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Chapter 8: Thinking, Language


Chapter 8: Thinking, Language & Intelligence Lectures 12,13,&14 * * * * * * * Figure 8.8. Findings of Studies of the Relationship between IQ Scores and Heredity. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 8: Thinking, Language

Chapter 8 Thinking, Language
IntelligenceLectures 12,13,14
Learning Outcomes
  • Define thinking and the various concepts involved
    in thinking.
  • Describe how language develops.

Learning Outcomes
  • Identify the concepts of intelligence and the in
    techniques used to measure intelligence.
  • Describe the controversy surrounding intelligence

Truth or Fiction?
  • Only humans can use insight to solve problems.
  • Crying is an early form of language.

Truth or Fiction?
  • Young children say things like Daddy goed away
    and Mommy sitted down because they do
    understand rules of grammar.
  • Street smarts are a sign of intelligence.

Truth or Fiction?
  • Creative people are highly intelligent.
  • Highly intelligent people are creative.

Truth or Fiction?
  • Two children can answer exactly the same items on
    an intelligence test correctly, yet one child can
    be above average in IQ, and the other can be
    below average.
  • Intelligence tests measure many things other than

1. What is the Nature of Thought?
  • -9/11- rational decision making?
  • What does your mom look like?
  • Mental image
  • In alphabet what letter comes after N?
  • L,M,N,O
  • How much is 22
  • Did 4 -immediately pop into your mind?
  • What is Julia Robertss phone number?

  • What is thinking?
  • Attending to information, using it or
  • Representing it mentally
  • Reasoning about it, and
  • Making judgments and decisions about it
  • E.g., Making sense of and change the world

3. Mental Images Concepts
  • Mental images- a mental representation that has
    some of the physical characteristics of an object
  • Concept- a symbolic representations of objects a
    category, a class, that includes subtypes and/or
    individual items (musical Instrument, other?)
  • used to group objects, relations, events,
    abstractions or qualities that have common
    properties, cannot be measured
  • Hierarchies
  • Used to organize concepts

  • Prototypes
  • Good examples of a category of concept
  • Exemplars
  • Positive and Negative instances
  • Overextension

4. Concepts
  • Prototypes
  • Good examples of a category of concept
  • Name the first member that comes to your mind
  • A bird______
  • A hero______
  • A Color______
  • An animal______
  • A Motor Vehicle_______
  • Exemplars
  • Positive and Negative instances
  • Overextension

5. When a Person Has a Problem?
  • When s/he does not have a direct means of
    attaining a particular goal
  • What is Problem Solving?
  • Using the thoughts and actions to move from the
    current state to the goal state, in other words
    achieving a desired goal that is not readily
    attainable, often by devising strategies to
    overcome obstacles

6. Organization of Subgoals
  • High school senior decides to become a doctor
  • First, s/he needs to attain more immediate
  • 1). _______
  • 2)._______
  • 3).________
  • 4).________
  • Identifying important subgoals is not always easy

7. Trial and Error
  • An approach to problem solving in which one
  • solution after another is tried in no particular
  • order until the answer is found
  • Used when we have little or no knowledge
  • relevant to the problem
  • Students give examples

8. Algorithms
  • Specific procedure for solving a type of problem
  • Yield correct answers if the right formula is
    used. Any math formula is an example of Alg
  • Systematic random search (similar to trial and
  • Each possible solution is tested according to a
    particular set of rules

9. Heuristic
  • Shortcuts mental rules of thumb used to solve a
  • Working backwards Water lilies double the area
    they cover every 24hours. At the beginning of the
    summer there is one water lily on a pond. It
    takes 60days for the pond to become covered with
    lilies. On what day is the pond half covered?
  • Means-end analysis (subgroups)
  • Evaluate and reduce difference between the
    current situation and goal
  • Analogies
  • Refer to a previous problem to solve a new problem

Logical reasoning and observation can be used to
solve the problem Play Video Elevator The
Elevator Riddle Solution
10. Factors that Affect Problem Solving
  • Expertise
  • Experts use parallel processing novices use
    serial processing
  • how long it will take you to unscramble this
    word DNSUO
  • Mental Sets
  • Tendency to use an approach that was previously
    successful with similar problem
  • Insight
  • Sudden perception permitting the solution

