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Pollution

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Title: Pollution


1
Pollution
  • Chapter 13

2
Water Pollution
3
Types and Sources of Water Pollution
  • 1 problem - Eroded soils
  • Organic wastes, disease-causing agents
  • Chemicals, nutrients
  • Radioactive stuff, heat

4
Point and Nonpoint Sources
5
Major Problem Drinking Water
  • 1/2 of worlds people drink polluted water
  • Safe Drinking Water Act
  • EPA Maximum contaminant levels (municipal, but
    not rural and private)

6
Pollution of Surface Water Streams
  • D.O., B.O.D., fecal coliform bacteria count

7
Pollution of Surface Water Lakes
  • Cultural eutrophication
  • Slow turnover
  • Accumulation of nutrients, excessive plant
    growth, algae blooms

8
Case Study The Great Lakes
9
Mississippi River Basin
Ohio River
Missouri River
Mississippi River
LOUISIANA
Mississippi River
Depleted
Oxygen
Dead Zone
Gulf of Mexico
10
Suffocated fish
Altered food web
Low dissolved oxygen
Decreased fish population
Thermal Pollution
11
Groundwater Pollution Sources
  • Low flow rates
  • Cold temperatures
  • Few bacteria

Hazardous waste injection well
Pesticides
Coal strip mine runoff
De-icing road salt
Buried gasoline and solvent tank
Cesspool septic tank
Pumping well
Gasoline station
Waste lagoon
Water pumping well
Sewer
Landfill
Leakage from faulty casing
Accidental spills
Discharge
Unconfined freshwater aquifer
Confined aquifer
Confined freshwater aquifer
Groundwater flow
12
Groundwater Pollution Prevention
  • Monitoring aquifers - expensive
  • Leak detection systems
  • Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal
  • Protecting recharge areas
  • - aquifer classifications

13
Ocean Pollution dumping and oil
14
Oil Spills
  • Sources offshore wells, tankers, pipelines and
    storage tanks
  • Effects death of organisms, loss of animal
    insulation and buoyancy, smothering
  • Significant economic impacts
  • Short-term cleanup problems - beaches, wildlife
  • Long-term cleanup problem - persistence (decades)

15
Case Study Chesapeake Bay
  • Largest US estuary
  • Relatively shallow
  • Slow flushing action to Atlantic
  • Major problems with dissolved O2

16
Solutions Preventing and Reducing Surface Water
Pollution
Nonpoint Sources
Point Sources
  • Reduce runoff
  • Water Pollution
  • Control Act (1972)
  • Buffer zone vegetation
  • Clean Water Act
  • (1977)
  • - set effluent standards
  • - secondary treatment
  • Reduce soil
  • erosion

17
Technological Approach Septic Systems
  • Require suitable soils and maintenance

18
Technological Approach Sewage Treatment
  • Mechanical and biological treatment

19
Technological Approach Advanced Sewage Treatment
  • Removes specific pollutants

20
Technological Approach Using Wetlands to Treat
Sewage
21
Acid Deposition
22
Automobiles as a Source
23
Widespread Secondary Air Pollution Acid
Deposition
  • Wet deposition
  • Dry deposition

24
Acid Deposition in the U.S.
25
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
26
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Direct damage to forest tree foliage
  • Erodes protective waxes from leaves, needles
  • Leaches nutrients from leaves

27
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Lowers soil pH
  • Affects mineral solubility
  • Leach out positively charged ions (K, Mg, Ca)
    from clay particles
  • Easily flushed away

28
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Increases concentration of potentially toxic
    minerals
  • E.g., aluminum
  • Damages xylem - reduces ability to take in water,
    nutrients - die from lack of moisture, nutrients

29
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Has resulted in loss of large stands of trees in
    many different regions around world
  • Canada, New England, Smoky Mountains

30
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
31
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Nearly 70 of forests in Czech Republic have been
    destroyed
  • Trees in nearly half of Germanys Black Forest
    have been impacted

32
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Switzerland has lost 10 of its forests
  • Increased chance of avalanches

33
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Large portions of forests in Norway have been
    lost, especially in southern regions

34
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Correlation between dying forests and thriving
    ground layer of mosses

35
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Mosses are acid-loving
  • Thick layer holds do much moisture that surface
    soils become saturated
  • Feeder roots, tree die from lack of oxygen (drown)

36
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Mosses also may kill mycorrhizal fungi
  • Reduce uptake of nutrients

37
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Dense layer of mosses may further acidify water
    passing through them into soil
  • Dissolve more toxic trace metals, leach more soil
    nutrients

38
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Even if trees somehow manage to survive all these
    problems, their growth is reduced substantially

