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Control Yard Pests Responsibly

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... to plants is ... whiteflies also damage plants. Spider Mites. Tiny. Piercing ... soft scales, mealybugs, whiteflies, spider mites) Biological controls ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Control Yard Pests Responsibly


1
Control Yard Pests Responsibly
Introduction Pests Define
Identify Integrated Pest Management
Prevention Cultural Biological Chemical
Physical Attracting Beneficials
Author Rebecca McNair
2
Pesticide Consequences
  • Synthetic chemical pesticides were introduced in
    the 1940s to control agricultural pests
    unfortunately there were some unexpected
    consequences…
  • Hazardous to humans
  • Residues in food
  • Environmental impacts
  • Pests developed resistance
  • Expensive to use

3
Cycle of Pesticide Dependency
  • Many chemical pesticides are broad spectrum,
    killing not only target pests but also beneficial
    organisms that serve as natural pest control
    systems.
  • NO natural controls

Indiscriminate mortality- pests and beneficials
Dependence on chemical pesticides
4
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In the days following a pesticide treatment,
pests reproduce faster than predatory insects.
By killing off beneficial insects, pest
populations flourish.
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After Thomas Weissling
5
Tolerance
  • Some damage to plants is natural. Dont strive
    for a pest free yard instead, decide on a
    realistic threshold of damage.

6
What is a Pest, really?
  • Pest- plant, animal, or other organism that is
    out of place
  • Diseases, Weeds, Insects, Reptiles, Mammals,
    Arthropods
  • Of all insect species
    in the world,
    less than 1
    are considered pests

Am I a Pest? This depends on where I am
feeding, in the yard or the butterfly
garden.
7
Aphids
  • Piercing-sucking
    mouthparts allow it
    to feed on plant juices
  • Causes stunting and curling on new terminal
    growth
  • Excrete honeydew

Parasitized aphid mummy
Honeydew
8
Scales
Watch for pinholes, indicating parasitism by a
wasp.
  • 2 types soft and armored scale
  • Piercing-sucking mouthparts allow it to feed on
    plant juices
  • Damage Chlorotic spots, leaf
    drop
  • Soft scales excrete honeydew

Sooty mold (shown here) is a fungus that grows on
honeydew excretions.
9
Mealybugs
  • Soft scale with piercing-
    sucking mouthparts
  • Cottony appearance on
    stems and leaves
  • Sooty mold

10
Whiteflies
  • Piercing-sucking mouthparts allow it to feed on
    plant juices
  • Infest lower leaf surfaces
  • Damaged leaves appear spotted
  • Sooty mold
  • Transmit plant viruses

Immature whiteflies also damage plants.
11
Spider Mites
  • Tiny
  • Piercing-sucking
  • Mites, eggs, cast skins, and webs visible
    with hand lens
  • Leaves appear stippled
  • High infestation rates
    lead to mite migration

12
Nematodes
  • Roundworms
  • Feed on root tissues
  • Cause dieback, decline, chlorosis
  • Identify under microscope

Roots infected by root knot nematodes are swollen.
13
Thrips
  • Feed on flowers and
    young foliage
  • Found on the underside of leaf
  • Excrement is shiny-black
  • Transmit plant diseases
  • Damaged plants appear flecked
    or bleached
  • Cause leaf and
    flower distortions and
    bud drop

14
Plant Diseases
Plant
Environment
Pathogen
  • Disease occurs when an agent impairs the
    necessary functions of a plant

15
Leaf Spots
  • Algal, bacterial or fungal pathogens
  • Enters through injured tissues
  • Spread by splashing water, and insects

16
Root Rot
  • Poor growth, thinning canopy
  • Yellowing and leaf drop
  • Branch or plant death
  • Roots dark and rotted, strip off easily
  • Due to excessive soil moisture
  • Poor drainage
  • Over-watering
  • Planting too deep
  • Shallow rooting

17
Environmental Stresses
Many environmental effects are mistakenly treated
as pest problems.
  • Drought
  • Nutrient deficiency
  • Variations in pH
  • Mechanical damage
  • Cold damage
  • Excessive water
    or fertilizer

Herbicides injured this tomato plant.
18
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • IPM is the coordinated use of pest and
    environmental information and available pest
    control methods
  • To prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by
    the most economical means
  • With the least possible hazard to people,
    property and the environment

19
Principles of IPM
-using a resource so that the resource is
not depleted or permanently damaged
  • Sustainable
  • Prevention
  • Cultural Practices
  • Biological Methods
  • Physical Methods
  • Chemical Methods

After Dr. Norman Leppla
20
Prevention
  • Our most sustainable pest control method involves
    avoiding the introduction of pests (into our
    country, state or yard).
  • Buy pest-free plants
  • Select plants adapted to your yard
  • Select resistant varieties
  • Avoid notoriously problematic plants
  • Properly install and maintain plants

21
Key Plant, Key Pest
Some key plants are likely to be infested by key
pests. For example, Azaleas are commonly
infested by lacebugs, particularly if the azalea
is planted in a sunny location.
22
Scouting
  • Monitor plants routinely to aid in early
    detection of an insect, disease, or other
    problem. Look for
  • Favorable conditions for pests
  • Signs and symptoms of pests
  • The pests
  • Damage to plant
  • Leaf spot, leaf curl, feeding
  • Frass- insect excretions
  • Presence of natural enemies

23
Cultural Practices
  • We can also avoid problems with insects and
    diseases through proper design, installation, and
    maintenance.

