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5. Life in and before God

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... rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake, and ... [ WNM,mi Wrsuy' aOl] ... The victory over Dagon in 1 Sam 5.2-4 and the subsequent return of the Ark ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 5. Life in and before God


1
5. Life in and before God
  • BIB566/THE566 Old Testament Theology

2
5. LIFE IN AND BEFORE GOD
  • 5.1 The Law and Obedience
  • 5.2 Cult (Worship)
  • 5.3 Ethics

3
5.1 The Law and Obedience
  • 5.1.1 Decalogue
  • 5.1.2 The Book of the Covenant
  • 5.1.3 Purity and Holiness Code
  • 5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code

4
5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai
  • 1. The Context of the Law
  • 1.1 To know God is to know his will. In the OT
    to know God is not a mystical experience or
    merely an inter-personal relationship. Nor is it
    a feeling of spirituality. Rather, the knowledge
    of God is defined throughout as obedience to his
    will which has a content. Childs, OT Theology
    in a Canonical Context, 51
  • 1.2 "Gods command before the Law at Sinai....
    Gen 2.16 12.1 32.9 Ex 3.10. In sum, God
    appears throughout the OT as a person with a will
    which he freely communicates. Childs, OT
    Theology in a Canonical Context, 52

5
5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai
  • 1.3 Law has as its object the maintenance of
    life in community. Two aspects of law will
    inevitably be found in a community in which a
    legal tradition of complex character has
    developed (a) the policies or general statements
    which provide the legal understandings of how
    life in community is to be maintained and (b)
    the procedures by which these policies are to be
    put into effect and applied in specific
    instances. The OT does not have different terms
    for these two aspects of law, but they are
    nonetheless easily recognized in the legal
    materials. The policies are closely related to
    the self-understanding of Israel as a covenant
    community under God. The procedural legislation
    also reveals at a number of points the extent to
    which the covenant relationship between God and
    Israel is intimately involved in actual judicial
    proceedings. Harrelson, Law in the OT, IDB,
    Vol 3, 77

6
5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai
  • 2. The Canonical Shape of the Sinai Witness
  • 2.1 The revelation of Sinai (Ex 19) is
    integrally connected with the deliverance from
    Egypt. The giving of the Law (Ex 20ff.) and the
    sealing of the covenant (Ex 24) form the climax
    of the formation of the people of God (19.4-6).
    Childs
  • 2.2 The Decalogue is distinguished from the most
    other legal corpora by having little or no
    reference to a specific historical period of
    Israels history, or to a particular institution
    such as a central sanctuary. In its canonical
    role the Decalogue forms a theological summary of
    the entire Sinai tradition. All the detailed
    legislation which follows is therefore
    subordinated to and interpreted by the heart of
    the Law found in the Ten Commandments. Childs

7
5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai
  • 2.3 Book of Lev and Sinai 26.46 27.34. The
    canonical effect of structuring the book of Lev
    in such a way as to connect all the material
    directly to the revelation at Sinai is of crucial
    importance in understanding its role as
    authoritative scripture for Israel.... If a law
    functions authoritatively for Israel, it must be
    from Sinai. Conversely, if it is from Sinai, it
    must be authoritative. Childs
  • 2.4 ...Deuteronomy... Moses applies the divine
    law to the new situation in which the people
    would shortly enter. It is, therefore, built into
    the canonical function of Deuteronomy that a new
    application of old tradition is being offered.
    The new interpretation seeks to actualize the
    traditions of the past for the new generation in
    such a way as to evoke a response to the divine
    will in a fresh commitment to the covenant.
    Childs

8
Casuistic Law
  • A casuistic law, Alt pointed out, is one that
    is built on the sequence of a protasis and an
    apodosis of a conditional sentence. The main
    case is introduced by the Hebrew conjunction k
    (granted or supposing that) and subsidiary
    cases by the weaker Heb )im if. In its pure
    form, Alt added, all parties in the law are
    referred to in the third person. As an example,
    he quoted Exod 2118-19, Supposing men quarrel
    and one strikes the other with a stone or with
    his... and the man who was struck does not die
    but keeps his bed... if then the man rises again
    and supported on his staff can walk in the
    street, he that struck him shall be clear, only
    he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall
    have him thoroughly healed (Alt 1967 114).