39
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
40
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Varying effects on crop productivity, but wide
    distribution of problem areas

41
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Some evidence for direct damage
  • Potatoes in Canada - damage to foliage, potential
    uptake of toxins

42
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Coffee plants have shown damage to foliage in
    some areas

43
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Although much evidence points toward harmful
    effects from acid rain, some studies show the
    opposite

44
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Helpful to crops where soil nutrients may be very
    low - nitrogen-limited
  • Acidification may release nutrients, allow for
    greater uptake

45
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Some evidence where crops show now effect of acid
    deposition, either negative or positive
  • Balance each other out

46
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • Fish,
  • Invertebrates
  • decline (lt5.0)
  • Undesirable species

47
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • Adirondacks - 25 of lakes too acidic for fish,
    20 threatened
  • EPA 15,000 U.S. lakes acidified or threatened

48
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • 1/3 of Florida lakes acidic enough to cause harm
    to aquatic life

49
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • 20,000 lakes in Sweden are too acidic for fish

50
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • Salmon runs in most Norway rivers have been
    eliminated
  • No egg production

51
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • 20 famous salmon-fishing rivers in Nova Scotia
    have lost or are near to losing the fish

52
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • Half of Quebecs 48,000 lakes were acidified by
    year 2000, and more are becoming that way

53
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • During most seasons, acids are not direct
    problem, but they mobilize toxic metals
    aluminum, lead, mercury
  • Aluminum irritates gills of fish, causes mucus
    buildup, death from asphyxiation

54
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • Major problem season snowmelt
  • First 30 of meltwater contains virtually all the
    acid
  • pH 3.0-3.5
  • Toxic to eggs, fish fry, adult fish

55
Global Carbon Cycle
Human effects fossil fuel combustion, cutting
and burning of trees
56
Global Carbon Cycle
57
Global Carbon Cycle
  • Increasing atmospheric CO2 has brought about a
    rise in global temperature

58
Greenhouse Effect
  • CO2 acts like glass in a global greenhouse
  • Slows escape of infrared radiation from earths
    surface

59
Greenhouse Effect
  • Many other gases are far more effective at
    trapping heat
  • Methane, CFCs, nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • 20-270 X as effective
  • CO2 responsible for 2/3 of increase in greenhouse
    effect

60
Greenhouse Effect
  • CO2 concentrations increased 21.5 from 1870-1990
  • Increasing consumption of fossil fuels,
    deforestation
  • Doubling of CO2 concentrations may occur with
    continued fossil fuel use over 50-100 years

61
Greenhouse Effect
  • CO2 doubling may increase average global
    temperature by 2-5C
  • Global temps have increased 0.8C over last
    century, 0.6 of that in last 30 years

62
Major Climate Changes
  • Worldwide change in patterns of precipitation,
    storms, winds, ocean currents
  • Each 1C increase pushes climatic zones 90 mi N
    in N. hemisphere

63
Major Climate Changes
  • Variable effects worldwide, but greatest changes
    between 40 and 70N, in N. Amer. and Eurasia
  • Caused by both warmer temps and increased CO2
    (greater forest productivity)

64
Major Climate Changes
  • Polar ice sheets and glaciers have been melting,
    and changes would escalate

65
Major Climate Changes
  • Sea levels would rise due to melting ice,
    expansion of warming water
  • 4C increase would cause 0.5-1.5 m rise worldwide
  • Flood coastal wetlands, low-lying cities,
    agricultural lands

66
Major Climate Changes
  • Frequency, intensity of weather extremes would
    increase
  • Heat waves, drought, hurricanes

67
Major Climate Changes
  • Speed up decay of organic matter
  • Further increase CO2 concentrations in atmosphere

68
Major Climate Changes
  • Warmer climates spreading northward would bring
    insect-borne diseases, more pests into areas
    currently protected by cold temperatures

69
Major Climate Changes
  • Growth rates of many tree species would be
    lowered
  • Ranges would have to shift northward
  • At rate up to 10 X greater than theyve ever done
    in the past
  • Birch, sugar maple

70
Major Climate Changes
  • Stress from pests, disease microorganisms would
    increase
  • Adapt faster than tress to changing environments

71
Major Climate Changes
  • More frequent fires
  • Forest and grassland
  • Increased disturbance decreased diversity?

72
Major Climate Changes
  • But are rising CO2 concentrations really a
    concern?
  • 3-4 X higher 250 million years ago
  • Regular cycling over past 400,000 years

73
Major Climate Changes
  • Rising global temperatures?
  • 30 years ago there were signs that we were
    entering glacial cooling
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