Stressed plants are more
susceptible to attack, like the Chinese Elm with
crowded roots shown here.
24
Water Wisely
  • Water during the early morning, when leaves are
    already wet
  • Avoid overhead irrigation of woody ornamentals

Many foliar diseases gain entry into plants
through the water remaining on leaves.
25
Biological Control
  • The use of living organisms to control pests
  • Predators
  • Parasites
  • Pathogens

Lady beetles and their larvae feed on aphids and
other soft bodied insects. They are commercially
available in bulk.
26
Predators
  • In general, predators are larger, faster, more
    aggressive and present in relatively fewer
    numbers than their prey.

Predatory mite
Bigeyed bugs are raised commercially to control
whiteflies, spider mites, aphids, caterpillars,
thrips.
Assassin bug
27
Predators
  • Can kill large numbers of prey
  • Generalists, rather than specialists
  • Often social creatures
  • Wasps, ants

Wasps can also be pests if they congregate in the
wrong places, like inside your home.
28
Parasites
  • Very specialized
  • Often small
  • Look for
  • A trail of bodies
  • Exit holes
  • Color changes

Healthy aphids Parasitized aphids
29
Pathogens
  • Naturally occurring insect diseases
  • Bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa
  • Often specific to host
  • Lag time- may take a few days to provide control

Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium that kills
caterpillars, when ingested.
30
Attract Beneficial Insects by
  • Not using harmful pesticides
  • Providing food
  • Nectar and pollen
  • Plant diversity
  • Providing shelter
  • Enhance vertical layers

31
Food for Thought
  • Many herbs and fragrant flowering plants attract
    natural enemies
  • Gaillardia
  • Milkweeds
  • Goldenrod
  • Echinacea
  • Sunflower
  • Clover
  • Cilantro
  • Dill
  • Fennel
  • Mustards

Clover also fixes atmospheric nitrogen into a
form available to other plants.
32
As A Last Resort….
  • Sometimes, major pest damage reaches a level that
    is unacceptable to the observer. When all
    previous management efforts have been
    ineffective, individuals may wish to apply
  • Physical methods
  • Chemical methods

These are the least sustainable methods discussed
because they are labor intensive, and often
require repeated treatments.
33
Physical Management
  • Remove pests by hand
  • Remove infested parts
  • Establish barriers to
    prevent pest access
    to plants

Yellow sticky paper attracts whiteflies and other
insects. These traps help to monitor pest
populations in greenhouses.
34
Chemicals
  • Choose least harmful pesticides
  • Use selective pesticides rather than broad
    spectrum killers
  • Spot treat where pests
    are abundant, rather
    than the entire yard
  • Follow pesticide label
    instructions carefully

35
Management Strategies
Insect
  • Sap Suckers- (aphids, soft scales, mealybugs,
    whiteflies, spider mites)
  • Biological controls
  • Soaps and oils
  • Caterpillars-
  • Bt
  • Plant Chewers- (grasshoppers, beetles, leaf
    miners)
  • Use a proper insecticide if damage warrants
    action

36
Management Strategies
Disease
  • Leaf Spots-
  • Avoid overhead irrigation
  • Improve air circulation
  • Sanitize- remove infected plant parts
    to avoid reinfection
  • Stem Cankers/ Stem rots-
  • Change watering and pruning practices
  • Root rots-
  • Change watering practices
  • Remove infected plant and roots
  • Wilt-
  • Remove infected plant

37
For More Information on
  • Visit http//biocontrol.ifas.ufl.edu
  • Features Newsletters, presentations, news
    releases, photo galleries, tutorials, videos,
    training, publications, diagnostic clinic,
    listserv, links and more!

38
Further Reading http//edis.ifas.ufl.edu
  • ENY 298 Landscape Integrated Pest Management
  • ENY-276 Beneficial Insects and Mites
  • CIR 642 Homeowners' Guide to Pesticide Safety
  • ENY 292 Whats Bugging Me
  • WEC-20 Dealing with Unwanted Wildlife in an Urban
    Environment
  • PDMG-V1-01 Characteristics of Plant
    Disease

39
Thanks for your attention!
  • The following presentation was made possible
    through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special
    thanks to the following reviewers for their
    valued contributions
  • FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee
  • Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF
  • Agriculture Education and Communication
    Department
  • Environmental Horticulture Department
  • Entomology and Nematology Department
  • Soil and Water Sciences Department
  • Florida Cooperative Extension Service in
    Alachua, Broward, Clay,
    Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange,
    Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties
  • Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence
  • The Center For Wetlands, UF
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer
    Sciences Division of Plant Industry
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