9
Apodictic
  • Laws formulated in the apodictic style, Alt
    stated, are generally rhythmic and terse
    metrical in form fundamental, categorical, and
    inclusive in character they usually appear in
    series. He identified four groups (1) laws
    introduced by an active participle and followed
    by the Heb formula mot yumat (e.g., Exod 2112,
    15-17) (2) a list of curses which begin with the
    Heb predicate )arur, cursed (e.g., Dent
    2715-26) (3) three short series consisting of
    prohibitions in the second person singular (i.e.,
    Lev 187-17 Exod 2217, 20, 21, 27a-b with
    interpolations, and Exod 231-3, 6-9 with
    interpolations and (4) the Decalogue, where, as
    he put it, the categorical negative is the
    strongest unifying element in the whole list
    (Alt 1967 153).

10
Problems in the Two Type System
  • "First, Alt did not recognize mixed forms.
    Rather, he maintained that any deviation from the
    basic casuistic form was a secondary variation
    in which stylistic elements of other forms have
    crept in (Alt 1967 114). This, however, led
    many scholars to contradictory conclusions."
  • "Second, the participial forms presented a
    special problem. Alt had placed them among the
    apodictic laws, and in fact argued that they best
    exemplified the category itself but other
    scholars, including M. Noth, J. J. Stamm, and M.
    E. Andrew, pointed to the description of the
    legal consequence as being reminiscent of the
    casuistic laws."

11
Problems in the Two Type System
  • "Third, some scholars who have accepted Alts two
    major divisions took a further step and provided
    subcategories based on content."

12
5.1.1 Decalogue
  • 1. Why in Stone?
  • 1.1 . There are traditions in the Bible about
    laws first being inscribed upon stones one finds
    this in connection with the Ten Commandments (Ex
    31.18 32.15-19 34.1-4, 28-29 Deut 5.22
    10.1-5) and in connection with unspecified larger
    corpora (Deut 27.4-8 Josh 8.32).... The purpose
    of these monumental records was not for the
    dissemination of the laws via written medial but
    rather to preserve a fixed text, at least in one
    place, should dispute ever arise as to their
    wording and intent. Greengus, Law in the OT,
    IDBSupp, 535

13
5.1.1 Decalogue
  • Exod 20.1-17 Deut 5.6-21
  • Unlike the other laws which stress Moses
    mediatorial role, the Decalogue stress Yahweh's
    sole authorship. (1st person singular)

14
5.1.2 The Book of the Covenant
  • Exod 21.1-23.33
  • "A complex of laws, civil and criminal, moral and
    ritual the judicial laws (2122217) are
    overwhelmingly formulated in casuistic style, the
    moral and ritual (22182333) are mostly
    expressed apodictically."
  • "The following are the legal topics 21211,
    slavery vv 1217, capital offenses vv 1827,
    bodily injuries vv 2832, homicidal beasts vv
    3336, damage to property 2137 (Eng 221) to
    223 (Eng 224), theft of livestock 2245
    (Eng 2256), damage to crops vv 614 (Eng
    715), laws of bailment vv 1516 (Eng 1617),
    law of seduction 2217 (

15
5.1.2 The Book of the Covenant
  • Eng 2218), prohibition of sorcery v 18 (Eng
    19), bestiality v 19 (Eng 20), apostasy
    222026 (Eng 222127), concern for the
    disadvantaged of society 222730 (Eng
    222831), duties to God 2313, judicial
    procedure vv 45 restoration of lost property
    vv 69, impartial justice vv 1011, seventh year
    fallow v 12, sabbath law v 13, obedience to
    God denial of other gods vv 1419, sacred
    seasons vv 2033, hortatory epilogue."

16
5.1.3 Purity and Holiness Code
  • Purity Code Lev 11-16
  • Dietary Code Lev 11
  • Other Purity Lev 11-15
  • Sanctuary Purity Lev 16
  • Holiness Code Lev 17-27
  • Prologue Epilogue Lev 17 26.3-46
  • Family Law Lev 18, 20
  • Holy unto the Lord Lev 19
  • Priestly regulations Lev 21-22 24
  • Calendar of Festivals Lev 23