11. Factors that Affect Problem Solving
  • Incubation
  • Stand back from a problem for a while solution
    may come in a flash of insight
  • Functional Fixedness
  • Tendency to think of an object in terms of its
    familiar function

12. Heuristics in Decision Making(not covered in
class, but will be included in the Quiz)
  • Representativeness heuristic
  • Make judgments about events according to the
    population of events that they appear to
  • Availability heuristic
  • Estimate of probability is based on examples of
    relevant events

13. Heuristics in Decision Making (not covered
in class, but will be included in the Quiz)
  • Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
  • First estimate serves as an anchor
  • With new information we make adjustments but
    remain in the proximity of the first estimate

14. Factors that Affect Decision Making (not
covered in class, but will be included in the
  • Framing effect
  • Context in which information is presented affects
    decision making
  • Overconfidence
  • Unaware of flimsiness of assumptions
  • Work to bring about results that fit our
  • Forget information counter to our judgment
  • Self-fulfilling prophecies

15. Class Discussion on The Paradox of Choice
  • Do you believe the more options you have the
  • Do you find that too much choice can be
  • Satisficers- good enough
  • Maximizers- the best possible choice
  • Paradox of Choice might be responsible for
    cultural shift in the average age when people are
    settling into jobs and marriage??
  • Responsible for depression in modern countries?

Language,Lecture 13
1. Communication by Nonhumans
  • What capability most reliably sets humans apart
    from all other species?
  • African Grey Parrots (Discuss Video)
  • Did Alex speak English? What is the difference
    between Alexs usage of language and human usage?
  • Apes (Washoe, Sarah, Lana, Nim Kanzi)
  • Genetically show some ability to use language
  • Use of symbols to communicate

2. Apes
  • Allen Beatrix Gardner (1969)- Washoe used sign
    language beginning 1y.o. -160 signs
  • David Premack (1983) Sarah mastered notion of
    similarity and difference, half and whole
  • Yerkes Primate Research Center (80s)-Lana
    computer controlled language training Give apple
    which is orange)
  • Kanzi-1300 utterances, 200 geometric symbols
  • However, Herbert Terrace (1981)-Nim responded
    according to CC not rules of the language

3.Communication in Other Animals
  • Whales and dolphins- in basket, under basket
  • Dogs
  • Other
  • My father was poor but honest (quoted in
    Restak, 1988, p.202)

4. Language
  • A means of Communicating of thoughts and
    feelings, using a system of socially shared but
    arbitrary symbols (sounds, signs, or written
    symbols) arranged according to rules of grammar.

5. Structure of Language
  • Psycholinguistics-how language is acquired,
    produced, and used
  • Phonemes-the smallest units of sound in a spoken
  • Morphemes- the smallest units of meaning
  • Syntax- specifies the rules for arranging and
    combining words to form phrases and sentences
  • Semantics- the meaning derived from morphemes,
    words, and sentences
  • Pragmatics- characteristics of spoken language,
    such as intonation and gestures, that indicate
    social meaning of utterances.

6. Properties of Language
  • Infinite creativity
  • Capacity to create rather than imitate sentences
  • Displacement
  • Capacity to communicate in another time or place

7. Language and Cognition
  • Language is not necessary for thinking
  • Concepts can be understood without knowing the
    word for the concept (e.g. roundness)

8. Language and Culture
  • Linguistic-relativity hypothesis (Whorf (1956))
  • Language structures the way we perceive the world
  • Criticism of linguistic-relativity hypothesis
  • Images and abstract logical propositions may be
    used as units of thought
  • Range of concepts represent priority of the
    language not cognitive limitation

9. Bilingualism
  • In other countries the majority of citizens speak
    two or more language
  • Advantages of being bilingual
  • Metalinguistic skills, the capacity to think
    about lang.
  • Ability to learn about the other culture in depth
  • Disadvantages
  • Decreased efficiency memory tasks involving words
  • But develop compensatory strategies, though
    respond more slowly
  • Lose accent younger than 10 or 11 y. o.

