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Parallel Curriculum Model

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Title: Parallel Curriculum Model


1
Parallel Curriculum Model
  • A plan for moving every child
  • toward expertise

2
Our Advance Organizer
  • Define curriculum
  • Review curriculum components
  • Define curriculum models
  • Overview of PCM goals and purposes
  • Definitions, goals, and purposes of each parallel
  • Illustrations of each parallel
  • Decisions and next steps

3
The Word Curriculum
  • Latin Running course
  • Scotland 1603 Carriage way, road
  • United States 1906 Course of study
  • United States, 1940 Plan for learning (study)

4
What is curriculum?
  • Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning that
    requires the purposeful and proactive
    organization, sequencing, and management of the
    interactions among the teacher, the students, and
    the content knowledge we want students to
    acquire.

5
Some of the components of a comprehensive
curriculum unit
  • Content
  • Assessment
  • Introduction/Closure
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Learning Activities
  • Grouping and Pacing
  • Products
  • Resources
  • Extension Activities
  • Differentiation

6
Characteristics of Exemplary Curriculum
  • Powerful knowledge goals, representative or
    generative topics, and big ideas
  • Advance organizers that clarify prior knowledge,
    future activities, and expectations
  • Motivating introductory experiences
  • Challenging and active learning activities
  • Authentic resources and products
  • Aligned assessment strategies and growth
    criteria, feedback, debriefing, transfer and
    extension opportunities, interaction, and support
  • Interest-based applications and extensions
  • Modifications that attend to powerful student
    differences







7
What is a curriculum model?
  • A model is a format for curriculum design
    developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or
    purposes. In order to address these goals,
    curriculum developers design, reconfigure, or
    rearrange one or more key curriculum components.

8
The Framework Underlying All Curriculum Models
KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS
Intro
Content
Modifications
Resources
Extensions
Assessment
Grouping
Teaching
Learning
Products
9
Reasons and Rationale for a Curriculum Model
Based on Student Differences
  • Why should we differentiate our curriculum?
  • What kinds of student differences should we
    address?
  • How will we develop or revise curriculum to
    address these differences?
  • What should we expect from differentiation?

10
Learning is our Business
  • We want to ensure and increase student learning
    and achievement.
  • Learning begins with attention to students prior
    knowledge, motivation, attention, effort, and
    perception.
  • Different learners have different levels of prior
    knowledge, motivations, effort, and learning
    styles.
  • If we attend to learner differences we can make
    our curriculum more efficient.
  • Efficiency, effectiveness, and planning increases
    the quality of curriculum.

11
Differences Among Learners
  • Students have different levels of prior knowledge
    and cognitive abilities (Vygotsky/Bloom/Lu/Kulick)
  • Some students need, prefer, or learn best with a
    logical, sequence of main ideas that explain the
    structure of a topic or discipline
    (Bruner/Taba/Tyler)
  • Other students prefer to think in analogies and
    to see relationships among and across ideas
    (Gordon/Sternberg)
  • Many students prefer to see how ideas are used in
    the world (Dewey)
  • Still others need to see the personal relevance
    of ideas and topics to become motivated to learn
    (Wigginton/Summerhill)

12
So, how does PCM provide qualitatively
differentiated curriculum?
Opportunities to learn the core knowledge
(enduring facts, concepts, principles, and
skills) within a discipline
Opportunities to learn about the numerous
relationships and connections that exist across
topics, disciplines, events, time, and cultures
Opportunities to transfer and apply knowledge
and/or use the tools and methods of the scholar,
researcher, and practitioner
Opportunities for students to address or develop
intrapersonal qualities and develop their
affinities within and across disciplines
13
What is the Parallel Curriculum Model?
  • The Parallel Curriculum Model is a set of four
    interrelated designs that can be used singly, or
    in combination, to create or revise existing
    curriculum units, lessons, or tasks. Each of the
    four parallels offers a unique approach for
    organizing content, teaching, and learning that
    is closely aligned to the special purpose of each
    parallel.

14
The Parallel Curriculum Model
CURRICULUM OF CONNECTIONS
CURRICULUM OF PRACTICE
CURRICULUM OF IDENTITY
CORE CURRICULUM
KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS
15
Why Four Parallels?
  • Qualitatively differentiated curriculum isnt
    achieved by doing only one thing or one kind of
    thing.
  • Students are different.
  • Students have different needs at different times
    in their lives.
  • Students styles, talents, interests,
    environments and opportunities are different.
  • Students have different levels of expertise.

16
The Parallel Curriculum Four Facets of
Qualitatively Differentiated Curriculum
  • Core The essential nature of a discipline
  • Connections The relationships among knowledge
  • Practice The applications of facts, concepts,
    principles, skills, and methods as scholars,
    researchers, developers, or practitioners
  • Identity Developing students interests and
    expertise, strengths, values, and character

17
The Core CurriculumDefinition
  • The Core Curriculum addresses the core concepts,
    principles, and skills of a discipline. It is
    designed to help students understand essential,
    discipline-based content through the use of
    representative topics, inductive teaching, and
    analytic learning activities.