17
5.1.3 Purity and Holiness Code
  • Priestly administrations Lev 25, 27

18
5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code
  • 12.1-26.15
  • Research has shown that the Deuteronomic code
    (or block of torah), Deut 12-26, is closely
    related to the so-called Book of the Covenant, Ex
    20.23-23.19. In fact, a careful comparison of the
    two reveals that (apart from one long section, Ex
    21.18-22.15, which has its own separate history)
    only four short sentences in the Book of the
    Covenant (Ex 20.26 22.28 29b, 31) are not
    reflected or expanded in the Deuteronomic code.
    So in practical terms the Deuteronomic code may
    be said to be an expanded edition of the Book of
    the Covenant. Cairns, ITCDeut, 4

19
5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code
  • Not found in the Book of the Covenant, but
    parallel in the Law code of the Ancient Near
    East
  • Deut 21.18-21 Stubborn and Rebellious Son
  • Deut 22.13-27 Laws for wives and those engaged
  • Laws found neither in the Book of Covenant nor
    ANE
  • Exhortations to Israel to cleave to the LORD
    and love him with all the heart Primacy of
    loving God with all ones heart Deut 6.4 7.6-16
    8.5-6 13.1-4, 10 14.1-2 26.1-11
  • Regulations designed to preserve the status and
    welfare of the Levites Deut 12.18b-19
    14.27-29a 18.1-8

20
5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code
  • Rules regulating the role of prophecy in Israel
    Deut 13.1-5 18.9-22
  • Emphasis on social justice
  • Regulations concerning the holy war or
    Yahwehs war.
  • Regulations defining the office of kingship Deut
    17.14-20 1 Sam 8 12 Jud 9.7-15 Hos 5.1 8.4
    10.15 13.10-11.
  • Insistence that there is only one legitimate
    shrine where Israel may worship Yahweh Deut
    12.1-28 14.22-29 15.19-23 16.1-17 17.8-13
    18.1-8 19.1-13.

21
Theological Implications of the Law
  • 1. In spite of the variety and diversity of the
    various OT laws, there is a theological coherence
    to the material as expressing the one will of God
    to his covenant people. Childs, OT Theology in
    a Canonical Context, 56
  • 2. The Law contains both promise and threat. It
    calls forth decisions which result in either life
    or death. Commandments which serve the faithful
    as guides to life similarly work death to the
    disobedient. The dual side of the Law is
    highlighted throughout the Pentateuch, both in
    the ceremony which sealed the covenant (Ex 24)
    and in the ritual blessing and cursing. Childs,
    OT Theology in a Canonical Context, 56

22
Theological Implications of the Law
  • 3. The Law of God was a gift of God which was
    instituted for the joy and edification of the
    covenant people. It was not given as a burden,
    but as a highest treasure and a clear sign of
    divine favor. Childs, OT Theology in a
    Canonical Context, 57
  • 4. The clearest sign of the brokenness of the
    covenant and of the alienation of Israel from God
    emerged when his Law became a burden and a means
    of destroying the nation. Childs, OT Theology
    in a Canonical Context, 57
  • 5. N.B. the classic discussion of the three uses
    of the law in Luther Calvin Moral, Ceremonial,
    and Civil

23
5.2 Cult (Worship)
  • 5.2.1 Ark and Tabernacle
  • 5.2.2 Temples
  • 5.2.3 Sacrifices (also atonement)
  • 5.2.4 Festivals
  • 5.2.5 Praise
  • 5.2.6 Spirituality

24
5.2.0 The Nature of Cult
  • "In the Old Testament we are almost always
    dealing with the religion and faith of a people
    described as such, very rarely with the
    phenomenon called "personal religion." Cult is by
    definition the religious expression of a group
    and not a feature of personal religion. Cult is
    explicitly or implicitly a profession of faith."
    John L. McKenzie, A Theology of the Old
    Testament, 32-33

25
5.2.0 The Nature of Cult
  • "Cult means social worship through ritual
    performance anything less than this is not cult.
    It is not private worship and it is not
    improvised. Some form of cult appears in every
    religion and ritual symbolism exhibits certain
    common features which are found in many
    religions. These features do not arise from
    borrowing. Some ritual symbols are almost
    natural sacrifice, for example, is a nearly
    universal ritual symbol. Cult is not the most
    peculiar feature of ancient Israelite religion
    there are many rites and symbols which can be
    found elsewhere in the ancient Near East, and
    some borrowing is altogether probable."
    McKenzie, 37

26
5.2.0 The Nature of Cult
  • The OT depicts the presence of God in relation to
    three factors sacred places, sacred times,
    sacred acts. The sacred or holiness is the crux
    of much of the book of Leviticus and in many of
    the passages in Numbers. Places are understood
    not necessarily geographically, located in the
    Temple and Tabernacle (Shiloh as being the
    location of the Tabernacle is argued by Haran and
    seems the best analysis for the
    post-conquest/pre-monarchical period. Sacred
    times are seen in the 3 major feasts of the
    Ancient Israel and along with the Day of
    Atonement which is not a feast. The latter feast
    such as Purim (Esther) and Hanukah or the Feast
    of Lights were much latter.