10. Language Development
  • At the age 17- 80,000 words
  • From 18 m to 5- 14,000 words, average 9wrds/day
  • 2-3 m- cooing sounds when along
  • 20 weeks- mixes various vowels consonants
  • 6 m- Babbles utters phonemes of all language
  • 8 m- focuses on phonemes, rhythm, intonation of
    native language
  • 12m- say single words mimics sounds understand
    some words
  • 18-20m uses two word sentences 50 wrds,
  • 24m- 270 wrds acquires suffixes function wrds
    in a fixed sequence
  • 30m uses telegraphic speech
  • 36m begins acquisition of grammar rules

11. Language Development
  • Prelinguistic vocalizations
  • Crying, cooing, babbling
  • All children babble the same sounds (even deaf
  • By 9 10 months foreign sounds are dropped
  • First word is spoken about 1 year

12. Development of Grammar
  • Holophrase (2nd year)
  • Single words that express complex meanings
  • Cookie means this is cookie I want cookie
    where is cookie?
  • Telegraphic speech (30mos), understanding syntax
  • Two-word sentences
  • Grammatically correct
  • Sequence of emergence of various two-word
    sentences is universal

13. Development of Grammar
  • Overextension /underextension (18-20m)
  • Application of a word, on the basis of some
    feature, to a broader rage of objects than is
    appropriate (Daddy)
  • Overregulation (36m)
  • Application of regular grammatical rules to
    irregular verbs and nouns
  • Between 7- to 9-years
  • Children realize words can have more than one

14. Nature and Nurture in Language Development
  • Learning Theory
  • Imitation and reinforcement,
  • Social cognitive perspective
  • Parent serve as models
  • What is wrong w/these perspectives?
  • Nativist Approach
  • Innate factors cause children to attend to and
    perceive language in certain ways
  • neurologically prewired
  • Do not need instructions or reinforcement, only
    presence of language

15. Nativist Approach to Language Development
  • Language acquisition device (LAD)- Chomsky
  • Represents the inborn tendency
  • Prepares nervous system to learn grammar
  • Universal grammar
  • Psycholinguistic theory
  • Language acquisition involves interaction of
    environmental influences and inborn tendency to
    acquire language
  • Interactionist perspective similar to
    Psycholinguistic theory.
  • Reading to a child is very important for the
    language development!!!

  • Banishing Bilingualism
  • Preparation Ask a student in your class who is
    bilingual to demonstrate their ability.
  • For this demonstration, have a student (more if
    there are more bilingual students) demonstrate
    their ability in the languages learned. Ask them
    to talk about when they learned the languages and
    how it has benefited them. Then present an
    article found in most libraries titled Banishing
    Bilingualism written by Katz and Kohl (2002).
    This article discusses efforts to banish
    bilingualism from education and how some states
    have moved forward with this. This topic can lead
    to a lively debate over bilingualism or English

IntelligenceLecture 14thWhat is Intelligence?
1. Intelligence
  • Example, Marilyn Mach and Dr. Jarvik
  • Did poorly in school Churchill, Einstein, etc.
  • IQ? Academic Achievement?
  • Cognitive Emotional Intelligence, Nature of
    Intelligence, and how it is measured. Where does
    intelligence come from? Gifted Retarded

2. What is Intelligence?
  • American Association of Psychologists (APA)
    defined intelligence as an individuals ability
    to understand complex ideas, to adapt
    effectively to environment, to learn from
    experience, to engage in various forms of
    reasoning, and to overcome obstacles by taking
  • Provides the basis for academic achievements

3. Theories of Intelligence
  • Intelligence is made up of a number of mental
    abilities (factors)
  • Spearmans g factor
  • General intelligence
  • s factor represents specific abilities
  • Thurstones specific factors
  • Primary mental abilities verbal comprehension,
    numerical ability, visual and spatial abilities,
    perceptual speed, word fluency, memory
  • Are those different ways of assessing g or
    distinct intelligences?

4. Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  • Howard Gardner (handout)
  • Number of different intelligences
  • Critics

5. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
  • Robert Sternberg
  • Analytical
  • Academic ability
  • Creative
  • Ability to cope with novel situations and
    generate multiple solutions to problems
  • Practical
  • Street smarts
  • Some texts componential, experiential,

6. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
  • Robert Sternberg
  • Analytical
  • Academic ability
  • Creative
  • Ability to cope with novel situations and
    generate multiple solutions to problems
  • Practical
  • Street smarts
  • Some texts componential, experiential,

7. Emotional Intelligence
  • The ability to apply knowledge about emotions to
    everyday life, involves an awareness of and an
    ability to manage ones own emotions,
    self-motivation, empathy, and the ability to
    handle relationships. (EQ)
  • Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills (empathy)
  • Self-insight and self-control (self-motivation)
  • Allows for coping with stress, depression, and
    aggressive behavior

8. Emotional Intelligence
  • Managing emotions does not mean suppressing them
    not does it mean giving free rein to everyday
  • Goleman (1995)A life without passion would be a
    dull wasteland of neutrality, cut off and
    isolated from the richness of life itself (p.56)
  • We manage our emotions by expressing them in an
    appropriate manner.