18
The Curriculum of Connections Definition
  • The Curriculum of Connections builds upon the
    Core Curriculum. It is a plan that includes a
    set of guidelines and procedures to help
    curriculum developers connect overarching
    concepts, principles, and skills within and
    across disciplines, time periods, cultures,
    places, and/or events. This parallel is designed
    to help students understand overarching concepts
    and principles as they relate to new content and
    content areas.

19
The Curriculum of Practice Definition
  • The Curriculum of Practice is a plan that
    includes a set of guidelines and procedures to
    help students understand, use, generalize, and
    transfer essential knowledge, understandings, and
    skills in a field to authentic questions,
    practices, and problems. This parallel is
    designed to help students function with
    increasing skill and competency as a researcher,
    creator, producer, problem solver, or
    practitioner in a field.

20
The Curriculum of Identity Definition
  • The Curriculum of Identity is a plan that
    includes a set of guidelines and procedures to
    assist students in reflecting upon the
    relationship between the skills and ideas in a
    discipline and their own lives, personal growth,
    and development. This parallel is designed to
    help students explore and participate in a
    discipline or field as it relates to their own
    interests, goals, and strengths, both now and in
    the future.

21
What does Parallel mean?
  • Each parallel has components that align with each
    other.
  • Parallels can be used singly or in combination.
  • Each of the parallels is of equal value and use
    with a variety of students or with an individual
    student at a variety of times.
  • The choice to use a particular parallel should be
    strongly related to learners profiles, the
    subject area, content goals, related units,
    lessons, and tasks.

22
Ascending Levels of Demand
Ascending levels of intellectual demand is the
process that escalates one or more facets of the
curriculum in order to match a learners profile
and provide appropriate challenge and pacing.
Prior knowledge and opportunities, existing
scheme, and cognitive abilities are major
attributes of a learners profile. Teachers
reconfigure one or more curriculum components in
order to ensure that students are working in
their zone of optimal development.
23
Why Provide Ascending Levels of Intellectual
Demand?
  • To honor differences among students
  • To address varying levels of prior knowledge,
    varying opportunities, and cognitive abilities
  • To ensure optimal levels of academic achievement
  • To support continuous learning
  • To ensure intrinsic motivation
  • To provide appropriate levels of challenge

24
Ascending Levels of Intellectual Demand Take Into
Consideration Students .
  • Cognitive abilities
  • Prior knowledge
  • Schema
  • Opportunities to learn
  • Learning rate
  • Developmental differences
  • Levels of abstraction

25
Ascending Levels of Intellectual Demand
  • Vary the depth
  • Adjust the abstraction
  • Change the complexity
  • Make contexts and examples more or less novel or
    familiar
  • Adjust the pace
  • Use more/less advanced materials and text
  • Provide more/less scaffolding
  • Provide frequent/intermittent feedback
  • Provide/let students infer related strategies
  • Infer concepts from applications and problem
    solving
  • Provide more/fewer examples
  • Be more/less explicit/inductive
  • Provide simpler/more complex problems and
    applications
  • Vary the sophistication level
  • Provide lengthier/briefer texts
  • Provide more/less text support
  • Require more/less independence or collaboration
  • Require more/less evidence
  • Ask for/provide analogies
  • Teach to concepts before/after examples
  • Teach principles before/after examples or concepts

26
What are the purposes for the
Parallel Curriculum Model?
  • Provides teachers with a comprehensive framework
    with which they can design, evaluate, and revise
    existing curriculum
  • Improves the quality of the curriculum units,
    lessons, and tasks
  • Enhances the alignment among the general, gifted,
    ESOL, and special education curricula
  • Increases the authenticity and power of the
    knowledge students acquire and their related
    learning activities
  • Offers teachers the flexibility to achieve
    multiple purposes
  • Reinforces the need to think deeply about
    learners and content knowledge
  • Uses high quality curriculum as a catalyst for
    observing and developing abilities in learners
  • Allows flexibility to address varying needs and
    interests of learners

27
Ten Unique Things About PCM
  • Defines curriculum and curriculum models
  • Describes the 10 components of curriculum design
  • Unifies various purposes for differentiated
    curriculum
  • Identifies specific goals for each parallel
  • Describes how curriculum can be used to address
    the affective domain
  • Describes specifics for increasing intellectual
    challenge
  • Treats all parallels as equal in value
  • Supports an inclusive approach to special
    education
  • Addresses collaboration between ESE, gifted, and
    general education
  • Stresses the development of talent and expertise
    for every learner

28
The Core Curriculum
  • The Core Curriculum addresses the core concepts,
    principles, and skills of a discipline. It is
    designed to help students understand essential,
    discipline-based content through the use of
    representative topics, inductive teaching, and
    analytic learning activities.