27
5.2.0 The Nature of Cult
  • The sacred acts involving sacrificing, eating,
    worshipping in music, song, dance, etc. were
    participatory. These sacred times, places, and
    acts necessitated the work of the cultic
    functionary, i.e., the priest and Levites. But
    the fact remains is that the most important thing
    is that God would arrive.

28
5.2.1 Ark and Tabernacle
  • 5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 5.2.1.2 The Tent of Meeting
  • 5.2.1.3 The Tabernacle

29
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • Introduction
  • 1. What could make a King lose all his royal
    inhibitions, and dance in only a linen ephod (2
    Sam 6.14)?
  • 2. What would cause the warrior of Israel to
    raise a proleptic shout of victory when it
    appeared on the battle field (1 Sam 4.5)?
  • 3. What would cause an idol to collapse on the
    threshold of its own temple (1 Sam 5.3-5)?
  • 4. What would you expect in the Most Holy place
    of King Solomon's Temple? With poles so long that
    its ends could be seen in the prior room (1 Kgs
    8.8)?
  • 5. What will be seen in God's heavenly temple,
    with accompanying flashes of lightning,
    rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake, and
    heavy hail (Rev. 11.19)?

30
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 1. Terms
  • 1.1 !Ara'
  • 1. In Gen 50.26 it was the term for Joseph's
    coffin.
  • 2. In 2 Kgs 12.10-11 2 Chr 24.8-11 it was
    Jehoiada's money receptacle.
  • 3. In the remaining 195X !Ara' refers to the
    cultic object, the ark.
  • 4. Names range from ArkX58 Ark of GodX37 Ark
    of the God of IsraelX7 Ark of YahwehX38 Ark
    of the CovenantX40 Ark of the TestimonyX12
    The Holy ArkX1 The Ark your strengthX2.

31
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 1.2 kibwto,j
  • 1. Heb 9.4 Rev 11.19
  • 2. It is also used to the translate Noah's ark in
    Gen 6.14ff, however the MT uses the specialized
    term hb'Te.

32
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 2. The Ark as a Box
  • 2.1 Deut 10.1-5 Holder for the Ten Commandment
    tablets.
  • 1. 10.1 e !Ara 10.2 !Ara'B' 10.5 !Ara'B'
  • 2. 10.3 yJivi yce !Ara faw" acacia wood
  • 3. Accent on the Tablets.
  • 2.2 Deut 31.24-26
  • 1. N.B. that the hZlth hr'ATh rp,se was to be
    placed beside dCmi 1 Sam 6.8? the kyhla
    hwhy-tyrb !wra.
  • 2. The Levites are to carry it (v25) like Num
    3.31 4.5-6 1 Chr 15.2-10, 14-15, 26 Judg 3-4

33
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 2.3 Ex 25.10-22 37.1-9 Covenant God's
    presence God's direction.
  • 1. Ex 25.10 37.1
  • 1.1. Made of Acacia wood.
  • 1.2. Size 2.5 cubits long 1.5 cubits wide 1.5
    cubits deep.
  • 2. Ex 25.11 37.2
  • 2.1 Gold inside and out. WNP,cT. WxW tyBMi
  • 2.2 Molding of gold. bybis' bh'z" rzE

34
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 3. Ex 25.12-15 37.3-7
  • 3.1 Rings, poles, place in to carry the Ark.
  • 3.2 Ex 25.15 "The poles shall remain in the
    rings of the ark they shall not be taken from
    it." WNM,mi Wrsuy" aOl
  • 3.3 1 Kgs 8.8 "The poles where so long that the
    ends of the poles were seen from the holy place
    in front of the inner sanctuary but they could
    not be seen from outside they are there to this
    day."

35
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 4. Ex 25.16 "You shall put into the ark of the
    covenant that I shall give you."
  • 5. Exod 25.20 Question How were the Cherubim
    placed? And what form did they take?

