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English presentation Gerund & infinitive Introduction of Gerund The '-ing' form of the verb may be a present participle or a gerund. The form is identical, the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: English presentation


1
English presentation
  • Gerund
  • infinitive

2
Introduction of Gerund
  • The '-ing' form of the verb may be
  • a present participle or a gerund.
  • The form is identical, the difference is in the
    function, or the job the word does in the
    sentence.

3
The gerund
  • This always has the same function as a noun
    (although it looks like a verb), so it can be
    used
  • as the subject of the sentencee.g. Eating
    people is wrong.
  • after prepositionse.g. She is good at painting.
  • after certain verbs,e.g. like, hate, admit,
    imagine
  • in compound nouns,e.g. a driving lesson, a
    swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spotting

4
THE GERUNDThis looks exactly the same as a
present participle, and for this reason it is now
common to call both forms 'the -ing form'.
However it is useful to understand the difference
between the two. The gerund always has the same
function as a noun (although it looks like a
verb), so it can be used a. as the subject of
the sentence- Eating people is wrong. Hunting
elephants is dangerous. - Flying makes me
nervous.
5
b. as the complement of the verb 'to be' -
One of his duties is attending meetings. - The
hardest thing about learning English is
understanding the gerund. - One of life's
pleasures is having breakfast in bed
6
c. after prepositions. The gerund must be used
when a verb comes after a preposition- Can
you sneeze without opening your mouth? - She is
good at painting. - They're keen on windsurfing.
- She avoided him by walking on the opposite
side of the road. - We arrived in Madrid after
driving all night. - My father decided against
postponing his trip to Hungary.
7
This is also true of certain expressions ending
in a preposition, e.g. in spite of, there's no
point in..- There's no point in waiting. - In
spite of missing the train, we arrived on time
time.
8
d. after a number of 'phrasal verbs' which are
composed of a verb preposition/adverb
  • Exampleto look forward to, to give up, to be
    for/against, to take to, to put off, to keep on
  • - I look forward to hearing from you soon. (at
    the end of a letter)
  • - When are you going to give up smoking?
  • - She always puts off going to the dentist.
  • - He kept on asking for money.

9
NOTE There are some phrasal verbs and other
expressions that include the word 'to' as a
preposition, not as part of a to-infinitive -
to look forward to, to take to, to be accustomed
to, to be used to. It is important to recognise
that 'to' is a preposition in these cases, as it
must be followed by a gerund
  • - We are looking forward to seeing you.
  • - I am used to waiting for buses.
  • - She didnt really take to studyin'g English.

10
e. in compound nouns
  • Example
  • - a driving lesson, a swimming pool,
    bird-watching, train-spotting
  • It is clear that the meaning is that of a noun,
    not of a continuous verb.
  • Example
  • - the pool is not swimming, it is a pool for
    swimming in.

11
f. after the expressions
  • can't help, can't stand, it's no use/good, and
    the adjective worth
  •       -   The elephant couldn't help falling in
    love with the mouse.
  •       -  I can't stand being stuck in traffic
    jams.
  •       - It's no use/good trying to escape.
  •       -  It might be worth phoning the station
    to check the time of the train.

12
GERUND OR INFINITIVE?
  • The two groups of verbs below can be followed
    either by the gerund or by the infinitive.
    Usually this has no effect on the meaning, but
    with some verbs there is a clear difference in
    meaning.
  • ( Verbs marked can also be
    followed by a that-clause. )
  • Example
  • to prefer
  • - I prefer to live in an
    apartment. - I prefer living in an
    apartment.

13
A. Verbs where there is little or no difference
in meaning
14
B. Verbs where there is a clear difference in
meaning
  • Verbs marked with an asterisk can also be
    followed by a that-clause.
  • come forget go on
  • mean regret remember
    stop try

15
Come
  • Come gerund is like other verbs of movement
    followed by the gerund, and means that the
    subject is doing something as they move
  • e.g.She came running across the field.
  • Come to-infinitive means that something happens
    or develops, perhaps outside the subject's
    control
  • e.g.This word has come to mean something quite
    different.

16
Forget, regret and remember
  • When these verbs are followed by a gerund, the
    gerund refers to an action that happened earlier
  • e.g.I remember locking the door ( I remember
    now, I locked the door earlier)
  • e.g.He regretted speaking so rudely. ( he
    regretted at some time in the past, he had spoken
    rudely at some earlier time in the past.)

17
  • Forget is frequently used with 'never' in the
    simple future form
  • e.g.I'll never forget meeting the Queen.
  • When these verbs are followed by a
    to-infinitive, the infinitive refers to an action
    happening at the same time, or later
  • e.g.I remembered to lock the door
    ( I thought about it, then I did it.)
  • e.g.Don't forget to buy some eggs!
  • (Please think about it and then do it.)

18
Go on
  • Go on gerund means to continue with an
    action
  • e.g.He went on speaking for two hours.
  • Go on to-infinitive means to do the next
    action, which is often the next stage in a
    process
  • e.g.After introducing her proposal, she went
    on to explain the benefits for the company.

19
Mean
  • Mean gerund expresses what the result of an
    action will be, or what will be necessary
  • e.g.If you take that job in London it will
    mean travelling for two hours every day.
  • Mean to-infinitive expresses an intention or
    a plan
  • e.g.I mean to finish this job by the end of
    the week!
  • e.g.Sorry - I didn't mean to hurt you.

20
Stop
  • Stop gerund means to finish an action in
    progress
  • e.g.I stopped working for them because the
    wages were so low.
  • Stop to-infinitive means to interrupt an
    activity in order to do something else, so the
    infinitive is used to express a purpose
  • e.g.I stopped to have lunch. ( I was working,
    or travelling, and I interrupted what I was doing
    in order to eat.)