29
Core is not..
  • Cultural literacy
  • Basic skills
  • Regular education
  • curriculum

30
Categories of Knowledge
  • Facts A specific detail, verifiable information
  • Concepts A general idea or understanding,
    especially a generalized idea of a thing or
    class of things a category or classification
  • Principles Fundamental truths, laws, doctrines,
    or rules, that explains the relationship
    between two or more concepts
  • Generalizations A generalization is a principle
    or concept that can be applied across topics
    or disciples
  • Skills Proficiency, ability, or technique,
    strategy, method or tool
  • Attitudes Self-knowledge of appreciations,
    values,and actions related to a topic that are
    affective in nature

31
Guiding Questions within the Core Curriculum
  • What is the essential content within this
    discipline?
  • What are the powerful concepts, principles and
    skills within this discipline?
  • Which topics best represent the core content
    discipline?
  • Which topics are developmentally appropriate for
    my students?
  • How might I help students construct an accurate
    scheme of this discipline?
  • Which resources, activities, and products provide
    opportunities for students analytic thinking
    about core knowledge?
  • How might I assess student learning?

32
The Curriculum of Connections Definition
  • The Curriculum of Connections builds upon the
    Core Curriculum. It is a plan that includes a
    set of guidelines and procedures to help
    curriculum developers connect overarching
    concepts, principles, and skills within and
    across disciplines, time periods, cultures,
    places, and/or events. This parallel is designed
    to help students understand overarching concepts
    and principles as they relate to new content and
    content areas.

33
  • What kind of connections
  • are we talking about?
  • Connections across time, events, topics,
    disciplines, cultures, and perspectives
  • Connections to self, other texts, and other
    people
  • Understanding of intra and interdisciplinary
  • macroconcepts
  • Understanding of intradisciplinary
  • generalizations
  • Understanding of interdisciplinary themes


34
Guiding Questions within the Curriculum of
Connections
  • What are the major concepts and principles in
    this discipline?
  • Which of these major concepts and principles link
    to numerous topics, people, events, time periods,
    cultures and other disciplines?
  • Which topics, events, people, or time periods
    best represent these intra or interdisciplinary
    connections?
  • Which topics, events, people, or time periods are
    developmentally appropriate for my students?
  • How might I help students construct a more
    comprehensive scheme of this discipline, related
    topics, and other disciplines?
  • Which resources, activities, and products provide
    opportunities for students to think
    metaphorically about macroconcepts, principles,
    and generalizations?
  • How might I assess student learning?

35
The Curriculum of Practice Definition
  • The Curriculum of Practice is a plan that
    includes a set of guidelines and procedures to
    help students understand, use, generalize, and
    transfer essential knowledge, understandings, and
    skills in a field to authentic questions,
    practices, and problems. This parallel is
    designed to help students function with
    increasing skill and competency as a researcher,
    creator, producer, problem solver, or
    practitioner in a field.

36
What is meant by the Curriculum of Practice?
Real world applications Practitioner Problem
solver Researcher Creator Producer
37
Why might we use the Curriculum of Practice?
  • Allows students to function as a practitioner, a
    producer, a researcher, a problem solver, or a
    creator in the discipline
  • Allows students to assume a leadership role in
    conducting their own research
  • Provides a rationale for the persistent student
    question, Why is this so important to learn?
  • Provides students with the tools and methods for
    independent learning
  • Provide a means for exploring the daily lives of
    professionals in the discipline
  • Offers students the opportunity to learn how to
    use and apply the skills of the discipline in
    real world situations
  • Supports transfer and application

38
Guiding Questions within the Curriculum of
Practice
  • What are the common problems, practices, issues,
    needs, and questions within this discipline?
  • Who are the practitioners, researchers, problem
    solvers, and contributors within this discipline?
  • What are the powerful cognitive, research,
    reference, learning, communication, and
    methodological skills within this discipline?
  • What kinds of products, services, research, or
    investigations are typically conducted in this
    discipline?
  • Which problems, practices, issues, needs, and
    questions are developmentally appropriate for
    students?
  • Which resources, activities, and products provide
    opportunities for students to act like a
    practicing professional within this field?
  • How might I assess student learning?

39
The Curriculum of Identity Definition
  • The Curriculum of Identity is a plan that
    includes a set of guidelines and procedures to
    assist students in reflecting upon the
    relationship between the skills and ideas in a
    discipline and their own lives, personal growth,
    and development. This parallel is designed to
    help students explore and participate in a
    discipline or field as it relates to their own
    interests, goals, and strengths, both now and in
    the future.