36
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • Exod 25.10-22

37
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 3. The Ark as a War Palladium
  • 3.1 Warring in the Wilderness
  • 3.1.1 Num 10.35-36 "Arise, O Lord, let your
    enemies be scattered, and your foes flee before
    you" "Return, O Lord of the ten thousands of
    Israel."
  • a. Considered problematic by the Masoretes
    because it is bracketed by the inverted n.
  • b. F.M.Cross considered it "holy war ideology."
  • c. S. Terrien argues that it was a quote from the
    Scroll of the Wars of Yahweh. Note that wq is
    often associated with war settings Judg 7.9, 15
    18.9 Ps 7.7 44.25.
  • d. Divine Warrior Motif
  • i. Ps 68.1, 7-8, 11-12, 17-18 n.b. the
    processional in vv24ff
  • ii. Judg 5.4-5 Deut 32.2-3 (Ps 68.18) Hab
    3.3-6.

38
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 3.1.2 Num 14.40-45
  • a. Note the context is God's judgment for not
    trusting. Here they now want to go, but without
    God's leading.
  • b. This is symbolized by the fact that both the
    Ark and Moses did not go (14.44).
  • c. Important is the fact that the Ark becomes
    paralleled to the presence of God in battle. This
    makes this cult object the same as the phrase,
    "The battle is the LORD's"!

39
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 3.2 The Conquest Narratives
  • 3.2.1 Jos 3-4 Crossing the Jordan
  • a. !wra used X15 in these two chapters.
    JordanX24
  • b. 3.3 "When you see...you shall set out from
    your place."
  • c. God's presence in guiding and leading.
  • d. The form seems to almost a processional.

40
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 3.2.2 Jos 6 The Collapse of Jericho
  • a. !wra is used X9, along with trumpet as key.
  • b. Ritual marching with a strong "Holy War
    Ideology."
  • c. Note that the Ark is not mentioned in the Ai
    first attempt (7.1-5). It is only after words
    that Joshua falls down before it (7.6)!
  • 3.2.3 Jos 8.30-35 An Oath
  • a. The writing and reading of the Law establish a
    covenant people. Note Israel, women, little ones
    and aliens who resided with them (8.35b).
  • b. The Ark is stationed in the middle and
    represents God's presence.

41
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 3.3 Pre-monarchical War Palladium
  • 3.3.1 1 Sam 4.1-7.2 Not a magical toy!
  • a. !wra mentioned X31.
  • b. Miller and Roberts argue that the text is
    paralleled by the ancient Near Eastern idea
    concerning the capture and return of a god(s) in
    a battle context. Therefore, the theological
    center is the "burning issue" of a Philistine
    victory and Yahweh's role in this historical
    setting. The victory over Dagon in 1 Sam 5.2-4
    and the subsequent return of the Ark establishes
    a theodicy.

42
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • c. 4.21 Crucial in terms of the role of the Ark
    is the name Ichabod. McCarter explains the name
    as Where is (the) glory? or Alas (for the) glory?
  • d. Note the connection of dbk with Akkadian
    melammu and puluhtu as Cross puts it, "the
    refulgent and radiant aureole which surround the
    deity in his manifestation or theophanies."

43
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 4. Kapporeth tr,PoK Ex 25.17-22 37.6-9
  • 4.1 The Meaning of Kapporeth
  • 4.1.1 The meaning of the kapporeth is debated.
    Zobel indicates that Herrrmann, von Rad, and
    Weiser have adopted the rendering, cover plate.
    This seems to be derived from the Arabic kafara,
    to cover, i.e., lid, cover. G.J. Wenham comments
    concerning this etymology, "the plausibility of
    this etymology depends on kipper meaning to cover
    sin. If this is rejected, it seems unlikely that
    kapporet means merely lid. It functioned as a lid
    for the Ark, but it was much more. It was the
    place where God's glory appeared and where
    atonement was made once a year. Note the
    communication indicated in Ex 25.22.

44
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 4.1.2 The Greek rendering, hilasterion
    (propitiation) may possibly reflect the root
    kipper to make atonement, yet one wonders if this
    is not too strongly influenced by Lev 16.
  • 4.1.3 Recently Gorg has argued that kapporeth
    goes back to the Egyptian kp (n) rdwj, meaning
    sole of the foot or footplate
  • 4.2 Size Material
  • 4.2.1 Ex 25.17 37.6 2.5 cubits by 1.5 made of
    pure gold.
  • 4.2.2 rwhj hbz emphasizes it importance.