21
Try
  • Try gerund means to experiment with an action
    that might be a solution to your problem.
  • e.g. If you have problems sleeping, you could
    try doing some yoga before you go to bed, or you
    could try drinking some warm milk.
  • e.g. I can't get in touch with Carl.' 'Have
    you tried e-mailing him?'

22
  • Try to-infinitive means to make an effort to
    do something. It may be something very difficult
    or even impossible
  • e.g.We'll try to phone at 6 o'clock, but it
    might be hard to find a public telephone.
  • e.g.Elephants and mice have to try to live
    together in harmony.

23
  • VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND
  • The gerund is used after certain verbs.
  • Example
  • miss I miss living in England.
  • The most important of these verbs are shown
    below.Those marked can also be followed by a
    that-clause

24
Example
  • GERUND
  • breaking the window
  • THAT-CLAUSE
  • that she had broken the window.
  • VERB
  • She admitted...
  •  
  • She admitted...

25
  • acknowledge,admit,
  • appreciate,avoid,celebrate,consider,
    defer,delay,deny,detest, dislike,enjoy,enta
    il,escape,excuse,fancy (imagine),finish,forg
    ive,imagine,involve,
  • keep,mean,(have as result)mention,mind,mi
    ss,pardon,postpone,prevent,propose,recall,re
    collect,remember,report,resent,risk,save
    (prevent the wasted effort)stop,suggest,unders
    tand,

26
  • give up
  • go on
  • insist on
  • look forward to
  • object to
  • get through
  • phrases
  • be devoted to
  • be used to
  • cant help
  • leave off
  • put off
  • with a view to

27
go gerund
  • In some phrases, the gerund after Go mean
    that?????
  • ExampleMy mother and my sister go shopping quite
    often.
  • They go fishing every weekend after
    retirement.

28
  • go birdwatching ???
  • go boating ???
  • go bowling ?????
  • go camping ???
  • go cycling ????
  • go fishing ???
  • go grass skiing ???
  • go hiking ????
  • go hunting ???
  • go mountain climbing
  • ???
  • go running ???
  • go sailing ???
  • go sightseeing ???
  • go skating ???
  • go surfing the Net
  • ????
  • go swimming ???
  • go walking ???
  • go window shopping
  • ???
  • go jogging ???

29
The Infinitive
  • Form of infinitive
  • To-infinitive
  • Bare infinitive
  • Function of infinitive
  • Verbs usually followed
  • by infinitive

30
Form of infinitive
  • The infinitive is the base form of a verb.
  • It may be preceded by 'to' (the to-infinitive)
  • or stand alone
  • (the base or zero infinitive).

31
To-infinitive
  • The to-infinitive is used
  • after certain verbs.
  • e.g. want, wish, agree, fail, mean,
  • decide, learn
  • b. after the auxiliaries
  • to be to, to have to, and ought to
  • c. in the pattern
  • it is adjective to-infinitive

32
Examples
  • The elephant decided to marry the mouse
  • The mouse agreed to marry the elephant
  • You will have to ask her
  • You are to leave immediately
  • He ought to relax
  • She has to go to Berlin next week
  • It's easy to speak English
  • It is hard to change jobs after twenty years
  • It's stupid to believe everything you hear

33
Bare infinitive
  • The bare infinitive is used
  • after most auxiliaries
  • (e.g. must, can, should, may, might)
  • b. after verbs of perception, (e.g. see, hear,
    feel) with the pattern V O zero infinitive
  • c. after the verbs 'make' and 'let',
  • with the pattern make/let O zero
    infinitive
  • d. after the expression 'had better

34
Examples
  • After auxiliaries
  •        -   She can't speak to you.
  •         -   He should give her some money.
  •         - Shall I talk to him?
  •      - Would you like a cup of coffee?
  •        - I might stay another night in the
    hotel.
  •          - They must leave before 10.00 a.m.

35
After verbs of perception
  • Pattern S See O Ving
  • Notice
    bare infinitive
  • Observe
  • Watch
  • Hear
  • Feel
  • Smell
  • Listen to
  • E.g. I saw her stand/standing .
  • I watch the children play/playing in the
    park .
  • I listened to her sing/singing.

36
After the verbs 'make' and 'let'
  • Pattern S Let O V(bare infinitive)
  • Make
  • Have
  • E.g. I let him go .
  • I make her cry .
  • I have my mother wash my clothes .
  • NOTICE that the 'to-infinitive' is used when
    'make' is in the
  • passive voice
  •       -  I am made to sweep the floor every day.
  •       -  She was made to eat fish even though she
    hated it.

37
After 'had better'
  • We had better take some warm clothing.- She had
    better ask him not to come.- You'd better not
    smile at a crocodile!- We had better reserve a
    room in the hotel.- You'd better give me your
    address.- They had better work harder on their
  • grammar!

38
Function of infinitive
  • The most common uses of the infinitive are
  • As a subject/object noun
  • e.g. To err is human, to forgive is divine. (
    S )
  • I saw a dog cross the road. ( O )
  • As an adjective
  • e.g. Their offer to reduce your workload is
    quite attractive.
  • ( acts as adjective to qualify their
    offer )
  • As an adverb
  • e.g. I stop to buy a tape.
  • (acts as adverb to qualify stop )

39
The to-infinitive is used after the verbs in
this group, without a preceding noun. (
can also followed by that-clause )
40
B. These are the most common of the verbs that
are normally followed by a noun
infinitive.
41
END
  • Thank you for your attention
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