40
The Identity Parallel
  • Emphasizes the role of the individual within a
    content area
  • Provides opportunities for self exploration
  • Supports an individuals search for affinity,
    affiliation, and knowledge of self
  • Offers a sequential plan to address increasing
    levels of interest and commitment to a field

41
Guiding Questions within the Curriculum of
Identity
  • What are the various interests, abilities, and
    learning preferences of my students?
  • Which topics, skills, opportunities, and careers
    are related to my students profiles?
  • How might I link my students profiles with the
    content I am required to teach?
  • How might I introduce my students to
    professionals, organizations, and role models in
    their areas of interest and strength?
  • How might I help my students discover their own
    strengths and affinities?
  • How might I identify, measure, and help my
    students reflect upon their growth and progress
    toward self-actualization?
  • What is our long-term plan for supporting my
    students self-actualization?
  • Which opportunities and activities are
    appropriate for my students at this stage of
    their development ?
  • Which resources, activities, and products provide
    opportunities for students self-reflection and
    personal development?

42
Where do standards fit in with this picture?
  • National and state committees of content experts
  • Identified core concepts, principles,
    generalizations, skills, attitudes, and
    applications in various content areas.
  • Spiraled the content across grade levels
  • SSS are aligned with the Big Ideas

43
What is a standard?
  • A content standard is a declarative statement
    that identifies the essential knowledge in a
    given subject area that students should attain as
    a result of instruction. Performance standards,
    or benchmarks, specify ascending levels of
    understanding across various grade levels.

44
Products




Definition Performances or work samples created
by students that provide evidence of student
learning Purpose To assess student growth,
to provide for student reflection, to monitor
and adjust instruction, to evaluate
students Characteristics Aligned with the
content goals, teaching methods and students
learning needs varied authentic motivating
efficient








45
Assessments

Definition Varied tools, techniques, and
criteria teachers use to measure students
acquisition of knowledge Purpose To ascertain
the extent to which students have attained the
knowledge contained within the learning
goal(s), to make decisions about future areas
of emphasis Exemplary Characteristics
Aligned with the learning goal, reliable,
valid, varied, efficient, equitable,
motivating, have a low baseline and a high
ceiling











46
Core Assessments
  • Assess students prior knowledge with regard to
    the representative topic and core concepts,
    principles, and skills.
  • Useful assessment formats include concept maps,
    journal entries, reflections, graphic organizers,
    charts, diagrams, tables, and collages
  • Evaluate the extent to which students have
    mastered the core concepts, principles, and
    skills of the discipline(s). Ask for
    definitions, synonyms, examples, classification,
    and explanations.
  • Use rubrics to measure student learning over
    time. Measure the quality/depth of conceptual
    understanding and guiding principles.

47
The Relationship Between Assessment and Curriculum
Prior KNOWLEDGE
PREASSESSMENT Reveals critical differences among
students. Guides teachers decisions and planning
TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND FEEDBACK
ON-GOING POST ASSESSMENT
48
How might we use a particular parallel?
  • Design a unit
  • Revise a unit
  • Design a lesson
  • Revise a lesson
  • Design a task
  • Revise a task
  • Use in the regular classroom
  • Use it in the gifted or ESE program
  • Use it will all students
  • Use it with some students
  • Use different parallels with different curriculum
    components
  • Use one parallel while another teacher uses
    another parallel
  • Use one parallel after another teacher has used a
    different parallel
  • Move back and forth between parallels within the
    same unit
  • Use a parallel as an extension of a core unit
  • Use parallel activities as optional activities
    for some students

49
Who might design PCM curriculum?
  • Classroom teachers
  • Special education teachers
  • Vertical teams
  • Inclusion teams
  • Grade level teams
  • Curriculum developers
  • Subject area departments

50
With whom might I use the PCM?
  • Individual students
  • Small groups of students
  • Entire classes
  • Students with specific interests and affinities
  • Students who are currently unmotivated by
    traditional curriculum
  • Students with advanced levels of prior knowledge
  • Students with latent strengths and abilities
  • Students with advanced cognitive abilities

51
What contextual factors should we consider when
making decisions about the use of PCM?
  • What is the present status and quality of our
    curriculum?
  • Which content areas are in greatest need of
    improvement?
  • What are the varying strengths and needs of our
    students?
  • How do we want students to be different as a
    result of our curriculum revision efforts?
  • What kind of content learning must we do first?
  • What kind of professional learning do we need to
    conduct?
  • What information do we have or can we gather
    about our students in order to make decisions
    about the appropriate use of PCM?
  • How might we sequence and pace a PCM initiative?

52
James Lee in Phi Delta Kappan
  • When students engage in challenging and
    authentic learning activities in which purposeful
    intellectual work is connected to the real world
    of problem solving and creative projects and in
    which a critically supportive audience responds
    to work in progress, students motivation and
    commitment to meet high expectations increase
    dramatically.

53
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