9. Creativity and Intelligence
  • Creativity-the ability to produce original,
    appropriate, valuable ideas /or solutions to
  • Creative people
  • Do things that are novel and useful
  • Take risks
  • Defy limits
  • Appreciate art and music
  • Relationship between intelligence test scores and
    standard measures of creativity is only moderate.

10. Divergent and Convergent Thinking
  • Divergent thinking
  • Freely associate to elements of problem
  • Best used in measuring creativity
  • Convergent thinking
  • Thought is limited to present facts
  • Best used in intelligence testing
  • Interrelated

11. Savant Syndrome(Rein Man?)
  • An unusual combination of genius and low
    performance in different areas
  • Autistic individuals
  • The puzzle of savant syndrome is slowly unraveled

12. Measurement of Intelligence
  • Franz Gall (1758-1828)- measuring skull
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS)
  • Binet-Simon - produced childs mental age
  • SBIS adapted for intelligence quotient (IQ)
  • IQ reflects relationship between mental and
    actual age
  • (Mental Age / Chronological Age)x100IQ

13. Measurement of Intelligence
  • Wechsler Scales (the latest WAIS-III)
  • 16 and older (but has for kids as well)
  • Deviation Score
  • Separate subscales
  • Verbal and performance tasks
  • Three IQ scores are obtained 1. Verbal IQ2.
    Performance IQ3. Full Scale IQ

14. Approximate Distribution of IQ Scores
15. Differences in Intellectual Functioning
  • Socioeconomic and Ethnic Differences
  • Consideration of social class
  • Lower-class U.S. children score 10 15 IQ points
    lower than middle- and upper-class
  • Consideration of ethnicity
  • Impact of social class
  • Asian Americans more likely to graduate high
    school and complete college

16. Do Intelligence Tests Contain Cultural Biases?
  • Tests may measure familiarity with dominant
    middle-class culture
  • Caesar is to salad as______ is to brandy.
  • a. Churchill b. Napoleon
    c. Hitler d. Lincoln
  • Culture-free Intelligence Tests
  • Cattels Culture-Fair Intelligence Test
  • European American children outperform African
    American children on culture-free test

17. Sample Items from Cattells Culture-Fair
Intelligence Test
18. Gender Differences in Intelligence Tests
  • Intelligence tests do not show overall
    differences in cognitive ability
  • Girls superior to boys in verbal ability
  • Boys excel in visual-spatial ability
  • Boys tend to score higher on math tests
  • Group scores represent greater variation within
    the group than between the groups

Nature and Nurture in IntelligenceDo You Think
of Intelligence as an Inherited or a learned
19. Genetic Influences on Intelligence
  • Francis Galton (1822-1911)- heredity
  • Environmentalists- intelligence product of ..
  • Kinship studies
  • IQ scores of identical twins (MZ) are more alike
    than for any other pairs
  • Moderate correlations between fraternal twins,
    siblings and parents and their children
  • Weak correlations between children and their
    foster parents and between cousins

20. Genetic Influences on Intelligence
  • Twin Studies
  • IQ scores of MZ twins reared together have higher
    correlation than MZ twins reared apart
  • Being reared together is related to IQ
  • Minnesota Center for Twin and Adoption Research
    (Bouchard (1997), - reported that various types
    of twin studies have consistently yielded
    heritability of .60 to .70 for intelligence

21. Genetic Influences on Intelligence
  • Adoption Studies
  • Stronger relationship between IQ scores of
    adopted children and their biological parents
    than between children and adoptive parents

22. Heritability of Intelligence
  • Heritability is between 40 and 60
  • About half the difference between your IQ score
    and the IQ scores of other people can be
    explained by heredity
  • Environment is also important
  • Being reared together is related to IQ

23. Findings of Studies of the Relationship
between IQ Scores and Heredity
24. The Complex Web of Factors That Affect
Intellectual Functioning
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