesmerism.18
  • However, the strongest case for the French
    Academies being part of the public sphere c