45
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 4.2.3 Cherubim 25.18-20 37.7-9
  • a. Guardian angels of God's presence...note
    25.22 Also Gen 3.24 Ezek 41.17-20.
  • b. The priestly cherubim are described as having
    their wings spread upward, covering the
    kapporeth, while at the same time having their
    faces directed at each other.
  • 4.2.4 Leviticus 16 and the Day of Atonement

46
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 5. A Throne Footstool
  • A. The Ark of the Covenant of the LORD of hosts,
    who is enthroned on the cherubim
  • 1. Shiloh and twabc hwhy 1 Sam 4.4
  • 2. 2 Sam 6.2, 18 7.8, 26, 27
  • 3. Ps 24.7-10
  • B. A Cherubim Throne and a Ark as footstool
  • 1. 1 Kgs 8.1-13
  • a. Cherubim 1 Kgs 6.23-28
  • b. 1 Kgs 8.6-8 Ark under Cherubim poles seen in
    adjoining room.

47
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 2. Isaiah 6.1-3
  • 3. 1 Chr 28.2 "for the ark of the covenant of the
    Lord, for the footstool of God" Ps 132.7"Let us
    go to his dwelling place let us worship at his
    footstool."
  • 4. But note Isa 66.1 "Heaven is my throne and
    the earth is my footstool what is the house that
    you would build for me, and what is my resting
    place?"
  • 5. Enthronement Psalms 47 93 95-99

48
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 6. What Happened to the Ark?
  • 6.1 ""Shishak may have removed it (1 Kgs 14.26),
    Manasseh may have replaced it with his image of
    Astarte (2 Chr 33.7), and then Josiah restored it
    (35.3), though it is most likely that it was
    destroyed or stolen during Nebuchadnezzar's
    invasion. Jer 3.16-17 may imply the existence of
    the ark, and the legend of 2 Macc 2.4 is related
    this passage in Jeremiah." Davies, "Ark of the
    Covenant," IDB, p 224

49
5.2.1.1 The Ark
  • 6.2 "2 Macc 2.4 "It was also contained in the
    same writing, that the prophet, being warned of
    God, commanded the tabernacle and the ark to go
    with him, as he went forth into the Mountain,
    where Moses climbed up, and saw the heritage of
    God. And when Jeremy came thither, he found a
    hollow cave, wherein he laid the tabernacle, and
    the ark, and the altar of incense, and so stopped
    the door. And some of those that followed him
    came to mark the way, but they could not find it.
    Which when Jeremy perceived, he blamed the,
    saying, As for that place, it shall be unknown
    until the time that God gather his people again
    together, and receive them unto mercy."

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5.2.1 Ark and Tabernacle
  • 5.2.1.2 The Tent of Meeting
  • 5.2.1.3 The Tabernacle

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Introduction
  • Two Problems
  • 1. Many different terms to describe the
    Tabernacle
  • 1.1 vdqm Sanctuary
  • 1.2 dm lha Tent of Meeting
  • 1.3 lhah The Tent hwhy lhah The Tent of YHWH
  • 1.4 !kvm Tabernacle
  • 1.5 twdh kvm Tabernacle of the Testimony

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Introduction
  • 2. Two different locations in relationship to the
    camp with implied differences of function and
    theology.
  • 2.1 in the midst of the camp of Israel (Exod
    25.8 29.42-46)
  • 2.2 outside of the camp

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5.2.1.2 The Tent of Meeting
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5.2.1.2 The Tent of Meeting
  • 1 The Tent of Meeting dm lha
  • 1.1 The name
  • 1.1.1 The tent of meeting or reunion
  • 1.1.2 dm means the date of an appointed
    meeting.
  • 2. Basic Texts
  • 2.1 Exodus 33.7-11
  • 2.2 Num 11.24-30
  • 2.3 Num 12
  • 2.4 Deut 31.14-23

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5.2.1.2 The Tent of Meeting
  • 3. The Theology of the Tent of Meeting
  • 3.1 A Prophetic Institution
  • 3.2 Oracular Institution
  • 3.3 Political Institution

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5.2.1.3 The Tabernacle
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5.2.1.3 The Tabernacle
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Tent type object which was not meant to last.
  • 1.2 Ex 25-31 and parallel is very complex
    syntactically.
  • 1.3 The use of technical language which is
    difficult to understand. Note especially Haran's
    many discussion in Temples and Temple Service in
    Ancient Israel.
  • 1.4 One is never meant to forget the portability
    of the Tabernacle.

