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??? ???? Symbolism in Literature


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Title: ??? ???? Symbolism in Literature

??? ????Symbolism in Literature
  • ? ? ?
  • ???????????
  • ??????????????
  • ??dgdel.nchu.edu.tw

I. ?? Symbol?
  • An object, animate or inanimate, that represents
    something else. ?????
  • Scales (??) symbolizes justice (??).
  • A dove (??) stands for peace (??).
  • The clenched fist (??) aggression (??)
  • Words, spoken or written, are all symbols.
  • A symbol can be public or private, universal or
  • A rose (??) as a beauty (??) is public and
  • Stars (??) as reason is private and local. (Blake)

I. ?? Symbol?
  • A symbol involves comparison like simile or
  • The lily (???) vs. purity (??) white clean
  • A symbol is not so definite in meaning as an
  • Christian (???) passes through the Slough of
    Despond (?????) and Vanity Fair (????) and
    arrives at the Celestial City (????).
    --Allegory in
    Bunyans Pilgrims Progress.
  • Gregor finds himself turned into a big cockroach
    (??). --Symbol in
    Kafkas Metamorphosis.

II. Symbolism as a Movement
  • Primarily in literature (esp., poetry), also in
    other arts. (??)
  • Beginning in France in the latter part of the
    19th C.
  • A movement against Realism and Naturalism. ???
  • Moréass manifesto le Symbolisme
  • To clothe the idea in perceptible form.
  • ? ?????? ?????

The Death of the Gravedigger by Schwabe
Khnopffs The Caress
II. Symbolism as a Movement
  • Influenced by Swedenborgs theory of
    correspondences (???) and Schopenhauers
    pessimistic aesthetics (????).
  • There are correspondences between the natural (
    physical), the spiritual, and the divine worlds.
  • We are ever living with sufferings under the
    Will-to-life, and Art serves as a contemplative
    refuge (?????) from the world of Will.

III. Key Ideas of Symbolism
  • Using concrete images (??) as symbols (??) to
    express an emotion or an abstract idea, to
    represent an ideal world, or to suggest another
    plane of reality (???).
  • The poet is a kind of seer (??) or voyant (??)
    who could see through and beyond the real world
    to the world of ideal forms and essences.
  • Using the method of suggestion (??) to evoke (??)
    hidden meanings.

III. Key Ideas of Symbolism
  • The world of essences is a world of synesthesia
    (fusion of sensations, ??).
  • To achieve pure poetry (???) through word
    relationships musical quality (???), image
    clusters (???), logical and psychological
    associations (??).
  • The best form is free verse (vers libres ???), or
    prose poem (???).

IV. ????
  • The sun itself is the dark simulacrum (??), and
    light is the shadow of God.
  • --Sir Thomas
  • Symbolism is the art of evoking an object
    little by little so as to reveal a mood (??) or,
    conversely, the art of choosing an object and
    extracting from it an état dâme. (??).

IV. ????
  • The only way of expressing emotion in the form
    of art is by finding an objective correlative
    (????) in other words, a set of objects, a
    situation, a chain of events which shall be the
    formula of that particular emotion such that
    when the external facts, which must terminate in
    sensory experience, are given, the emotion is
    immediately evoked. --T. S.
  • ??????,??????????,


V. ??????
  • Baudelaire The Flowers of Evil
    ??? (???)
  • lt??gt Correspondences
  • lt?? 78gt Spleen LXXVIII
  • Windows (prose poem)
  • Mallarmé
  • Rimbaud
  • Verlaine

Correspondences Nature is a temple whose
living colonnades Breathe forth a mystic
speech in fitful sighs Man wanders among
symbols in those glades Where all things
watch him with familiar eyes. Like dwindling
echoes gathered far away Into a deep and
thronging unison Huge as the night or as the
light of day, All scents and sounds and
colors meet as one. Perfumes there are as
sweet as the oboes sound, Green as the
prairies, fresh as a childs caress, --And
there are others, rich, corrupt, profound And
of an infinite pervasiveness, Like myrrh, or
musk, or amber, that excite The ecstasies of
sense, the souls delight.
?? Old Pluvius, month
of rains, in peevish mood ????? Pours
from his urn chill winters sodden gloom
????? On corpses fading in the near
graveyard, ????? On foggy
suburbs pours lifes tedium.
????? My cat seeks out a litter on the
stones, ????? Her mangy body
turning without rest. ?????
An ancient poets soul in monotones
????? Whines in the rain-spouts like
a chilblained ghost. ????? A great bell
mourns, a wet log wrapped in smoke ???????
Sings in falsetto to the wheezing clock,
??????? While from a rankly perfumed
deck of cards ??????? (A dropsical
old crones fatal bequest)
??????? The Queen of Spades, the dapper Jack
of Hearts ??????? Speak darkly of dead
loves, how they were lost. ???????

Windows Looking from outside into an open
window one never sees as much as when one looks
through a closed window. There is nothing more
profound, more mysterious, more pregnant, more
insidious, more dazzling than a window lighted
by a single candle. What one can see out in the
sunlight is always less interesting than what
goes on behind a windowpane. In that black or
luminous square life lives, life dreams, life
suffers. Across the ocean of roofs I can see a
middle-aged woman, her face already lined, who is
forever bending over something and who never goes
out. Out of her face, her dress, and her
gestures, out of practically nothing at all, I
have made up this womans story, or rather
legend, and sometimes I tell it to myself and
weep. If it had been an old man I could have
made up his just as well. And I go to bed
proud to have lived and to have suffered in some
one besides myself. Perhaps you will say Are
you sure that your story is the real one? But
what does it matter what reality is outside
myself, so long as it has helped me to live, to
feel that I am, and what I am?
VI. Influences of Symbolism
  • Maeterlinck plays
  • Proust novel (Remembrance of Things Past)
  • Yeats poems
  • T. S. Eliot The Waste
  • ONeill The
    Hairy Ape
  • Melville Moby
  • Pound poems
  • ????????? painting, music, cinema, etc.

VII. Conclusions about Symbolism
  • It is a revival of the Romantic emphasis on the
    visionary (???).
  • It is a re-assertion of Platonic or Neoplatonic
    (????) ideas.
  • It is originally a French movement in poetry, but
    it becomes a universal (???) movement in all
    kinds of art.
  • It is linkable to many previous writers and later
    movements or techniques of art such as Imagism
    (???), Expressionism (????), surrealism (?????),
    and Impressionism (???).
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