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5.2.1.3 The Tabernacle
  • 2. Tabernacle and Archaeological Parallels
  • 2.1 (Utfah tribal palladia, used by present
    nomadic tribes. It is basically a camel saddle in
    modern times with wooden frameworks. There seems
    to be a sacrificial system with it.
  • 2.2 Mahmal A tent like structure used in
    processions to Mecca. It is box like and
    decorated with silk and a domed-top.
  • 2.3 Qubbah Ancestor of the Mahmal and Utfah. It
    was a miniature read leather tent with domed top,
    mounted on a camel's back. It was used by a
    priest who would utilize it to give oracles.
    Possible sacrificial system attach to it. The Num
    25 Baal Peor story, especially verse 8 cites a
    hB'Quh in this incident.

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5.2.1.3 The Tabernacle
  • 2.4 These parallels lend striking corroboration
    to the Priestly (sic) tradition that the
    Tabernacle had a covering of ram's skin, dyed
    red and no doubt we must conclude that the
    qubbah institution among the Semites sheds light
    on the origin of the Tabernacle. We must suppose
    that the portable red leather tent was one of the
    oldest motifs in Semitic religion. Thus it goes
    without saying that the Tabernacle and the Ark
    have historical connections with their Semitic
    past. Cross, The Tabernacle, BA, 61

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3. Construction
  • 3.1 Tent
  • 3.1.1 General size 30 cu. by 10 cu. by 10 by.
    This brakes down into two segments, with the Holy
    of Holies being a perfect cube of 10 cu.
  • 3.1.2 Cherubim Curtains Ex 26.1-6 Violet,
    purple, scarlet with cherubim 28X4 cu. with two
    series of 5 panels joined by 50 loops by gold
    clasps (note that the text does not say the usual
    pure gold used for those things that are in the
    tabernacle).
  • 3.1.3 Goat's Hair Curtain Ex 26.7-13 30X4 cu.
    with a total of 11 panels rather than the 10 of
    the Cherubim. However the same 50 loops but it
    uses bronze clasps.

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3. Construction
  • 3.1.4 Ram's Skin and Dugong (yvix'T.) Ex 26.14
    Each one of them serves a different purpose.
    Ezekiel mentions both the vve and vxT as
    examples of expensive products in relation to
    what common people were used to (Eze 16.10). From
    him we infer that the first was used for wrapping
    up a head-dress, while with the second sandals
    were prepared. Similarly the linen is used for
    hangings in the tabernacle (and the priests use
    it for clothes), while the skins, being more
    hard-wearing, are placed on the roof, to act as a
    covering to the part most exposed to the
    elements. Haran, Temples and Temple Service in
    Ancient Israel, 163

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3. Construction
  • 3.1.5 Boards Ex 26.15-30 (kereshin)
  • 3.1.5.1 10cu. high, 1 1/2cu. wide 46 frames
    20X20X6 gold plated 15 bars for each side with
    the middle going through the frames where placed
    in bases two per frame.
  • 3.1.5.2 How were these structured? If solid,
    could they be carried at all? Note the A.R.S.
    Kennedy's reconstruction in Cross, p. 55, 57.

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3. Construction
  • 3.1.6 Curtains Ex 26.31-37
  • 3.1.6.1 Blue, purple, crimson with cherubim to
    separate Holies of Holies from the Holy place.
    The description centers on the Ark gt Kapporet.
  • 3.1.6.2 Entrance of tabernacle curtain is similar
    in material but without cherubim and seems to be
    made differently. The four entrance pillars
    mentioned at the same time.

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3. Construction
  • 3.1.7 Court of Tabernacle Ex 27.9-19
  • 3.1.7.1 And enclosure of 100X50 cu.
  • 3.1.7.2 Utilized 5 curtain hangings, 5 cu. high,
    hook were used to attach it to the 60 pillars
    with silver clap tops. The front of the curtain
    hanging was facing the east and was 20 cu. with a
    multi-colored screen.

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3.1 The Tent
  • General size 30 cu. by 10 cu. by 10 by. This
    brakes down into two segments, with the Holy of
    Holies being a perfect cube of 10 cu.

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3.1 The Tent
  • 3.1.2 Cherubim Curtains Ex 26.1-6

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3.1 The Tent
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3.1 The Tent
  • 3.1.3 Goat's Hair Curtain Ex 26.7-13 30X4 cu.

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3.1 The Tent
  • 3.1.4 Ram's Skin and Dugong Ex 26.14

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3.1 The Tent
  • 3.1.5 Boards Ex 26.15-30 (kereshin)

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3.1 The Tent
  • 3.1.6 Curtains Ex 26.31-37

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3.1 The Tent
  • 3.1.7 Court of Tabernacle Ex 27.9-19

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3.2 Inner Furniture
  • The Ark Exod 25.10-16

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3.2 Inner Furniture
  • 3.2.2 Table with the bread of Presence Ex
    25.23-30

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Table with the bread of Presence
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Table with the bread of Presence
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Table with the bread of Presence
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3.2 Inner Furniture
  • 3.2.3 Lampstand Ex 25.31-29

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3.2.3 Lampstand
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3.2 Inner Furniture
  • 3.2.4 Altar of Incense Ex 30.1-10

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3.2.4 Altar of Incense
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3.3. Outer Furnishings
  • 3.3.1 Altar Ex 27.1-8

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3.3.1 Altar
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3.3. Outer Furnishings
  • 3.3.2 Bronze Bowl Ex 30.17-21

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3.3.2 Bronze Bowl
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The Theology of the Tabernacle
  • 1. A portable sanctuary of the Presence of the
    God of Sinai.
  • 2. It is where God dwells in the midst of Israel,
    esp. their camp.
  • 3. The fact that it was made from a divine
    pattern for is important. (Ex 25.9)
  • 4. The tablets of the Decalogue is placed within
    the Tabernacle Tent gt Most Holy Place gt in Ark gt
    under Kapporeth.
  • 5. The constant reminder of the Holiness of God.
    The fact that the structures are graded by
    materials used, by local to the Ark and
    Kapporeth, and function. Note the description of
    Ezekiel's Temple verses the Solomonic and Second
    Temple!

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The Theology of the Tabernacle
  • 6. The Tabernacle was commanded by God and
    carried out by a freewill offering (Ex 25.1-9).
  • 7. The detailed recording of the obedience of
    Moses and the people are crucial. The whole point
    of the repetition of Ex 25-31 in 35-40 finds it
    meaning here.
  • 8. The special gifting of Bezael and Oholiab (Ex
    31.1-11 / 36.1-7).
  • 9. The apostasy of Ex 32 is significant for
    understanding that the institution and the people
    that service in it are different. The failings of
    humans cause defilement and the presence of God
    in the midst of the peoples is threaten, however
    the purity of the institution does not come from
    the cult

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The Theology of the Tabernacle
  • functionaries. It comes from the God who
    commanded the institution.
  • 10. The conclusion of Ex 40 with the coming of
    the ka4bod of YHWH caps the whole narrative. And
    sets the stage for the continued story of Israel
    in the wilderness.

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The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle
  • 1. Reconciliation
  • 1.1 God's existence in the midst of the people is
    based upon the establishment of a proper
    relationship with God.
  • 1.2 The role of the Decalogue is important, since
    it is ultimately the object in the center-stage.
    (Ark as box)
  • 1.3 Also the Kapporeth as the location of God's
    meeting with Israel is important as the
    alternative to a one-sided torah alone view.
  • 1.4 The altar as central in the fore-grounds
    places the discussion in sacrificial terms.
    Significant here is not only the descriptive
    texts of Lev 1-7, Num 19, but also the Feasts of
    Israel.

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The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle
  • 2. Holiness
  • 2.1 The gradation of locations, materials,
    functions are significant for the priestly idea
    of holiness. Douglas' idea of abnormal/normal
    works in parallel here.
  • 2.2 For a Holy God to dwell with people, there is
    a demand of holiness. The theology of priestly
    consecration in Lev 8-10 is rewarding for the
    perspectives of holiness and God's people, but
    the texts of Lev 11-16 and the Holiness Codes of
    Lev 17-27 places the onus on the people
    themselves.

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The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle
  • 3. The Moveable Presence
  • 3.1 The contrast with the normal ANE religions at
    this time point to the Nomadic origins. Note
    however Haran's argument of the tabernacle and
    its origins at Shiloh!
  • 3.2. The moveable Presence parallels the theme of
    God's guidance and leadership of his people in
    the wilderness, and exile.
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